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1 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TOURISM & SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMME & PAPERS 1 st Annual Conference May 8, 2014 Assisi, Umbria, Italy Presented by: CST Assisi-The Italian Centre for Advanced Studies in Toursm CIRIAF University of Perugia - Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca sull Inquinamento e sull Ambiente Mauro Felli

2 1 CONFERENCE BOOK INDEX Conference Presentation and Acknowledgement Conference Programme Scientific Committee Conference Papers Paul Valva Extended stay with extended services: a new model for urban travelers pag_2 pag_3 pag_5 pag_6 pag_6 Deepak Eldho Babu - Arshinder Kaur Practices for a Sustainable Supplay Chain: a Tourism Prospective pag_20 Philip Xie Deterriorialization and reterritorrialization: Sustainable industrial heritage tourism pag_22 Arturo Parolini - Pierluigi Polignano Live Your Tour - ENPI CBC Mediterranean Basin Programme pag_24 Francesco Maria Olivieri (only in Italian) Rural tourism and local development: typical productions of Lazio pag_26 Alessio Sidoti (only in Italian) La partecipazione locale nella gestione degli impatti del turismo come Strumento di governance per lo sviluppo del turismo sostenibile pag_49 Ivelina Ioveva Analysis of Synergistic Effect Benefits as a Crucial Driver of Sustainable Development pag_51 Elisa Ladduca Artists Residencies: When Contemporary Art Catalyzes Sustainable Destination Management pag_64 Omero Mariani EDEN PRETIOSAE AQUAE - EDEN Network, Runner-Up, Aquatic Tourism, 2010 pag_65

3 2 CONFERENCE PRESENTATION The first Tourism and Sustainability International Conference held in Assisi, Italy on 8th May 2014, aims at providing a forum for academics and practitioners to come together to share research projects and discuss ideas and challenges related to sustainability in tourism. The topics analyzed at the Conference have been: Sustainable destination development and planning Rural tourism and ecotourism Sustainable business development New theoretical perspectives on sustainable tourism Case studies and best practices in sustainable tourism governance, policy making and management The interventions of many scholars, PhD and professionals in tourism and sustainability, gave to the Conference rich insights on the actual situation and future evolution of sustainable tourism. The Conference focused on the present needs and what perceived as essential to develop a sustainable tourism in the next future. It became clear the need for greater attention to already existing good practices, to the proper use and reuse of the building and infrastructure present in many areas but that are not being used, a look for for integration between art and sustainability, as well as careful academic analysis on the possible solutions applicable to a sustainable development of tourism. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The first thank you goes to all the speakers, who with their interesting researches has given rise to a lively and scientifically significant Conference. A sincere thank you goes to all the members of the Scientific Committee for their fundamental contribution in the selection of the papers and for the constant availability during the Conference. Last but not the least, many thanks to the CIRIAF as a partner of the event and to the CST of Assisi, who conference partner which provided the stunning location of Palazzo Bernabei in Assisi, an ideal setting for the event. Assisi, May The Conference Secretariat International Conference Tourism and Sustainability

4 3 CONFERENCE PROGRAMME International Conference Tourism and Sustainability May 8 th 2014 Assisi Umbria Italy Thursday 8 th May 2014 Assisi Palazzo Bernabei Enrollment Registration desk opening Keynote Speakers Opening Session - Welcome by: Prof. Francesco Asdrubali (CIRIAF- University of Perugia) Prof. Dallari Fiorella (università di Bologna) Prof. Maria Stella Minuti (CST- International Centre of Studies on Tourism - Assisi) STARTING SESSION CHAIR Sustainable destination development and planning Elisa Ladduca Artists Residencies: When Contemporary Art Catalyzes Sustainable Destination Management Alessio Sidoti La partecipazione locale nella gestione degli impatti del turismo come Strumento di governance per lo sviluppo del turismo sostenibile Renata Piazza Sustainable Tourism as an engine for reconstruction. The case of post-tsunami Japan

5 4 New theoretical perspectives on sustainable tourism Paul Valva Extended stay with extended services: a new model for urban travelers Ivelina Ioveva Analysis of Synergistic Effect Benefits as a Crucial Driver of Sustainable Development Rural and ecotourism Francesco Maria Olivieri Rural tourism and local development: typical productions of Lazio Sustainable business development Deepak Eldho Babu - Arshinder Kaur Practices for a Sustainable Supplay Chain: a Tourism Prospective LUNCH BREAK Case studies and best practices in sustainable tourism governance, policy making and management Arturo Parolini - Pierluigi Polignano Live Your Tour - ENPI CBC Mediterranean Basin Programme Philip Xie Deterriorialization and retererritorrialization: Sustainable industrial eritage tourism Omero Mariani Progetto EDEN Network Andrea Augello I Draghi d Italia CONFERENCE CONCLUSION

6 5 SCIENTIFIC COMMITEE Prof. PhD, Francesco Asdrubali, CIRIAF, University of Perugia Prof.ssa Fiorella Dallari, University of Bologna Ass. Prof. PhD, Giacomo Del Chiappa, University of Sassari Dott.ssa Annagrazia Lauria ENAT (The European Network for Accessible Tourism) - President Prof. Maria S. Minuti, CST International Center of Study on Tourism

7 6 PAPER PRESENTATION PAUL VALVA Shared Living and Sustainability: Emerging Trends in the Tourism Industry Master s in Strategic Leadership Towards Sustainability Candidate Blekinge Tekniska Hogskola, Sweden ABSTRACT An emerging concept in accommodations in the travel industry called Shared Living is blurring the lines between hospitality and residential living and is moving the industry towards greater ecological and social sustainability. Changing trends brought about by the sustainability challenge, climate change, technological advancements and increasing affluence and cultural awareness are disrupting the tourism industry. Meeting clients needs for Leisure and Relaxation is not enough. Increasingly sustainability-conscious travelers expect their fundamental needs of Participation, Creation and Identity to be fulfilled as well. Today s travelers want to do more than eat, sleep and sightsee they want to interact with the local communities they are visiting. But traditional accommodations offer little opportunity for travelers to engage with fellow travelers or local communities. Emerging trends in accommodations are increasingly connecting travelers to the people, organizations and projects that are changing lives and transforming communities. By understanding and adapting to the trends, the tourism industry can both contribute towards ecological social sustainability and reap the business benefits presented by the sustainability challenge of our time. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Changing Needs 1.2 Research Questions II. III. IV. METHODS DISCUSSION 3.1 The Sustainability Challenge 3.2 The Tourism Industry The tourism industry and the sustainability challenge Changing trends in society are disrupting the industry The hospitality industry: traditional role and emerging trends in accommodations Design and amenities of traditional accommodations Extended Stay Emerging and growing trend: rooms in privately owned homes and apartments Next trend in travel: shared living connecting residents with each other Emerging trend: shared living connecting to the community Tourism industry connecting to the local community Escalation of need satisfiers: Leisure, Creation, Participation, and Identity CONCLUSION

8 7 V. REFERENCES 1. INTRODUCTION The sustainability challenge worldwide, technological advancements and changing needs and behaviors of today s travelers are disrupting the tourism industry. Such changes present both challenges and opportunities. The industry can both contribute towards ecological and social sustainability and reap the business benefits of addressing the challenges by understanding and adapting to the emerging trends. 1.1 Changing Needs Today s sustainability-conscious and environmentally savvy travelers are looking for much more than just a place to sleep, relax and sightsee when they arrive to their destinations. They expect a full travel experience, including meeting and interacting with the local people. The sustainability challenge worldwide, changing needs of business and leisure travelers, especially the young Millennial generation, the changing Information and Communications (ICT) Technology sector, the Do It Yourself (DIY) mentality of the market, and the need to find socialization in an increasingly anonymous and impersonal world are changing the expectations and demands of the tourism consumer. The challenges facing the tourism industry are to identify, indeed, to anticipate, the changing needs and desires of the marketplace, and to offer a product that benefits both the consumer and the wider ecological and social needs of society in general. In short, like all living organisms existing in the biosphere, the tourism industry needs to adapt. 1.2 Research Questions The research questions this paper will address are: How can the tourism industry meet the changing needs of its customers and society given the sustainability challenge? What is the accommodation s role in connecting the consumer to the wider community? What is the role of Shared Living in the sustainable tourism industry today? 2. METHODS Methodology used in the research of this paper started with a search of the existing literature on the topics of 1) The Sustainability Challenge worldwide; 2) Tourism and the Sustainability Challenge; 3) Changing needs of the consumer market, and the Millennial generation in particular; 4) Emerging Trends in Tourism; 5) The role of Accommodations in the Tourism Industry; and 6) Emerging trends in types of Accommodations available on the market. The relationship between emerging trends in sustainability, tourism and accommodations was then considered. The trends, relationships, assumptions and conclusions were then vetted with practitioners in the industry to confirm or refute their validity and practicality. General conclusions were then made and summarized at the end of this paper. 3. DISCUSSION 1. The Sustainability Challenge Rapid population growth and increasing consumption per capita of natural resources have led to serious sustainability challenges worldwide, including loss of biodiversity and rising toxicity in the biosphere (Papargyropoulou et al. 2012, 44), and have systematically increased the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (such as CO 2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide) in the atmosphere starting with the beginning of the industrial revolution (Khamseh 2014, 161). According to the recent IPCC Report

9 8 (2013), these phenomena have critically increased global mean surface temperatures (IPCC Report 2013, 37). The phenomena of resources extraction and use have systematically undermined the environment, society and the biosphere systems as a whole in four crucial areas: extraction of scarce materials from the earth s crust; pollution; physical degradation of ecosystems; and the inability of humans to meet their needs Barrow et al., ; Rob rt et al. 2002, 198). Climate change is a particularly serious threat to the environment and the sustainability of life on the planet. The evidence is overwhelming: levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are rising. Temperatures are going up. Springs are arriving earlier. Ice sheets are melting. Sea level is rising. The patterns of rainfall and drought are changing. Heat waves are getting worse as is extreme precipitation. The oceans are acidifying AAAS 4; 6). We are at risk of pushing our climate system toward abrupt, unpredictable, and potentially irreversible changes with highly damaging impacts. The sooner we act, the lower the risk and cost. AAAS 4; 4). The Rio Earth Summit in 1992 and the preparation of Agenda 21 by the United Nations brought the severity of the earth s deteriorating environmental condition and the sustainability challenge to the attention of the global audience (Papargyropoulou et al. 2012, 44). These mounting concerns about the growing sustainability challenges led to a world-wide acceptance of sustainable development as the way forward (Ochieng et al. 2014, 2; Zuo et al. 2012, 3910). In order to move forward, a clear understanding of the term sustainable development is useful. The Brundtland Report to the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland 1987) is a widely accepted definition: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: i) the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and ii) the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. Even though this definition of sustainable development has had worldwide acceptance (Wong et al 2013, 2), there is still growing evidence of systematically increasing challenges associated with unsustainable development (Robert et al 2002, 197). This clearly emphasizes the lack of understanding, strategic actions, and a framework towards achieving sustainable development (Missimer 2013, 2). A combination of ecological and social phenomena are threatening the health of the planet and society as a whole. Climate change, water scarcity, dwindling resources, dependence on fossil fuels for energy production, and a build up of toxic substances are contaminating the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat. The systematic errors of societal design that are driving human s unsustainable effects on the socio-ecological system, the serious obstacles to fixing those errors, and the opportunities for society if those obstacles are overcome, combine to form the sustainability challenge Robert et al, 8). Robert et al (Robert 2010, 39) describe four basic Sustainability Principles (SPs) that society must meet in order to be sustainable. In a sustainable society, nature is not subject to systematically increasing: 1. concentrations of substances extracted from the Earth s crust; 2. concentrations of substances produced by society; 3. degradation by physical means; and in that society, 4. people are not subject to conditions that systematically undermine their capacity to meet their needs. (Italics in the original).

10 9 Sustainability principle number four was subsequently expanded into five social sustainability principles, known as the Five Social SPs. In a healthy, sustainable environment, people are not subject to barriers to 1. personal integrity complete integral health physically, mentally and emotionally); 2. influence (being able to participate in shaping social systems one is part of); 3. competence (opportunity to be good at something and develop to become even better); 4. impartiality (freedom from discrimination); and 5. meaning (deriving satisfaction from life) (Missimer 2013, 31). (Italics added). Missimer s Social SPs are heavily influenced by the work of Manfred Max-Neef s Human Development Model classifying human s needs into nine fundamental needs: Subsistence, Protection, Affection, Understanding, Participation, Leisure, Creation, Identity, and Freedom (Max-Neef n.d.). Such needs are universal for all human beings, but are satisfied differently across time, regions and cultures. Unlike Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow 943), Max-Neef does not postulate a hierarchy, but rather maintains that all needs can exist simultaneously. The needs can, however, be satisfied separately and progressively. This is crucial to an understanding of how accommodations in the tourism industry should be designed. 2. The Tourism Industry The tourism industry and the sustainability challenge Despite a tremendous amount of literature on the subject, there is still not a universally accepted understanding of the term sustainable tourism Butler 7). It is best understood as a collection of attributes rather than a precise, overriding concept. Rather than attempt to definitively define the term, this paper will look at a few aspects of sustainability with full understanding that these aspects do not fully encapsulate what it means to be sustainable. The paper will argue that addressing the attributes described will contribute towards increased sustainability, as defined above. Integral health and fundamental human needs are increasingly under pressure by the stresses brought about by the ecological degradation of the planet, climate change, population growth and rapid urbanization worldwide. The tourism industry has a large role to play in mitigating the ecological and social problems besetting the planet. Over the past years, tourism has become one of the most dynamic elements of the global economy. Tourism accounted for over 9% of global GDP and almost 3% of employment in International tourism has grown an average of 4-5% a year over the past decade, outstripping most other major economic sectors. Even though global tourism was severely hit by the economic crisis, falling 4% in 2009, there was a strong recovery in 2010, with growth of 6.9% in international tourism arrivals. In the past decade tourism has continued to develop rapidly, with the rise of budget travel, more holistic, spiritual and creative forms of tourism and the rise of more individualistic production and consumption, facilitated by the growth of Information and Communication Technology ICT). The growth of tourism also produced growing awareness of its potential negative effects, and sustainability also became a major issue. Richards ). A report by The Travel Foundation and Forum for the Future found that 75% of consumers want a more responsible holiday Sustainable Tourism n.d.). To avoid violating the ecological sustainability principles, tourism must avoid activities that rely on resources from the Earth s crust eg, fossil fuels and rare elements) (Sustainability Principle 1); must avoid contributing to manmade materials that build up in the environment (eg, landfills and greenhouse gas emissions) (SP 2); and must not contribute to degradation of the Earth s habitats eg, rainforest destruction) SP 3). Partnering with airlines, hotel chains, and suppliers who are eco-certified can help avoid negative impacts on the Earth s environment. To be truly sustainable tourism must also protect people s fundamental rights and needs Social Sustainability Principles 4-8). As tourism is dependent on both natural and human assets for the

11 10 promotion of the tourism product, the environment, people, disease (sic) and establishing and maintaining global partnerships for development are imperative to achieve and maintain a healthy industry (Sustainable Tourism, n.d.) Changing trends in society are disrupting the industry Numerous social trends are shaping the needs of today s travelers. Such trends include: 1. The I want it now mentality 2. The Do it Yourself market 3. The Millennial Generation 4. The blurring lines between family, home and work 5. Collaborative Consumption is increasing 6. Affluence is increasing 7. Social awareness is increasing 8. Self-sufficiency is increasing 9. Job hopping is increasing 10. The need for organized social interaction is increasing as financial resources and technology increase personal independence The I want it now mentality is evidenced by the proliferation of ATM machines, fast food, speed dating, self-serve gas stations, text messaging, movies on demand (itunes, Netflix), instant processing of photos and videos and ever-increasing Internet speeds. What used to take minutes, or days, or years, or centuries now is available in a matter of seconds. And with the technology comes an ever-rising expectation of bigger, better, faster. Demand becomes insatiable, for expectations can never be fully fulfilled. Instant gratification has become the norm. The Do it Yourself (DIY) market has blossomed partly because individuals cannot wait for a part or a product or a service to become available (I want it now), and partly as a means to reduce cost and increase quality, but also as a means to fulfill multiple fundamental needs. The term Prosumers has arisen to describe people who produce products and services for their own consumption. They have a need to become part of the creation process, satisfying the fundamental need of Creation. DIY allows customization of products the I want it my way mentality (Whats App, 3-D printing, Youtube), fulfilling the need of Identity and Creation. DIY facilitates socialization an I want to stay connected need (Facebook, instant messaging), satisfying the needs of Participation, Belonging and Understanding. DIY allows for self-expression the I want to be recognized need (Facebook, personal blogs), satisfying the need of Identity. And DIY offers an I created this sense of accomplishment (Makers space, home improvement kits), satisfying the needs of Creation and Identity. All of which contribute to an overall sense of well-being, contribution and Freedom. Travelers expect to participate in the planning and booking of their travel packages. The Millennial generation (those born between 1980 and 2000) will soon make up a majority of the working and traveling segment of the population. Thus it is important to understand their demographic profile. Stereotypes vary widely from narcissistic, materialistic and pampered to open-minded, liberal and receptive of new ideas (Main 2013). Verification of such a wide range of traits is problematic at best, and most likely unverifiable given its subjective nature. What is more verifiable, and especially relevant to the tourism industry, is that the Millennials are extremely technically savvy, more culturally diverse, more well-traveled, and more affluent (despite mounting debt) than any previous generation. They appear to be more naturally optimistic about their futures, having not been subject to war, depression, civil rights abuses, and political scandals, assassinations and corruption experienced by their predecessors. They have also been exposed to extensive political, social and cultural events at an early age through television, movies, online news and social media. It can be argued that the combination of optimism and social awareness compels this generation to become more engaged in the community, both through their work and through participatory tourism, such as eco- and creative-tourism. The tourism industry is best served by catering to their developing needs and interests.

12 11 The lines between family, home and work are blurring. The advent of home offices, telecommuting, cell phones, laptop computers, Skype, and expectations that employees will be accessible even during vacation time has blurred the demarcation between work and leisure time. Technology has driven working hours and attitudes and the new attitudes have created a new norm of combining work with pleasure. Services and amenities offered by the tourism industry must adapt as well. Collaborative Consumption is increasing. Collaborative consumption describes the rapid explosion in traditional sharing, bartering, lending, trading, renting, gifting, and swapping redefined through technology and the latest social media and peer-to-peer online platforms. It is made possible through advancing technology (eg, ebay, Swap Tree, ride sharing); easily accessible transport modes (eg, Fed Ex); and trust and reputation of the system and exchangers (Botsman 2010). It is considered sustainable because by reusing existing products rather than disposing them in landfills, it reduces the needs for energy and materials to produce new materials (SP 1); reduces waste sent to landfills (SP 2); avoids destruction of the Earth s habitats SP 3); and increasingly satisfies personal and societal changing social needs and desires (SP 4-8). Affluence is increasing. Though the gap is widening between the wealthiest and least wealthy segments of the population, overall wealth of society as a whole is increasing. This is especially true in developing countries. Travelers have more disposable income to spend on a greater array of services. Businesses will face tougher competition from emerging and creative competitors. Social awareness is growing. Television, instant news feeds, and camera-equipped cell phones in virtually every part of the world spread news and information at near-instantaneous speeds. NGOs, celebrities and everyday citizens expose social issues ranging worldwide. Awareness of the social issues around the world is driving travelers towards destinations where they can learn more about and help improve the local conditions of the people and the land they live on. Self-sufficiency is increasing. People are much less dependent on skilled craftsmen and their neighbors than in previous eras. Wealth, transportation, and communication networks allow the freedom and flexibility to provide for themselves. Home delivery services deliver virtually any product one could imagine right to your door including food, alcohol, books, music, furniture, flowers and singing telegrams. Technologyenriched organizational structures facilitate independent living, and the expectations and attitudes that develop with it. Like the DIY mindset above, travelers are used to doing things for themselves, like booking travel and exploring off-the- beaten-track destinations. Job hopping is increasing. Workers today, especially younger workers, are much less likely to work for the same company their entire career as was characteristic of older generations. Ninety-one percent of Millennials expect to stay in a job for less than three years Meister 2012). With more time between jobs, travelers have more time to spend away from home. The need for organized social interaction is increasing as financial resources and technology increase personal independence. With such increased individual freedom and access comes an increased need to organize social interaction. Casual and serendipitous meetings are rarer with fewer social interactions. Groups are forming to proactively bring people together, often formed by mutual interests and demographics. Online dating services, meet-ups, hiking clubs, bird-watching clubs, book readings, pilates classes, and religious groups are formed and designed not only to provide entertainment but also to meet other people with similar interests. Such organizing takes initiative, effort and resources. The tourism industry can offer packages that proactively connect travelers to each other and to the local community. All these emerging trends provide an opportunity and guidelines for the tourism industry to recognize and add value to their clients needs, desires and activities.

13 12 With changing demographics, values and attitudes come changing needs. The tourism industry has traditionally focused on the Max-Neef fundamental need of Leisure. The satisfier of the need for leisure is respite a break from the demands and stresses of daily life and obligations in order to rest and rejuvenate one s physical, mental and emotional states. Traditional services to provide respite include affordable, comfortable and clean accommodations, excellent service and a variety of on-site amenities such as restaurants, swimming pools, spas, room service, and shuttle service to the surrounding areas. This is what has been traditionally expected and demanded by the consumer. But changing needs require changing services, which requires a fuller understanding of the needs of the clientele The hospitality industry: traditional role and emerging trends in accommodations Accommodations have always played a crucial role in the travel industry. Helping clients select just the right place to stay upon their arrival to their destination is a primary responsibility of the industry. Changing trends and evolving technology are changing needs, desires and satisfiers of travelers. Travelers are migrating to different forms of accommodations. This changing nature of the business presents both a challenge and an opportunity to the tourism industry. As mentioned above, today s travelers want fast gratification, participation in the process, are well versed in technology, well-traveled, increasingly affluent, more socially aware, more self-sufficient, combine work and play time and seek social interaction to balance their independent life styles. And as workers, especially younger workers, take longer vacations and move more frequently from job to job, they have more time to travel, and more opportunity to get off the beaten track and into the surrounding communities in which they re traveling. In short, travelers want to participate in the planning of their trips, spend more time in any one location, and engage with the local community. They also frequently want to travel alone, but meet people with common interests along the way with whom they can share their experiences. How are accommodations changing in design and amenities to meet these changing needs? A variety of concepts, including letting out rooms in private houses and the development of Shared Living, are emerging to fill the niche of longer, socially engaged and jointly planned excursions Design and amenities of traditional accommodations Travelers have many traditional options from which to choose, including resorts, hotels, motels, bed and breakfasts, youth hostels, and time shares. Though amenities differ depending on type, basic features include shuttle service, reception, concierge, phone, TV and Internet service, swimming pools, cafes or restaurants, and room service. To best assist their clients, travel agents and tour operators must understand their clients basic needs and desires: are they traveling alone, with a friend, or with family? For business or leisure? Do they want an action-packed adventure or a quiet, relaxing hide-away? Are they on a luxury or low-end budget? Will they be staying in one place during the duration of their stay, or moving from place to place? These are all crucial questions the savvy agent or operator must ask the client Extended Stay Extended stay hotels offer a medium-to-long-term stay in a hotel setting, with small but fully equipped inunit kitchenettes with refrigerators, stoves, microwave ovens, pots and pans, plates, cups and silverware and other amenities found in a permanent stay residence. This concept approaches the needs of travelers looking to stay for longer periods in any one location. But it fails to offer the camaraderie and connections to other guests or to the local community increasingly demanded in today s market Emerging and growing trend: Rooms in privately owned homes and apartments Couchsurfing: Hosts advertise extra rooms (or couches) available in their private homes, and travelers book their accommodations directly with the host through an online service. The company now has over seven million members and operates in 100,000 cities worldwide (Couchsurfing, n.d.).

14 13 Airbnb: Allows home and apartment owners (hosts) to rent out their homes to individuals who contract with the host directly through an online service. Airbnb has surpassed InterContinental Hotel Group and Hilton Worldwide as the world s largest hotel chain. The company has surpassed 10 million stays, doubled its listings to 550,000 in 192 countries, and tripled its revenue to $250 million (Carr, 2014). Each organization indicates that hosts and travelers are becoming increasingly sophisticated about hosting guests and reserving accommodations. Airbnb, for example, has a full program designed to educate hosts on the intricacies of the hospitality industry, including how to prepare their accommodations for their guests arrival and how to make their units more sustainable (Malik, n.d.) Next trend in travel: Shared Living Connecting residents with each other One of the fastest growing segments of the travel industry is shared living. Shared living differs from traditional extended stay accommodations in that they typically involve living with a group of people, often strangers, with separate or shared bedrooms and communal dining, recreation, laundry and open space. The major attraction of such space, in addition to the typically more affordable rents, is the ability to connect with people with similar values and interests. Shared living is important for the tourism industry to understand for two reasons: one, it illustrates how changing design and features of accommodations are meeting the changing needs and desires of the marketplace; and two, it sheds light on the increasingly blurring distinction between hospitality and residential living. Though traditionally thought of as long-term residential communities, an increasing number of travelers live in shared living situations for shorter durations, often only a few weeks or months. Short-term stays allow the traveler to experience the lifestyle of the community without the commitment a long-term stay would require. There are many examples of communities deliberately designed for shared living: Cohousing: Cohousing developments are perhaps the most deliberate and most well-known type of shared living. The first cohousing development was built in 972 outside Copenhagen, Denmark, by 27 families who wanted a greater sense of community than that offered by suburban subdivisions or apartment complexes. Frustrated by the available housing options, these families created a new housing type that refined the concept of neighborhood by combining the autonomy of private dwellings with the advantages of community living McCamant and Durrett, 5). By 2010 more than 700 of these communities have been built in Denmark. There are now 120 in the United States (McCamant and Durrett 2011, 5). Though varying in their design, true cohousing communities must contain certain common features: resident participation in design, chores, maintenance and communal meals; a central common house; pedestrian, car-free pathways; and some common interests among the residents (McCamant and Durrett 2011, 300). Coliving: Coliving advocates describe coliving as A modern urban lifestyle that values openness, sharing and collaboration Coliving n.d.). It offers a mix of more permanent space, with a lifelong philosophy of communal living, with guest rooms for temporary stay. Condominiums: Condominium Associations are clusters of housing units also built around central, communal living space such as a golf course, dining facility, garden, swimming pool or tennis courts. But there is little formal interaction among the residents. The governing regulations are established by the bylaws and Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions (CC&Rs). Cooperatives are similar to condominiums, but are technically a form of stock ownership rather than real property. In the United States they are defined by their legal status as set forth and enforced by the Internal Revenue Service. Cooperative living: Several people occupy a single dwelling unit, such as a large house, with each person or (couple) having a private area, including a bedroom, and often a bath. In addition the common areas of

15 14 the dwelling usually include a shared kitchen, dining room, and living room plus, at times, recreation or outdoor space. Coworking space: A space, typically work-only, for a diverse community of members and collaborators to share desk space, resources and networking opportunities (Impacthub, n.d.). Eco-Villages: An intentional or traditional community using local participatory processes to holistically integrate ecological, economic, social and cultural dimensions of sustainability in order to regenerate social and natural environments. Ecovillage n.d.). Entrepreneurial coliving: A type of coliving for budding entrepreneurs designed to facilitate ideation, collaboration and get stuff done Krash n.d.). A typical period of stay is 4 to 6 months. Intentional Communities: Intentional communities are built around certain common ideological principles, themes or structures, such as politics, religion, agriculture, and spirituality. Personal themes are voluntary simplicity, interpersonal growth, and self-sufficiency. They often follow an alternative lifestyle. The rules in intentional housing are more strictly enforced than in cohousing. Intentional communities include ecovillages, cohousing, residential land trusts, income-sharing communes, student co-ops, spirituals communities, and other projects where people live together on the basis of explicit common values (Intentional Communities n.d.). International Coliving Network: Distributed network of coliving spaces for creatives, professionals and modern nomads as they live and travel around the globe for work and collaboration Embassynetwork n.d.). Often on a membership fee basis, members can have access to coliving spaces around the world. Live-work space: A space designed to house a resident and his or her businesses. Frequently, though not exclusively, located in converted warehouse space. Make space: A community operated workspace where people with common interests come together to make things. Interests include computers, technology, science, digital arts, and electronic arts. Allows participants to meet, socialize and share ideas, equipment and resources. Make space also includes hack (or hacker)-space, tech-shops, and fab-labs (Cavalcanti 2013). They typically do not include over-night stay, but may in some locations. Social entrepreneurship coliving: A home and social space for likeminded people to live, eat and have fun together, and for other people to also visit and hang out (Kristine 2013). Universities: Universities present a particular opportunity for shared living, given their concentration of faculty, students and staff. Examples of campus living include traditional dormitories and apartments, fraternities and sororities, student villages, and specialty housing such as the International House in Berkeley and New York City. An example of a student village is West Village at U.C. Davis in Davis, California. UC Davis West Village is a new campus neighborhood located on UC Davis land adjacent to the core campus. It is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life U.C. Davis n.d.). It features net-zero energy usage (ie, produces all of its own energy requirement directly onsite), walkable and bikable pedestrian pathways, cutting edge energy efficiency technology and materials, and advanced communications technologies enabling residents to control their lighting, heating and appliances remotely by smart phone applications. Roughly 3,000 residents live in 662 apartments and 332 single-family homes, strategically located along central ball fields and gardens. It is within minutes of campus by bicycle, the predominant means of transportation at the University.

16 15 Warehouses: Older industrial buildings converted into work or live-work space, often used for light manufacturing purposes that are prohibited in areas of a city zoned for residential or commercial use. Allows tenants with similar types of businesses to collocate. What these shared living spaces share in common is a group of residents desiring to live together, share dreams and ideas, collaborate on work projects, and bond as a family. They are traditionally considered medium to long-term residential space, not travel-related. But their appeal to a significant portion of the travel market and their inclusion of guest rooms and amenities in their floor plans warrant their being considered as hospitality destinations Emerging Trend: Shared living connecting to the community Advising travelers as to sights to see and events to attend is nothing new in the tourism industry. The tour industry had been arranging sightseeing excursions and making reservations at theaters and festivals since its inception. Many tourists choose their destinations specifically to coincide with local celebrations and festivities. But longer-term travelers, those staying in a location for a month or more, often desire activities beyond the normal tourist attractions. There is a growing niche in the market that wants connection not only to fellow travelers, but to the local community itself. Not to the glamorous, stereotypical, often superficial exterior veneer of the site, but the real, authentic day-to-day internal workings of the community itself. One can see the Golden Gate Bridge and Taj Mahal and Eiffel Tower in a day. But to get to know the locals, eat their food, hear their dreams and aspirations this takes time. And access to their inner sanctions. This is the growing market, one that the tourism industry is best served to understand and accommodate. Urban areas are especially rich in community activities and opportunities for engagement. Projects and enterprises include: Food Slow Food Movement, urban farms, community gardens, Community Food & Justice Coalition Energy and Water distributed energy, drought preparedness Economy skills and asset building Environment construction and protection of natural and public spaces (climate action coalitions, Sierra Club, Friends of the Earth) Politics (local and national) townhall meetings, NGOs and community-based organization meetings (, political campaigns) Youth education; youth activities such as sports, music and theater Elders senior centers, arts and crafts fairs Health Care clinics, hospitals, vaccination programs in clinics, schools, libraries and businesses (Médecins Sans Frontières) Homeless and impoverished skill building, counseling Home building home refurbishment (Habitat for Humanity, Rebuilding Together) Disaster relief community rebuilding Arts & Crafts constructing art projects within a community Social Engagement connecting members to the community (Hub Impact) Community building movements, such as Transition Towns, Art of Hosting, and Resilient Communities By connecting their clients to such activities and organizations, travel agents and tour operators can help meet their clients fundamental needs of Creation, Participation and Identity, and the community s needs for physical, economic and social development as well. This is what is meant by being Sustainable. This is one way the tourism industry can become more Sustainable Tourism Industry connecting to the local community Traditional events and activities in popular destination areas include museums, iconic buildings and structures, and festivals in urban areas, and natural scenery in rural and remote areas. The tourism industry

17 16 assists its clients by notifying them of sights and events of interest and helping book reservations and tickets as required. Similarly the tour industry can best serve its clients, while simultaneously contributing to sustainable development, by connecting its clients to shared living accommodations and projects and organizations in the local communities. Numerous shared living accommodations are already established internationally. Shared Living networks such as Embassy Networks and Startup Abroad offer its members access to living space, professionals with similar interests, and access to the resources and activities in the local communities around the world. Partnering with such a network would offer the tourism clientele access to not only to accommodations but to a network of people and projects as well. International NGOs (non-governmental organizations) and movements also organize ongoing projects and activities across multiple geographic regions. The Slow Food Movement, for example, headquartered in Cuneo, Italy, is a global, grassroots organization with supporters in 5 countries around the world who are linking the pleasure of good food with a commitment to their community and the environment (Slowfood n.d.). By partnering with the Slow Food Movement, the tourism industry could connect clients interested in sustainability in the food industry to activities organized by the Slow Food Movement, and then direct the client to shared living facilities near the organized activities. The client could then live on a short to medium term basis with other residents in the same shared living space who share their interest in the food industry. Thus the tour industry will satisfy its clients needs of participation, creation and identity while simultaneously contributing to needed skills, labor and resources in the food industry s projects. Similarly the industry could partner with networks of affiliated but independent organizations, like Transition Towns. Transition Towns are a network of communities around the world who seek to build community resilience in the face of such challenges as peak oil, climate change and the economic crisis (Transitionus, n.d.). Individuals interested in sustainable living often travel among communities to learn about and contribute to different towns across the world. Such networks of communities and participants offers an opportunity for the tourism industry to contribute to sustainability at a personal and societal level. There are also opportunities to connect clients to specific projects and organizations around the world. Local community gardens, climate action groups, home rebuilding programs, political organizations, ecological programs (like Permaculture and habitat restoration projects) are becoming increasingly popular and are attracting participants and visitors in increasing numbers Escalation of need satisfiers: Leisure, Creation, Participation and Identity Traditional accommodations resorts, hotels, etc satisfy travelers need for Leisure. They offer reduction of stress in the form of relaxation, comfort, and consistency of product and service (so that guests know what to expect in their accommodations). But traditionally there has been little active participation by the traveler in the planning process. Indeed, avoiding having to plan the trip has deliberately been part of the stress reduction process. But with the emerging trends described above, travelers are now becoming actively engaged in the planning process. Accessing data and researching options is no longer considered stressful, at least not to active, technology-savvy travelers. Becoming actively involved in the planning process, and subsequently in the planning of the events once onsite, acts as a satisfier of the needs of Participation, Creation, and Identity as well as Leisure. Given Missimer s five Social Sustainability Principles Identity, Influence, Competence, Impartiality and Meaning), by including travelers in the planning process, tour operators are specifically engaging in a form of personal, social sustainability.

18 17 IV. CONCLUSION The sustainability challenge is threatening life as we know it on the planet. Climate change, resource depletion, water shortages, and a host of ecological problems will pose grave challenges into the future. They also provide a huge opportunity. Millions of people worldwide are gathering together and engaging in their local communities to prepare for and ultimately solve the sustainability challenge we re faced with. There is a large and growing number of sophisticated, dedicated and passionate individuals exploring ways to get involved in actions to save the planet, both in their own hometowns and in distant communities. The tourism industry can both serve and benefit by assisting their clientele by helping connect them to the local communities to which they re traveling. As technology and social structures evolve, habits, trends and lifestyles evolve with them. Travelers today are more sophisticated, more independent and more socially aware than ever before. They have a deep desire to satisfy their needs of Leisure, Participation, Creation and Identity needs that can be fulfilled by living communally and actively engaging in the local community. To be truly sustainable, the tourism industry must meet their clients personal needs and desires and contribute to the society as a whole. Selecting the appropriate accommodations is an important step in the process. The tourism industry can best serve its clients and address the sustainability challenge by connecting their clients to the emerging Shared Living sector of the market, and assisting them in engaging in local, sustainability-oriented projects. With growing sophistication and independence of the tech-savvy clientele, this could be a smart business decision as well. V. REFERENCES American Association for the Advancement of Science What we know. (accessed 22 March 2014). Barrow, Charlotte, Ozcuhadar Tuna and Peterka Stephanie Open Source as Leverage towards Sustainable Housing. Thesis submitted for completion of Master of Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden. Botsman, Rachel Rachel Botsman on Collaborative Consumption. (accessed 3/20/14). Brundtland, Gro Harlem Our common future. (accessed 9 March 2014). Butler, Richard Sustainable tourism: a state-of-the-art review. Carr, Austin The world s most innovative companies 4. (accessed 15 March 2014). Cavalcanti, Gui Is it a hackerspace, makerspace, techshop or fablab? Makezine. (accessed 15 March 2014). Coliving. n.d. Coliving. (accessed 15 March 2014). Couchsurfing, n.d. Couchsurfing. (accessed 15 March 2014). n.d. What is an ecovillage? (accessed 15 March 2014).

19 18 Embassynetwork, n.d. (accessed 15 March 2014)., n.d. (accessed 15 March 2014). Impact Hub. n.d. (accessed 15 March 2014). IPCC Report Intergovernmental Planning on Climate Change Report: Technical Summary. (accessed 16 March 2014). Khamseh Negar Sheikh Mohammadi Global Need for Low Carbon Architecture. Journal of Sustainable Development; Vol. 7: n.d. (accessed 15 March 2014). Kristine (no last name) A nest-ing place: co-living for entrepreneurs in Copenhagen. (accessed 15 March 2014). Main, Douglas Who are the millennials? (accessed 13 March 2014). Malik, Unsah Suitcase meets: Chip Conley from airbnb. (accessed 15 March 2014). Maslow, A.H A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review. Vol. 50(4): Max-Neef, Manfred. n.d. Max-Neef on human needs and human-scale development. (accessed 13 March 2014). McCamant, Kathryn and Charles Durrett Creating cohousing. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers. Meister, Jeanne Job hopping is the new normal for Millennials: three ways to prevent a human resource nightmare. (accessed 15 March 2014). Missimer, Merlina The Social Dimension of Strategic Sustainable Development. PhD Diss., Blekinge Institute of Technology. Ochieng E. G., Wynn T. S., Zuofa T., Ruan X., Price A. D. F. and Okafor C Integration of Sustainability Principles into Construction Project Delivery. Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology. Vol. 3: 1-5. Papargyropoulou. E., Padfielda R., Harrison O., Preece C The rise of sustainability services for the built environment in Malaysia. Sustainable Cities and Society. Vol. 5: Richards, Greg Tourism trends: tourism, culture and cultural routes. (accessed 13 March 2014). Robèrt, K.-H., B. Schmidt-Bleek, J. Aloisi de Larderel, G. Basile, J.L., Jansen, R. Kuehr, P. Price Thomas., M. Suzuki, P. Hawken, and M. Wackernagel Strategic Sustainable Development selection, design and synergies of applied tools. Journal of Cleaner Production 10:

20 19 Robert, Karl-Henrik, Goran Broman, David Waldron, Henrik Ny, Sophie Byggeth, David Cook, Lena Johansson, Jonas Oldmark, George Basile, Hordur Haroldsson, Jamie MacDonald, Brendan Moore, Tamara Connell, Merlina Missimer Strategic leadership towards sustainability. Karlskrona: Psilanders grafiska. Slow Food. n.d. Slow food. session=query_session:5881c96b07d0e1e04dwt2f0060d5 (accessed 3/20/14). Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment. (accessed 15 March 2014). Transitionus. n.d. The transition town movement. (accessed 3/20/14). UC Davis. n.d. Sneak preview of living in a net zero world. (accessed 16 March 2014). Wong Johnny K.W., Heng Li, Haoran Wang, Ting Huang, Eric Luo, Vera Li Toward low-carbon construction processes: the visualisation of predicted emission via virtual prototyping technology. Automation in Construction Vol. 33:

21 20 DEEPAK ELDHO BABU, ARSHINDER KAUR Practices for a Sustainable Supply Chains: A Tourism Perspective Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India ABSTRACT Tourism is one of the industries that have evolved and modernized considerably in the past two decades. Tourism is world s fastest growing indicators as well as the major source of foreign exchange earnings and employment for many countries. TSCM is defined as a set of methods utilized to effectively manage the operations of the Tourism Supply Chain (TSC) within a specific tourism destination. This will help to meet the needs of customers from the targeted source market and accomplish the business objectives of the focal organizations. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) integrates the sustainability into the Supply Chain Management (SCM) to facilitate sustainable development and to create competitive advantage. One way of reporting sustainability is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL). The demand for sustainable tourism has made the firms to look into the sustainability practices and new methods to incorporate them into their products. Sustainability can be defined as a wise balance among economic development, environmental stewardship and social equity (Sikdar, 2003). Many studies have discussed the role of tour operators in promoting sustainability in tourism (Budeanu, 2005; Tapper and Font, 2005, but not much studies exist as to how one can apply SCM for integrating social, economic and environmental practices in supply chain (Zhang et al., 2009). The highly competitive nature of tourism sector and its closeness towards sustainability requirements forced the organizations in this area to look for ways to enhance their supply chain skills and become more competitive. Information technology and commercial formats like etourism are steps towards that direction. Organizations are now more concerned about the environmental and social performance of their associates, the reason being the high demands on strong economic performance. Through this paper, we put forward few research questions and developed few hypotheses to be addressed in future and a conceptual model is developed from the literature survey. The present study tries to look at specific sustainability practices with respect to the, supplier, buyer and the focal organization leading to sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) in tourism sector from an environmental and economical perspective. Accordingly the present study was undertaken to fulfil the following objectives: 1) To identify the critical sustainable practices with respect to the supplier and buyer 2) To identify the critical sustainability practices with in the focal organization 3) To develop a conceptual model compressed of environmental, economical factors and information and communication practices which can improve the linkage between tourism supply chain entities. The study has helped to identify various tourism entities and the need of collaborative initiatives and monitoring practices required to achieve sustainability. Such efforts may result in the overall improvement of the sustainability performance of whole tourism supply chain. In cooperating sustainability practices to different stages of the supply chain may result in overall improvement of performance of supply chain.

22 21 Key Words Tourism Industry, Supply Chain, Sustainability Practices, Sustainable supply chain management REFERENCES 1. Ageron, B., A. Gunasekaran, A. Spalanzani (2012) Sustainable supply management: An empirical study. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), Budeanu, A. (2005). Impacts and responsibilities for sustainable tourism: a tour operator s perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(2), Camisón, C., & Monfort-Mir, V. M. (2012). Measuring innovation in tourism from the Schumpeterian and the dynamic-capabilities perspectives. Tourism Management, 33(4), Carter, C. R., D. S. Rogers (2008) A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(5), Dath, T. N. S., C. Rajendran, K.Narashiman (2009) A conceptual framework for Supply Chain Management with specific reference to a developing economy, International Journal of Procurement Management, 5(5), Fabbe-Costes, N., Roussat, C., & Colin, J. (2011). Future sustainable supply chains: what should companies scan? International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 41(3), Kernel, P. (2005). Creating and implementing a model for sustainable development in tourism enterprises. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(2), Schwartz, K., Tapper, R., & Font, X. (2008). A Sustainable Supply Chain Management Framework for Tour Operators. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(3), Seuring, S., & M. Miller (2008). From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15), Sigala, M. (2008). A supply chain management approach for investigating the role of tour operators on sustainable tourism: the case of TUI. Journal of Cleaner Production 16 (15), Sikdar, S.K. (2003). Sustainable development and sustainability matrices. AIChe journal, 49(7), Sloan, T. W. (2010). Measuring the sustainability of global supply chains: Current practices and future directions. Journal of Global Business Management, 6(1), Vachon, S., & R.D. Klassen (2006). Extending green practices across the supply chain: The impact of upstream and downstream integration. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(7), Vachon, S., and Z. Mao (2008). Linking supply chain strength to sustainable development: a countrylevel analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(15),

23 22 PHILIP F. XIE Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization: Sustainable Industrial Heritage Tourism School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies Bowling Green State University Abstract As industrial heritage is regarded as a steadily diminishing resource, the milieus of industrial complexes and their potential reuse for leisure, tourism and entertainment have gained prominence worldwide, particularly in Europe, where culture of pleasure is appreciated and supported at all walks of life. Industrial heritage is perhaps one of the most effective resources for socioeconomic development in that have severely affected by deindustrialization and globalization. Heritage illustrates how history suffuses the present while industrial sites have gradually transformed into a new cultural landscape. The consensus is that industrial heritage is an integral part of the culture and needs to take appropriate measures for sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, it discusses the concepts of three stages, e.g., territorialization, deterritorialization and reterritorialization drawn from postmodernism and poststructuralism. The proposed cycle entails an epistemological transformation in searching content and forms of industrial heritage and it went along with making viable heritage sites. Secondly, it compares the LX factory in Lisbon, Portugal and the Westergasfabriek in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, encompassed by each stage of the model, in order to construct a progressive relationship with respect to tourism development. Thirdly, the paper aims to be a basis for a form of management tool, helping understand and monitor change in the context of European industrial heritage tourism. Both LX factory and Westergasfabriek were occupied former factories, la fabrique des lieux, but been transformed into an island of culture and arts, something useful, beautiful and fun. Both sites aim to create genuine cultural identities of obsolete spaces and make value- added heritage sites concurrently. Public awareness of industrial heritage is strong and the memory of industrial interlude deserves to be fostered. They incorporate a great variety of leisure and entertainment elements ranging from bars, restaurants, retail spaces to arts studios. Industrial heritage become localized at points where accessibility is dependent on public transport and a strong association between arts and entertainment is omnipresent. In addition, industrial heritage has been linked to community cohesion implying management that values cultural diversity and evolutionary heritage practice. It makes a significant contribution to sustainable development whose purpose is long term, holistic and participatory. LX factory and Westergasfabriek show how industrial heritage conservation can take on a new product- led dimension, where a balance of intervention and façade preservations has created favorable settings for tourism and arts performance. The comparative study shows that territorialization is the initial phase of land use, as the term "industrial area" describes a present state of industrial activity. Deterritorialization reflects the abandonment of the old functionality of the sites. It is an "in- between" bearing the traces of the past and designating a space that has become cultural attraction. Relative deterritorialization is always accompanied by reterritorialization. What I argue

24 23 for the significance of deterritorialization is that industrial sites have gone through a series of modification, transformation, and expansion that exemplifies industrial heritage has become increasingly commodified, constructed and contested. In this context, the meaning of deterritorialization and reterritorialization is spatial manifestations of contemporary changes under way in the relationship between socioeconomic life and its territorial moorings, constantly evolving in relation to its period, environment and stakeholders.

25 24 ARTURO PAROLINI₁, PIERLUIGI POLIGNANO₂ Live Your Tour ₁ONG Ricerca e Cooperazione (Applicant e responsabile del progetto LYT) ₂Made in Puglia ABSTRACT The goal of the project is to increase the Sustainable Tourism in some areas of Italy, Spain, Lebanon and Tunisia, favouring off seasonal flows, the development of that areas and the enhancement of their cultures, and reducing the non-sustainable pressures of tourism on coastal areas, in order to mitigate the impact on the environment. Through the identification of possible alternative routes, compared to the more wellknown and exploited for tourist purposes, the project aims to develop a different relationship visitor / territory that can permit to the tourist to appreciate the characteristics of several places. The intensive cooperation among the different areas involved in the project, working as a network, will offer different itineraries as pieces of a whole that, despite its differences, are recognized as part of a Mediterranean reality. The project specifically aims also to increase the capacity and know-how of local authorities in terms of cross-border strategic planning on Sustainable Tourism through training and ongoing support services: a dense exchanges of ideas and experiences through a cross-border network of Mediterranean countries. The actions also involve large segments of the civil society through summer camps for young people, design of games, awareness courses in schools. In particular: The project will improve the situation of the target groups at different and several levels. Concerning the Local Authorities, the project will improve their capability and know how about strategic planning in the field of sustainable tourism. They will be provided with technical expertises through training courses, permanent assistance and exchange of experiences through the establishment of a strong Mediterranean cross-border network. Lebanese and Tunisian LAs will take advantages from the experiences and good territorial planning practices carried out in Apulia and Andalusia in the tourism field; in particular, they will improve their capacity to collaborate with the private sector. Italian and Spanish LAs will develop innovative strategies to increase the territorial cohesion, to safeguard the value of local resources and to draw a cross-border and integrated development plan for sustainable tourism. In particular, Apulia, the regional planning tool SAC (Environment and Cultural System) will be enhanced. The cross-border dimension (particularly the international exchanges) will allow the LA representatives to join international networks and make their territories experiment different best practices. The Civil Society Organizations (NGOs, cultural, eco-tourism and professional associations, development agencies) will be fully recognized as crucial stakeholders in the strategic planning and promotion of their territory; they will become more active about the preservation and enhancement of cultural and natural heritage at local, national and cross-border level. Furthermore, they will improve their capability to manage participative methodologies in order to address and involve their citizens, with special attention on marginal groups, guaranteeing a community based development. Young people will increase their awareness about the importance to preserve natural and cultural heritage. The students (together with their teachers) and the young people of the involved CSOs will embark in a three year long educational path that will influence their knowledge and behaviours, allowing them to feel part of one Mediterranean community, especially through the international camps.

26 25 The increase of sustainable touristic flows will directly improve the situation of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of the tourism sector, as responsible tourism has a direct impact on local economies. Tour operators, accommodation facilities, artisans, agro-food companies, transport companies, cultural and entertaining facilities, local industries and many other private actors will become part of a virtuous tourism system, thanks to the increased accessibility to the target areas and thanks to the enhanced product diversification. By redistributing tourism pressure over an extended season and toward different market segments drawn from local cultural and natural diversity, the project will allow niche enterprises to increase their market opportunities and the whole sector extending their working period. Moreover, the access will be fostered to marginal areas, generally left aside from mass tourism incomes. The local SMEs will also gain innovative marketing tools to increase their competitiveness on national, Mediterranean and international market. Tour operators and transport companies, in particular, will be offered an alternative way to face the economic crisis that is affecting the traditional mass tourism. Nevertheless, Live your tour is a project addressed to tourists. They will experiment an authentic way to travel through an emotional, social, and participative interaction with the places, their living cultures and the people who live there. They will benefit from the improved touristic facilities and their better accessibility; they will discover and visit uncommon and not overcrowded places, especially in inland areas and all-year-around. The citizens of all Mediterranean Basin will enjoy a more protected heritage, and will more deeply feel they belong to the one Mediterranean community. In all target areas, sustainable touristic flows due to a better seasonal and geographic spread of tourism arrivals will bring more balanced economy revenues. Marginalized people of inland areas will have the opportunity to join the local tourism supply chain, welcome tourists and increase their economic revenues. Furthermore, they will take advantages from the cultural exchanges coming from the contacts with tourists. National and international decision makers of the whole Mediterranean Basin will have different best practices to refer to and will be able to take part in the cross-border networks created within the project. Tourism supply chains in Italy, Spain, Tunisia and Lebanon will revitalize their incomes, entering a virtuous circle of a more sustainable tourism. Concerning the partners, they will be provided with advanced management tools and methodologies, particularly referring to Project Cycle Management, financial and technical monitoring procedures, participatory and facilitation methodologies. Particular attention will be paid to the capacity building of Southern partners: the project will improve and strengthen their management, financial and technical capacity, through specific training courses and a permanent assistance.

27 26 FRANCESCO MARIA OLIVIERI Rural tourism and local development: typical productions of Lazio Universitas Mercatorum Università Telematica delle Camere di Commercio Italiane Abstract Lo sviluppo locale dipende dall integrazione del settore turistico con il resto dell economia. Il turismo enogastronomico è turismo culturale in quanto si riferisce alla conoscenza del territorio e alle sue risorse materiali ed immateriali. L enogastronomia ha un ruolo centrale, in quanto strumento di comunicazione di un esperienza di tradizioni e sapori, per attrarre i viaggiatori. E non solo. Essa genera ricchezza e valore per il territorio. L Italia ha un patrimonio rurale unico e non del tutto conosciuto. Il turismo può essere il veicolo di valorizzazione di questa giacimento, che si basa su artigianato, conoscenze e saper fare: il patrimonio dei prodotti tipici. L Italia gode di una immagine enogastronomica mondiale che, al tempo stesso, può rappresentare una leva importante per la crescita del turismo. Il turismo rurale sembra offrire una ottima occasione di analisi in termini di sviluppo locale: la fruizione di prodotti turistici ubicati in determinati contesti territoriali. Tuttavia, la valorizzazione di un prodotto tipico è un processo complesso che interessa molteplici fattori, che vanno al di là della dimensione economica del sistema delle imprese. Il prodotto tipico è radicato nella cultura e nelle tradizioni e, molto spesso, è strettamente collegato ad ambiente, paesaggio, biodiversità. Il processo di valorizzazione di un prodotto tipico deve dunque essere osservato da varie angolature: a livello territoriale, la polarizzazione del tessuto imprenditoriale della filiera agroalimentare con caratteristiche strutturali ed economiche diversificate e gradi differenti di efficienza produttiva e organizzativa. Partendo, quindi, dallo studio della filiera agroalimentare e dalla localizzazione delle produzioni tipiche, l obiettivo del presente contributo analizzare la relazione fra sviluppo locale, sostenibilità del turismo rurale e sistema dell accoglienza nel territorio della regione Lazio: quali sono gli elementi per la creazione di sistemi locali turistici basati sul legame fra la filiera dell offerta turistica accommodation e ristorazione) e la filiera produttiva (produzioni tipiche e tradizionali)? E quali sono le determinanti per l individuazione di itinerari enogastronomici? La specificità del turismo italiano si basa tradizionalmente su aspetti legati alla cultura dell accoglienza ed al ruolo dell ospitalità. Da qui discende la valorizzazione del prodotto culturale nella sua più ampia accezione (arte, storia, natura, mare, montagna, terme): turismo made in Italy. Il valore aggiunto turistico di determinati contesti territoriali può trarre beneficio dalla sinergia con la filiera agroalimentare: made in Italy dei prodotti tipici. La relazione fra accommodation e valorizzazione e tutela del paniere dei prodotti tipici si configura nel territorio che rappresenta la sintesi in termini di immagine del made in Italy. La valorizzazione della filiera enogastronomica, il sistema di accoglienza e le specifiche località turistiche dovrebbero essere alla base della promozione turistica in termini di politiche nazionali e locali: ruolo degli attori locali e nazionali (pubblici e privati), profilo organizzativo del sistema paese, offerta infrastrutturale e servizi del territorio e per le imprese che direttamente ed indirettamente sono legate al processo (a monte, a valle e trasversalmente). In particolare, l agriturismo rappresenta la forma di offerta ricettiva adatta al turismo rurale e che garantisce l esclusività del prodotto tipico. La reciprocità fra filiera agroalimentare e turismo un fattore strategico del modello di sviluppo per rendere distintiva l immagine del territorio, la sua individuazione ed il suo riconoscimento. Il processo di aggregazione di un territorio partendo da queste caratteristiche uno strumento di competitività dell economia locale.

28 27 The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness. Parole chiave Turismo rurale, agroalimentare, prodotto tipico, territorio. Key words Rural tourism, food and wine, typical productions, territory. 1. Territorio, turismo rurale e agriturismo Turismo rurale e agriturismo, negli ultimi anni sono stati oggetto di diverse indagini a carattere multidisciplinare (Arroyo et al., 2013; Nijkamp et al., 2012; Phillip et al., 2010; Celant et al., 2009; Fleischer et al., 2002; Celant, 2001). Il mondo accademico internazionale rileva un certo grado di confusione relativo alla coincidenza fra i due termini. L agriturismo è altresì la forma di ricettività e ristorazione più caratterizzante del turismo rurale: come avviene in Italia e Francia che, seppur con soluzioni diverse, hanno costruito impianti strutturati per l analisi del turismo rurale. Rispetto al caso italiano l approccio teorico di tipo bottom-up e trova nella L. 730/1985 il primo riferimento legislativo: l agriturismo nasce con la necessità degli imprenditori agricoli toscani di offrire anche ospitalità e somministrazione di prodotti, oltre all attività di produzione. È ormai consolidato il riferimento al paradigma città-campagna, nello studio e nell analisi in termini di territorializzazione e paesaggio ed evoluzione dell attività agricola. Questa impostazione alla base del presente contributo, partendo dall assunto che le modificazioni subite dal settore agricolo in Italia, seppur con le forti differenze su scala regionale, hanno prodotto l attuale configurazione del paesaggio ed il relativo assetto territoriale; effetti che nel caso del turismo rurale hanno favorito la nascita, prima, e lo sviluppo, poi, dell agriturismo. La mezzadria, che ha dato un imprinting al paesaggio di buona parte dell Italia Centrale, ha gettato le basi per la nascita dell agriturismo. Tuttavia, anche nel resto del paese e, in particolare, in Alto Adige l evoluzione storica del paesaggio agricolo alla base di forme di ricettività di turismo rurale: l atroce concetto di confine secolare, ossia la tradizione legata all indivisibilità dei Masi, stato recepito dalla normativa agricola già preunitaria, creando una condizione necessaria per la nascita dell agriturismo altoatesino e la generazione di una fonte di ricchezza duratura e, perciò, sostenibile (Celant, 2001). Il turismo rurale comporta una diversa considerazione del concetto di ruralità legato alla territorialità; ciò all opposto della diffusa concezione di ruralità come sinonimo di arretratezza, anche culturale, e di ritardo, anche economico. Il turismo rurale è specificità e peculiarità di un territorio, financo il recupero del rapporto fra regione storico-geografica e regione agricola. Per questo, partendo dalla relazione fra agriturismo e produzioni tipiche, si vuole: da un lato approfondire gli aspetti del rapporto turismo e agricoltura in termini

29 28 di caratteristica identitaria del territorio; in secondo luogo, capire se questa relazione possa essere occasione di crescita e di sviluppo turistico locale. L enogastronomia cultura, basata sulla conoscenza del territorio attraverso l insieme delle sue risorse tangibili e intangibili. Il cibo ha un ruolo centrale, poiché mezzo di comunicazione privilegiato della cultura enogastronomica, di tradizioni ed esperienze, che concorrono alla generazione del valore e della ricchezza del territorio. L Italia possiede patrimoni agroalimentari unici, non del tutto conosciuti, che sono dei veri e propri giacimenti gastronomici Paolini, 9). Il turismo rurale consiste nella capacità di valorizzare questa ricchezza, mettendo a reddito il patrimonio delle produzioni tipiche, in termini di attrazione del turismo nella sua più ampia accezione, specie con riferimento ai flussi turistici internazionali. Il prodotto tipico può essere considerato un elemento della capacità attrattiva e di caratterizzazione del territorio. Poste queste considerazioni, il legame fra settore primario, turismo rurale e agriturismo è alla base della conservazione dinamica del paesaggio e della tradizione, con le stesse modalità che diversi autori riferiscono al rapporto fra cultura e passato (Dallen e Boyd, 2007). Sviluppare forme di turismo definite semplicisticamente minori dal punto di vista economico, significa crescita e occupazione. L Italia gode di un eccellente immagine enogastronomica a livello mondiale, un fattore importante e ineludibile per lo sviluppo del sistema turistico. Analizzarne le relazioni e le dinamiche localizzative è la condizione per porre in essere politiche e strategie per la valorizzazione di questo patrimonio, diffonderne la conoscenza a livello internazionale e migliorare le modalità con cui le produzioni tipiche siano un fattore determinante per il percorso di sviluppo. La forma di ricettività dell agriturismo un modello d ispirazione molto diffuso in Italia, anche capillarmente, con diverse soluzioni organizzative. La valorizzazione delle produzioni tipiche passa necessariamente per una modalità di fruizione dell offerta territoriale idonea e coerente con il territorio: l agriturismo, al tempo stesso struttura di offerta e veicolo di promozione, anche se ciò avviene con la sola ristorazione, prescindendo dalla ricettività; e, quindi, esso deve essere inquadrato nel sistema globale di offerta turistica. La specificità del turismo italiano si basa tradizionalmente su aspetti legati alla cultura dell accoglienza e al ruolo dell ospitalità. Una nuova ospitalità accommodation) sta alla base delle strategie di attenzione territoriale Dallari, 6). La relazione fra accommodation e valorizzazione e tutela del paniere dei prodotti tipici si configura nel territorio che rappresenta la sintesi in termini di immagine del made in Italy. Partendo da queste considerazioni, l obiettivo del presente contributo analizzare il turismo rurale e la relazione con i prodotti tipici e l'agriturismo. Tale percorso può avere come punto di caduta la strutturazione di un territorio, che abbia la capacità di superare la semplificazione turismo del cibo e itinerari verso una considerazione sistemica del territorio, con l apertura a tutte le altre attrattività, ma che si basi sul rapporto agricoltura-accoglienza-ristorazione. 2. Agricoltura e produzioni tipiche Il prodotto tipico agricolo è frutto di un processo storico, collettivo e localizzato di accumulazione di conoscenze, basato sulla combinazione di risorse territoriali specifiche, fisiche e antropiche. Tale combinazione genera un legame forte, unico e irriproducibile con il territorio di origine e, al tempo stesso, ne costituisce un indicatore di diversità. Il rapporto del prodotto agricolo con il territorio è funzione delle differenti componenti e aspetti della tipicità, che fanno riferimento alla dimensione ambientale e alle risorse locali, alle tecniche di produzione, condizionamento e trasformazione, agli aspetti locali culturali e sociali, nonché ai fattori storici che accompagnano le traiettorie evolutive del prodotto stesso. Una relazione dinamica e non statica e immutabile. Questo perché l enogastronomia parte della cultura di un

30 29 territorio: le produzioni tipiche sono uno degli elementi del passato che possono essere selezionati per la conservazione dinamica del territorio e del paesaggio Dallen-Boyd, 2007). Perciò le produzioni tipiche assumono una nuova forma riguardo all evoluzione del concetto di terra e di rendita: fattore produttivo per la competitività turistica, riassumendo aspetti propri di un fattore naturale, ma anche dell azione antropica, trasformandosi in prodotto territoriale ed elemento di attrattività a fini turistici. La diversità della ricchezza enogastronomica dell Italia rappresentata dall elenco dei Prodotti Agroalimentari Tradizionali italiani (PAT) presso il Ministero delle Politiche Agricole e comunitarie, i prodotti locali e nostrani che ampliano il concetto di prodotto tipico, di cui al D.lgs. 173/98: da una parte si identifica la varietà in termini di ricchezza, di tutto quello che è definito cultura del cibo in stretta relazione con lo sviluppo turistico; in secondo luogo si fornisce la caratterizzazione enogastronomica della produzione agricola. A sostegno della tesi già riportata di una coerenza dell impianto costruito in Italia, le tipicità regionali sono gli scaffali della biblioteca dell enogastronomia italiana Hausmann, 9). Con il termine tipico ci si riferisce direttamente all origine di un prodotto di una determinata area, dotata di caratteri peculiari rispetto alla produzione. Nel loro insieme le produzioni tipiche e le specialità regionali rappresentano un patrimonio localizzato in modo diversificato su scala regionale; un insieme che genera potenzialmente una capacità attrattiva superiore alla somma degli stessi prodotti. Il prodotto tipico è un fattore determinante per il turismo, ampiamente considerato: escursionisti, turisti locali e internazionali; questi ultimi si recano sempre più in Italia per conoscere le bellezze naturali e artistiche ed enogastronomiche localizzate nel territorio. Per questo motivo, il sistema delle produzioni tipiche merita una considerazione a livello funzionale, o meglio complementare, al sistema tradizionale e convenzionale dell offerta turistica. Nella teoria classica, la localizzazione agricola dipende dalla rendita e dal prezzo che il coltivatore è disposto a pagare. Il legame fra rendita e prodotto tipico pone la necessità di un superamento dell approccio classico nel momento in cui non ci si riferisce più solamente all agricoltura, ma anche alla produzione nel suo complesso e al turismo in particolare. Il concetto di rendita assume una componente non economica. L attività che si localizza non solo agricola, ma un attività a vocazione turistica: ricettiva (agriturismo, beauty farm, country-house, ma anche B&b) e agro-alimentare propriamente detta. Integrare il turismo in un territorio agricolo amplia l offerta turistica in connessione con l agricoltura. La relazione prodotto tipico-agriturismo è alla base dell autenticità di questa integrazione-connessione: una tipicità obiettiva che ne caratterizza l identità e che, secondo alcuni autori, può rappresentare un brand in sé Ohe-Kurihara, 2013). 2.1 Il paniere delle produzioni tipiche del Lazio La produzione tipica agricola del Lazio è caratterizzata dalla coesistenza di una pluralità di strumenti di organizzazione e di integrazione, che la rende un processo complesso con molteplici dimensioni, oltre a quella strettamente economica più propria del sistema delle imprese. Il prodotto tipico per sua natura è radicato fortemente nella cultura e nelle tradizioni e, quindi, nel territorio: ambiente, paesaggio, biodiversità. Come detto, la valorizzazione del prodotto incide su aspetti che sono non esclusivamente riconducibili al valore d uso stimato dal prezzo di mercato. Altre e diversificate componenti hanno un impatto sul processo di produzione anche in termini dimensionali: comunità locale, know-how specifico della manodopera, istituzioni, consumo locale; ed al tempo stesso concorrono alla creazione del valore aggiunto della produzione. La capacità sedimentata nel territorio è lo strumento che permette di saldare il valore d uso del prodotto con i valori più complessi, anche di remunerazione del prodotto. E quello che si configura come la dimensione collettiva dello sviluppo economico, sociale e ambientale. Strategia che parte dalla mobilizzazione delle risorse locali e dai produttori in primo luogo, oltre che dagli altri attori del sistema economico. La valorizzazione del prodotto tipico è, infatti, un processo aperto, che trae origini dal

31 30 radicamento del prodotto nel territorio e nella tradizione, ma che si proietta verso l esterno, proprio per mezzo degli attori locali. Il prodotto tipico permette che i caratteri distintivi di un territorio possano trasformarsi in fattori competitivi: memoria storica, localizzazione geografica, qualità delle materie prime, tecniche di produzione; al tempo stesso, essi rappresentano sia l unicità della qualità prodotta, sia la specificità e l unicità stessa del territorio. Su scala territoriale le ricadute di questi aspetti hanno come principale conseguenza la polarizzazione del tessuto imprenditoriale agroalimentare del Lazio. L analisi di studio ha individuato cinquantacinque Prodotti Tipici nel Lazio, dal Registro delle Denominazioni di Origine Protetta, Indicazioni Geografiche Garantite e della Specialità Tradizionali Garantite e dall elenco dei Prodotti Agroalimentari Tradizionali attraverso la localizzazione della produzione su scala comunale. Il paniere costruito dei cinquantacinque prodotti, d ora in avanti definiti per semplicità prodotti tipici, riguarda sia i prodotti certificati e non certificati, sia le produzioni biologiche e, appunto, le produzioni agroalimentari Tradizionali, definite PAT. La presenza dei prodotti tipici appare maggiormente diffusa nell area settentrionale e orientale della regione Lazio, parte del territorio delle due province di Viterbo e Rieti, dove la quasi totalità dei comuni rileva almeno una produzione tipica. Mediamente distribuita nell area centrale della regione, la diffusione delle produzioni tipiche appare minore nell area meridionale, e maggiormente localizzata in prossimità della costa, con l eccezione di alcuni comuni dell entroterra, come Cori e le realtà limitrofe, fra cui Artena e Velletri, in prossimità del confine fra le due province di Roma e Latina. I comuni con maggiore concentrazione di produzioni sono Monterotondo 4) nell hinterland di Roma, Cori 6), Acquapendente (11), Bolsena e Viterbo (10) nella parte settentrionale della regione, e a sud Latina (11). La distribuzione comunale per tipologia di prodotti mostra un elevato grado di eterogeneità. La diffusione di alcuni prodotti, come Uva e Vino e Oliva ed Olio Extra Vergine d Oliva, elevata in buona parte della regione. Il Vino è prodotto da nord a sud, senza soluzione di continuità, sia nella zona costiera sia subappenninica. Delle certificazioni riconosciute, maggiormente diffusa è la Denominazione di Origine Controllata DOC), presente nella quasi totalità della provincia di Viterbo, nell intorno dell area di Roma e nella pianura pontina. Alcune specifiche concentrazioni della produzione vinicola sono presenti: - nell entroterra al confine con l Abruzzo e il Molise; - nell entroterra centrale, attorno ai comuni di Olevano Romano e Piglio, con un ampia diffusione di vini certificati per tipologia, fra cui spicca uno dei vini Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita DOCG), il Cesanese del Piglio ; - nell area dei Castelli Romani, anch essa con un ampia diffusione tipologica di certificazioni, caratterizzata da una tradizionale produzione di vini, fra cui il recente DOCG Cannellino Romano ; - nella provincia di Viterbo, in particolare la parte settentrionale, dove spiccano per diffusione di certificazioni i comuni di Acquapendente e Civitella di Agliano; - infine nei due comuni di Roma e Latina, per evidenti ragioni dimensionali. La produzione di Olio nella regione Lazio è caratterizzata dalla presenza di quattro Denominazioni di Origine Protetta DOP): Sabina, Canino, Tuscia e Colline Pontine. In questo caso occorre precisare la scelta di individuare aree produzioni DOP limitatamente estese. In questo caso la distribuzione territoriale presenta un grado di concentrazione più elevato: quasi l intera provincia di Viterbo Tuscia DOP e, nella parte settentrionale Canino DOP ), l area della Sabina, al confine fra le due province di Roma e Rieti, caratterizzate dall omonima DOP, il territorio della pianura pontina a nord e sud di Latina, fino ai confini meridionali della regione, Colline Pontine DOP. La concentrazione di produzione di Olio appartenente ai PAT, invece, particolarmente rilevante nell intorno dei comuni di Olevano Romano e Piglio e nell area di Veroli e Arpino, più a sud. Come nel caso del Vino, anche l Olio mostra una

32 31 distribuzione molto diffusa nel territorio. Inoltre questi due prodotti mostrano un elevato livello di compresenza. Alcune produzioni tipiche mostrano una concentrazione in specifiche aree del territorio della regione, come il Cece localizzato nel Reatino e presente in 78 comuni; il Cece PAT è concentrato nei soli due comuni di Acquapendente e Valentano nella Tuscia. Circa un 1/5 dei prodotti tipici sono presenti in un solo comune ed altrettanti in due o tre comuni. Anche alcuni prodotti che rientrano nella tradizione regionale hanno una diffusione relativamente bassa: broccoletti, cicoria e zucchina (4 comuni). Altri prodotti, molto caratteristici del territorio, quali il Pecorino e la Ricotta hanno un grado di diffusione medio (30 comuni). Il Pecorino romano, caratterizzato da una dimensione sovraregionale (Maremma Toscana e buona parte della Sardegna), concentra la produzione laziale nel comune di Roma, nella parte settentrionale della regione (al confine con la Toscana), in alcuni comuni della Sabina. La Ricotta romana, riconosciuta DOP nel 2005 successivamente al Pecorino (1996), mostra una distribuzione maggiormente orientata nella parte meridionale Latina, nell intorno di Cori-Segni, nella Val Comino al confine con il Molise), oltre che nei comuni di Roma e Viterbo. Altri prodotti, seppur meno conosciuti per il carattere della tipicità mostrano una discreta diffusione: - la Cicerchia, presente in 14 comuni con una forte concentrazione nella provincia di Rieti meridionale e orientale, al confine con l Abruzzo, e sporadicamente in alcuni altri centri, come Bomarzo (Viterbo), Cineto Romano e Ciciliano (Roma) e Campodimele (Latina); - il Carciofo romanesco, comuni ubicati lungo l intero litorale della regione; - la Nocciola, 38 comuni, concentrata nell area meridionale del Viterbese e in misura minore del Reatino; - la Ciliegia, 8 comuni, la cui produzione localizzata nella Bassa Sabina e nell area dei Castelli Romani e con minore rilevanza intorno al comune di Latina; - il Fagiolo, 26 comuni, per la maggior parte nella provincia di Rieti meridionale e orientale, attorno al comune di Acquapendente e nella Valle del Comino; - il Kiwi, 24 comuni, nella pianura pontina. La diffusione di tutti i prodotti tipici rilevati per comune è riportata in Tabella 1. La Figura 1 riporta la diffusione del totale dei prodotti tipici per classi nei comuni del Lazio. Tabella 1 Prodotti tipici per comune del Lazio PRODOTTO TIPICO COMUNI PRODOTTO TIPICO COMUNI AGLIO ROSSO 3 FUNGO 2 AGRUMI 1 KIWII 24 ALBICOCCHE 1 LATTUGA 3 ARANCIO 6 LENTICCHIA 6 ASPARAGO 3 MELE 1 BROCCOLETTI 4 MELONE 1 CARCIOFO 22 MIELE 9 CARNI BOVINE 6 NOCCIOLA 38 CARNI BUFALINE 5 OLIO EXTRAVERGINE D'OLIVA 157 CARNI EQUINE 1 OLIVA 41 CARNI SELVAGGINE 2 PASTA E CEREALI 0

33 32 CARNI SUINE 38 PATATA 10 CAROTE 3 PECORINO 30 CASTAGNA 30 PEPERONE 10 CAVOLFIORE 1 PERA 2 CECE 78 PESCE DI LAGO 9 CICERCHIA 14 PINOLO 1 CICORIA 4 POMODORO 6 CILIEGIA 18 RADICCHIO 0 ERBACEE_CD 1 RICOTTA 30 FAGIOLO 26 SEDANO BIANCO 2 FINOCCHIO 3 SPINACIO 1 FORMAGGI BUFALINI 9 TARTUFO 13 FORMAGGI CAPRINI 48 UVA 140 FORMAGGI E LATTE 16 VALERIANA 1 FORMAGGI OVINI 36 VINO 139 FORMAGGI VACCINI 11 ZUCCHINA 4 FRAGOLA 11 Elaborazione propria su varie fonti, Agriturismo e offerta territoriale L agriturismo non si configura esclusivamente come una tipologia ricettiva, ma rappresenta una forma di servizio del territorio per la promozione della cultura agricola e dei suoi prodotti. Gli aspetti legati alla citata confusione e alla complessità dell inquadramento dell offerta agrituristica, sembrano perciò da riferirsi alla letteratura straniera, diversamente da quanto considerato da alcuni autori (Phillip et al., 2010). In Italia le caratteristiche dell agriturismo sono definite in un processo dinamico Hausmann, 9). Inoltre il caso italiano, seppur con le sue differenze regionali, mostra che l agriturismo non un fenomeno recente, a differenza di altra parte della letteratura Arroyo et al., ; Telfer et al., 996). L attività agrituristica, successivamente al primo provvedimento del 1985, trova il suo principale riferimento nella Legge Quadro n.96 del 2006, traslata con diverse modalità dalle Regioni in strumenti operativi. In essa sono presenti alcuni punti comuni e vincolanti che costituiscono l architrave dell impostazione di questo contributo: in particolare la doppia accezione del concetto di prevalenza, relativa al fatturato agricolo e all utilizzazione dei prodotti offerti, che rende quest attività, quando turistica, una tipologia specifica e ben differenziata dalle altre forme di offerta. Inoltre nelle recenti normative a livello statale L.98/ 3, cosiddetto Decreto del Fare ), stata introdotta la possibilità di somministrare i prodotti della propria attività per tutte le aziende agricole, seppur senza l assistenza al tavolo. Tale innovazione va inquadrata in una visione sempre più sistemica del turismo rurale su scala locale. In questo senso deve essere valutata anche la possibilità fornita dal recente Regolamento della Regione Lazio in materia di agriturismo, n.6 del 17 marzo 2014; esso permette diverse soluzioni per l imprenditore agrituristico che non sia in grado con la propria produzione di soddisfare la duplice domanda di somministrazione e di vendita del prodotto: per evitare che debba scegliere la soluzione più remunerativa dal punto di vista economico (somministrazione) a scapito della

34 33 promozione dei prodotti (attraverso ala vendita), la nuova normativa prevede la possibilità di avvalersi di prodotto delle aziende prossime, anche non agrituristiche. L agriturismo perciò sempre più una struttura di offerta dinamica e diversificata e si configura in diversi modelli, secondo della localizzazione territoriale: il modello tradizionale nato dalle caratteristiche agricole del territorio, come quello mezzadrile di sostegno al reddito agricolo che può svolgersi con o senza ristorazione; l agriturismo del mare, localizzato in prossimità delle località balneari; l agriturismo situato in aree protette; infine il modello più recente, multifunzionale, basato sui principali presupposti della Politica Agricola Comune (Hausmann, 2009). 3.1 La consistenza degli agriturismo nel Lazio L analisi degli agriturismo del Lazio condotta rispetto alle tre variabili: strutture, posti letto e dimensione media. La distribuzione territoriale in termini di strutture e posti letto mostra la medesima tendenza. La maggiore diffusione di agriturismo è localizzata nella parte settentrionale della regione, nella provincia di Viterbo, dove si concentrano 13 dei 22 comuni con più di cinque strutture: Acquapendente, Bolsena, Montalto di Castro, Proceno e il capoluogo Viterbo (classe superiore - almeno 10 strutture); Bagnoregio, Civitella d'agliano, Farnese, Ischia di Castro, Lubriano, Montefiascone, Tarquinia e Tuscania nella seconda classe (da 5 a 9). Nel resto della regione tutti gli altri comuni appartengono alle classi inferiori, con esclusione di Roma, appartenente alla classe superiore, e pochi altri casi nella seconda classe: Accumoli, Amatrice, Fara in Sabina e Rieti nel Reatino; Aprilia, Sabaudia e Terracina nell area litoranea meridionale. A livello generale appare evidente la scarsa presenza di strutture ricettive nelle zone interne, in particolare centrali e meridionali. Tale tendenza è confermata dalla distribuzione per posti letto. I risultati della distribuzione in termini di dimensione media degli agriturismo differiscono parzialmente. I 31 comuni con una dimensione media superiore ai 20 posti letto sono diffusi: - nella parte settentrionale, fra cui Canino, Farnese ed Ischia di Castro; - nell area contigua al sistema lacuale di Bracciano e Martignano (Canale Monterano); - a nord, fra cui Caprarola e Ronciglione; - nell hinterland del comune di Roma, Ardea, Fiumicino, Guidonia Montecelio, Tivoli; - nell area dei Castelli Romani, Ariccia, Genzano di Roma e Grottaferrata. Altri comuni appartenenti alla classe superiore sono localizzati nel Reatino (Petrella Salto, Varco Sabino e Tarrano). In tutti questi casi, la dimensione media mostra una copertura omogenea del territorio, caratterizzata dalla presenza di comuni con una rilevanza significativa della variabile attorno ai comuni appartenenti alla classe superiore. L eccezione a questa tendenza rappresentata dai comuni di Arpino e Ceccano nel Frusinate. Infine, seppur non caratterizzata da valori particolarmente elevati, la tutto il litorale a sud di Roma, da Ardea fino a Terracina, mostra una tendenza di discreta ricettività media lungo.

35 34 a)strutture b) posti letto c) dimensione media Figura 2 Consistenza degli agriturismo del Lazio Elaborazione propria su dati Istat, 2013 In totale sono 8 i comuni caratterizzati dall assenza della forma ricettiva dell agriturismo 55% del totale). In termini di composizione, queste strutture pesano per il 7,1% sul totale della forma di ricettività complementare e per il 5,4% sulla complessiva. In termini di posti letto entrambi due rapporti scendono al 4,7% e al 2,2%, rispettivamente. Il rapporto fra agriturismo e ricettività alberghiera è pari al 23% per le strutture e al 4% in termini di posti letto. I dati sono riportati nella Tabella 2. Tabella 2 Confronto offerta ricettiva e agriturismo nel Lazio STRUTTURE % POSTI LETTO % AGRITURISMO TOTALE ESERCIZI COMPLEMENTARI ,1% ,7% TOTALE ESERCIZI RICETTIVI ,4% ,2% ALBERGHI ,0% ,0% Elaborazione su dati Istat, 2013 La minore dimensione media delle strutture agrituristiche rispetto alle altre forme della ricettività è confermata nella Tabella 3, in cui sono riportati i dati rispetto alle medie per comuni. La dimensione media in termini di posti letto dell agriturismo 6, ) inferiore a quella dell offerta extra-alberghiera (16) e del totale del sistema ricettivo (20,4). Tale differenza è in modo consistente inferiore se confrontata a quella degli alberghi (24,4). In media nei comuni del Lazio ci sono 1,2 strutture agrituristiche e 17 posti letto offerti, a fronte di 5,3 alberghi e 427,8 posti in letto. Il Lazio è caratterizzato da una media di 17,2 esercizi

36 35 ricettivi a cui corrispondono 361,6 posti letto e da una complessiva ricettività media di 22,5 esercizi per comune 789,4 posti letto). A parte l evidente preso preponderante della forma alberghiera, il dato va normalizzato considerando il peso del comune di Roma (5.049 esercizi per oltre 151 mila posti letto). Tabella 3 Consistenza dell offerta ricettiva media nei comuni del Lazio AGRITURISMO ALBERGHI TOTALE COMPLEMENTARI TOTALE RICETTIVO STRUTTURE 1,2 5,3 17,2 22,5 POSTI LETTO ,8 361,6 789,4 DIMENSIONE MEDIA POSTI LETTO 6,2 24, ,4 Elaborazione su dati Istat, Aziende agricole ed agriturismo nel Lazio Nel Lazio si contano oltre 98 mila aziende agricole (98.216) orientate alla soddisfazione della domanda proveniente dal mercato di Roma e in parte a quella locale, comprese le attività turistiche. Il grado di innovazione è molto basso e la maggior parte delle imprese sono definite non informatizzate ( %). Sono state prese in considerazione in questa sezione le aziende agricole e zootecniche da chiunque condotte, la cui dimensione media in termini di superficie o di consistenza del bestiame allevato siano uguali o superiori alle soglie minime fissate dall'istat nel rispetto di quanto stabilito dagli attuali regolamenti europei. La costruzione della rappresentazione del dato di questa parte di analisi si basa sulla predisposizione di quattro classi costruite in base alla media e alla mediana della distribuzione percentuale del rapporto fra agriturismo e aziende agricole. L analisi del territorio del Lazio, mostra una maggiore predisposizione all introduzione dell attività agrituristica nei territori periferici, localizzati al confine con le regioni di Toscana, Umbria, Abruzzo e Molise. Fra i 170 comuni dove il valore è significativo, ossia caratterizzati dalla presenza di un agriturismo, il valore medio della distribuzione percentuale è 1,75%, con un valore massimo di 16,67%.

37 36 Figura 3 Rapporto fra agriturismo e aziende agricole nel Lazio Elaborazione propria su dati Istat, 2013 I sei comuni in cui si registra il valore più alto del rapporto sono localizzati in specifiche aree: - nella parte settentrionale della provincia di Viterbo, ci sono i due comuni appartenenti alla classe più alta (Acquapendente e Proceno) e 6 comuni che rilevano un valore superiore alla media e limitrofi ai primi due (Bagnoregio, Bolsena, Castiglione in Teverina, Farnese, Lubriano, San Lorenzo Nuovo); - nella punta estrema della provincia di Rieti, il comune di Accumoli (classe più alta) è situato in prossimità sia di Amatrice, Città Reale e Posta classe superiore alla media) sia di quelli dell altra area della medesima provincia rilevante per concentrazione, Ascrea, Castel di Tora, Varco Sabino e

38 37 Turania; quest ultimo comune rileva il valore massimo del rapporto 6,7%); nell intorno di questo gruppo, sono concentrati altri 5 comuni con valore superiore alla media. La distribuzione a livello regionale evidenzia la tendenza alla concentrazione di più comuni con valori significativi e una diffusione dei comuni appartenenti alle due classi inferiori nel resto del territorio, con eccezione dell isola di Ventotene, nella provincia di Latina. I risultati sono presentati nella Figura Relazione territoriale fra agriturismo e produzioni tipiche La parte conclusiva dell analisi si concentra sulla dinamica localizzativa delle strutture agrituristiche rispetto alle produzioni tipiche. Il primo fenomeno rilevato concerne la presenza/assenza di agriturismo nei comuni, dove esistono o sono rilevanti le produzioni tipiche. La Figura 4 evidenzia come più della metà dei comuni caratterizzati da almeno una produzione tipica, siano sprovvisti di agriturismo (208 comuni- 55%); di questi, in 122 comuni (32,2% sul totale) non sono presenti strutture alberghiere e 50 (13,2% sul totale) sono caratterizzati dall assenza di qualsiasi forma di ricettività. Alcuni di questi comuni sono caratterizzati dalla presenza di diversi prodotti tipici (14 comuni con almeno 5 prodotti). La configurazione territoriale è eterogenea. I quattro comuni limitrofi della parte settentrionale della Tuscia (Gradoli, Latera, Onano e Piansano, di cui il primo con 7 prodotti tipici) sono situati in un area fortemente caratterizzata dalla presenza di agriturismo. I comuni dispersi nel Reatino appaiono prossimi ad altri con rilevante offerta agrituristica, il cui caso più rilevante è Poggio Mirteto nella bassa Sabina 7 prodotti). Lo stesso accade per i comuni situati all estrema periferia sudorientale della regione, nel Frusinate, e per quelli dell entroterra meridionale della provincia di Latina, come Monte San Biagio (8 prodotti). In questi ultimi due casi la presenza di agriturismo è inferiore e meno diffusa rispetto alla Tuscia e alla Sabina. Tendenza opposta si rileva nell entroterra della provincia di Roma, in cui Artena (9 produzioni tipiche) e Segni (8), ma anche Carpineto Romano, Montelanico, Gavignano e Gorga, localizzati in un territorio particolare per conformazione geomorfologica, non sono serviti neppure da strutture agrituristiche localizzate nei comuni prossimi. Discorso a parte per Monterotondo, nell immediato hinterland di Roma, caratterizzato da 24 produzioni tipiche, il valore in assoluto più alto: in questo caso il fattore localizzativo appare dipendere maggiormente dal posizionamento in prossimità di un mercato di consumo di enormi dimensioni; nel suo intorno si registra, comunque, una presenza, seppur residuale, di agriturismo. Di converso, nei 21 comuni con almeno 5 agriturismo, la presenza di prodotti tipici appare significativa: in nessun comune si rileva l assenza di queste produzioni. Il valore minimo di questo sottoinsieme della distribuzione è 3, la media è in linea con la media di tutta la distribuzione 5,7. I due comuni con maggiori produzioni tipiche, Acquapendente (11) e Bolsena (10) hanno rispettivamente 21 e 19 agriturismi. Gli altri due comuni con rilevanza di produzioni tipiche sono grandi comuni: il capoluogo di provincia Viterbo (10 produzioni tipiche e 19 agriturismo) e quello di Regione, Roma (11 produzioni tipiche e 23 agriturismo).

39 38 Figura 4 Comuni senza agriturismo e con prodotti tipici Elaborazione propria, 2014 L ultima parte dell analisi sulla relazione fra agriturismo e produzioni tipiche, condotta attraverso la costruzione di cinque scenari differenti, caratterizzati dal confronto della localizzazione delle strutture agrituristiche in rapporto con diversi sotto-panieri di prodotti tipici; a prescindere dall esigenza di costruire una descrizione rappresentativa dello stato dei prodotti tipici, la scelta di procedere attraverso una modalità diversificata, è un tentativo di approccio di sintesi legato ai processi territoriali. Nel primo caso, con un approccio qualitativo sono stati costruiti, attraverso la collaborazione di testimoni privilegiati (Agenzie del territorio ed associazioni di categorie agricole) tre panieri; nel secondo caso, con un approccio

40 39 quantitativo, dipendente dalla diffusione delle produzioni per comune, si è proceduto alla definizione di altri due panieri. La sintesi della Tabella 4 riporta anche la numerosità dei prodotti per paniere. Tabella 4 Caratteristiche degli scenari SCENARIO PRODOTTI TIPOLOGIA NOTE SCENARIO 1 5 QUALITATIVA SCENARIO 2 9 QUALITATIVA SCENARIO 3 10 QUANTITATIVA PRODOTTI PRESENTI IN 30 COMUNI SCENARIO 4 13 QUALITATIVA SCENARIO 5 21 QUANTITATIVA PRODOTTI PRESENTI IN 10 COMUNI Elaborazione propria, 2014 Il primo scenario (Figura 5) è basato sulla selezione qualitativa di 5 prodotti tipici primariamente rilevanti: Vino, Olio EVO, Pecorino, Ricotta, Carciofo. I primi due presentano un elevata diffusione nei comuni del Lazio, 36,8% e 41,5%. La diffusione degli altri tre è inferiore (7,9% per i primi due e 5,8% per il Carciofo); sono tuttavia prodotti conosciuti, anche attraverso l apposizione del termine romano o romanesco. Il secondo scenario Figura 6), qualitativo, prende in considerazione 9 produzioni; ai 5 del primo paniere ne sono aggiunti altri 4: Kiwi, Castagna, Cece e Nocciola; il grado di diffusione nei comuni di questi è rispettivamente: 7,9%, 20,6%, 6,3% e 10,1%. Il terzo scenario (Figura 7) è simile al secondo sia dal punto di vista dimensionale (numero di prodotti considerati, 10 contro 9) che per tipologia. Esso è costruito, però, con una modalità quantitativa, ossia considerando la diffusione delle produzioni tipiche in almeno 30 comuni. Come è possibile desumere dalla Tabella 5, 7 prodotti del secondo scenario sono i medesimi di quelli del terzo (Vino, Olio EVO, Pecorino, Ricotta, Castagna, Cece, Nocciola). Carciofo e il Kiwi sono sostituiti da prodotti legati alle attività dell allevamento: Carni Suine, Formaggi Caprini e Formaggi Ovini. Tabella 5 Confronto prodotti tipici - Scenari 2 e 3 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 VINO OLIO EXTRAVERGINE D'OLIVA PECORINO RICOTTA CASTAGNA CECE NOCCIOLA CARCIOFO KIWII VINO OLIO EXTRAVERGINE D'OLIVA PECORINO RICOTTA CASTAGNA CECE NOCCIOLA CARNI SUINE FORMAGGI CAPRINI FORMAGGI OVINI Elaborazione propria, 2014

41 40 Tali considerazioni appaiono essere a sostegno della coerenza fra le metodologie qualitative e quantitative. Per le premesse fatte, i nuovi prodotti rilevano una maggiore diffusione per comune: 10,1% per le Carni suine, 12,7% per i Formaggi Caprini e 9,5% per quelli Ovini. Il quarto scenario (Figura 8) considera 13 prodotti: 4 nuovi rispetto al secondo scenario (Ciliegia, Fagiolo, Fragola, Tartufo) che sono diffusi in un numero minore di comuni e presentano una differenziata riconoscibilità legata alle tradizioni enogastronomiche laziali e caratterizzata anche dalla presenza nei diversi territori della regione di eventi, sagre e fiere. La diffusione di questi è 4,8% per la Ciliegia, 6,9% per il Fagiolo, 2,9% per la Fragola, 3,4% per il Tartufo. Infine il quinto scenario (Figura 9) contiene un paniere di 21 prodotti diffusi in almeno 10 comuni della regione; sono introdotti: il Kiwi non presente nella precedente ipotesi quantitativa; Ciliegia, Fagiolo, Fragola e Tartufo inseriti già nella quarta ipotesi; altri completamente nuovi: Formaggi e Latte, Formaggi Vaccini, Broccoletti, Cicerchia, Patate e Peperoni. In media la diffusione per comune dell intero paniere di questi prodotti è di poco inferiore al 10% (9,8%), come si può desumere dalla Tabella 6. Tabella 6 Diffusione comunale dei prodotti tipici Scenario 5 PRODOTTO TIPICO DIFFUSIONE PER COMUNE PRODOTTO TIPICO DIFFUSIONE PER COMUNE VINO 36,8% CICERCHIA 3,7% OLIO EXTRAVERGINE D'OLIVA 41,5% CILIEGIA 4,8% FORMAGGI CAPRINI 12,7% FAGIOLO 6,9% FORMAGGI E LATTE 4,2% FRAGOLA 2,9% FORMAGGI OVINI 9,5% KIWII 6,3% FORMAGGI VACCINI 2,9% NOCCIOLA 10,1% PECORINO 7,9% PATATA 2,6% RICOTTA 7,9% PEPERONE 2,6% BROCCOLETTI 1,1% TARTUFO 3,4% CASTAGNA 7,9% CARNI SUINE 10,1% CECE 20,6% MEDIA 12,5% Elaborazione propria, 2014

42 41 a) Diffusione prodotti tipici b) Agriturismo e totale dei prodotti tipici Figura 5 Scenario 1 Elaborazione propria, 2014 a) Diffusione prodotti tipici b) Agriturismo e totale dei prodotti tipici Figura 6 Scenario 2 Elaborazione propria, 2014

43 42 a) Diffusione prodotti tipici b) Agriturismo e totale dei prodotti tipici Figura 7 Scenario 3 Elaborazione propria, 2014 a) Diffusione prodotti tipici b) Agriturismo e totale dei prodotti tipici Figura 8 Scenario 4 Elaborazione propria, 2014

44 43 a) Diffusione prodotti tipici b) Agriturismo e totale dei prodotti tipici Figura 9 Scenario 5 Elaborazione propria, Ipotesi di aggregazioni territoriali La metodologia condotta, stante i diversi scenari individuati, pone l attenzione sul complesso della dinamica agriturismo-prodotti tipici. Il grado di correlazione a livello territoriale fra i due fenomeni è evidente. La rilevazione statistica, circa pari a 0,4, è stata calcolata sia rispetto alle strutture che al numero di posti letto per comune: uno dei fattori determinanti è la possibilità che gli agriturismo non svolgano la funzione ricettiva. La configurazione territoriale della localizzazione di agriturismo e produzioni tipiche sembra individuare specifiche forme di aggregazione. La possibile traccia di analisi per rendere coerente il discorso fin qui avviato è quella di considerare concentrazioni e localizzazioni produttive, inserendo i modelli agrituristici estesi alla funzionalità territoriale 1. Le ipotesi di aggregazione sono riportate nella Figura 10. La prima aggregazione a nord coincide pressoché con la regione storico-geografica della Tuscia, nella quale possibile rilevare la coesistenza dei due diversi modelli di funzionalità territoriale dell agriturismo: il primo localizzato verso il litorale e il secondo nell entroterra. Nel primo caso, agriturismo del mare, la presenza di produzioni tipiche può assumere la duplice funzione di valore aggiunto del comparto turistico e sostegno alla produzione agricola. Le produzioni più caratterizzanti sono Vino, Olio Extravergine di oliva, fra cui il Canino DOP, e carciofo. Nel secondo caso, il raggruppamento territoriale rilevato si configura come agriturismo tradizionale e maturo in possibile fase di passaggio verso il modello multifunzionale. Le produzioni tipiche sono un fattore localizzativo, tenendo presente anche il ruolo dei due prodotti maggiormente diffusi: Vino e Olio entrambi i due marchi Canino Dop e Tuscia Dop ); ma anche la nocciola e, in misura minore, il pecorino. Questo territorio è caratterizzato dalla presenza di differenziate 1 I modelli si riferiscono alla classificazione riportata nel par. 3, Cfr. Hausmann (2009)

45 44 attrattive turistiche: arte, terme, lago, percorsi religiosi, come Bagnoregio e Bomarzo. E anche il territorio di uno dei quattro itinerari enogastronomici laziali, la Strada del Vino delle Terre Etrusco-romane. Alcuni comuni (Ischia di Castro e Piansano) possono essere presenti in entrambi i raggruppamenti e sembrano configurarsi come un elemento di cerniera fra essi. Questa considerazione, aggiunta alla prossimità della regione Toscana, territorio fecondo per agriturismo e itinerari enogastronomici, induce alla strutturazione di quello che può essere definito un sistema territoriale laddove è rilevante anche la presenza di altre tipologie ricettive. Nella parte centrale e orientale del Lazio, è possibile individuare altre due aggregazioni. La prima, localizzata nell estrema periferia del Reatino che si incunea fra Umbria e Abruzzo, l area del Terminillo, caratterizzata dalla presenza della produzione di Olio Extra Vergine di oliva e di una gamma di produzione diversificata, in cui assumono un carattere distintivo alcuni prodotti, fra cui i formaggi e il tartufo. I comuni in questo caso sono relativamente numerosi, anche a causa della limitata estensione territoriale e delle caratteristiche geomorfologiche di un territorio caratterizzato dall altitudine superiore alla media della regione e rispondono al modello tradizionale di agriturismo. La seconda aggregazione è costituita dalla Sabina che dal basso Reatino giunge fino all area di Roma; gli elementi determinanti sono l aumento della dimensione media delle strutture agrituristiche e la scarsa diffusione di altre strutture ricettive, insieme con la rilevanza di aziende che svolgono esclusivamente o principalmente il servizio di ristorazione. Questa aggregazione, funzionale alla posizione geografica, è caratterizzata da pochi comuni di media ed elevata estensione, con una produzione tipica orientata su un prodotto Olio Sabina DOP - valorizzata anche dall itinerario enogastronomico della Strada dell Olio - ed in misura minore sulla produzione della Ciliegia. L anello periurbano di Roma può essere suddiviso in tre sotto-gruppi; in parte funzionali al turismo culturale-artistico-religioso di Roma; in parte legato direttamente all attività agricola per il soddisfacimento del mercato locale e alla domanda di escursionismo della popolazione dell area metropolitana di Roma, di turismo locale e internazionale. La prima area, estesa a nord-ovest fra il litorale e il sistema lacuale di Bracciano e Martignano composta da comuni litoranei e dell entroterra, dipendenti dalla risorsa marelago e dalla prossimità geografica con il comune di Roma. Una seconda aggregazione è composta dall immediata periferia nordorientale del comune di Roma, in cui situato Monterotondo, il comune con il maggior numero di prodotti tipici in valore assoluto; questa concentrazione è fortemente caratterizzata dall assenza della soluzione della continuità urbana e da una forte differenziazione di prodotti. In questo caso le strutture agrituristiche possono essere considerate in parte tradizionali e in parte multifunzionali. Infine l area dei Castelli, caratterizzata dalla produzione di Vino, fra cui il Cannellino DOCG, Carni come la Porchetta di Ariccia) e Fragole, lungo l itinerario della Strada del Vino dei Castelli Romani e in prossimità del sistema lacuale omonimo. Nella parte meridionale della regione è possibile considerare, infine, tre ulteriori concentrazioni territoriali. La prima, relativamente prossima al comune di Roma, l estesa area che dalla provincia meridionale di Roma (comuni di Anzio e Nettuno), lungo il litorale giunge fino a San Felice Circeo, passando per il comune di Latina; raggruppamento che dal punto di vista funzionale-territoriale può agevolmente essere riconducibile al modello agriturismo del mare e caratterizzata da una discreta gamma di produzioni tipiche, come il Kiwi di Latina. Lungo il litorale meridionale della regione, l altra aggregazione costituisce un sistema territoriale a vocazione balneare con inspessite relazioni con l entroterra, in particolare per l offerta ricettiva agrituristica, intorno ai comuni di Gaeta, Fondi, Sperlonga e Itri. Il modello di agriturismo del mare in questo caso mostra una forte vivacità legato a specifiche produzioni tipiche, anche

46 45 di dimensione rilevante come quella del Vino e dei Formaggi bovini. L ultima aggregazione differente dalle precedenti e di dimensioni minori: è localizzata nella parte interna e orientale della regione, al confine con la Regione Molise, nella Val Comino del Frusinate. Figura 10 Ipotesi di aggregazione territoriale Elaborazione propria, Considerazioni conclusive La reciprocità fra filiera agricola dei prodotti tipici e agriturismo è un fattore strategico del modello di sviluppo turistico al fine di rendere distintiva l immagine del territorio, la sua individuazione ed il suo riconoscimento. Il processo di aggregazione di un territorio partendo da queste caratteristiche è un potenziale strumento di competitività dell economia locale. In particolare, l agriturismo sembra

47 46 rappresentare la forma di fruizione che garantisce l esclusività e la tipicità del prodotto tipico. La valorizzazione sinergica di filiera enogastronomica, sistema di accoglienza e specifiche località è alla base della promozione turistica, partendo dai quattro itinerari enogastronomici, con l obiettivo della creazione di un sistema territoriale identitario, fondato sull agricoltura e caratterizzato dall integrazione del turismo nell economia locale sostegno all attività agricola, strumenti di promozione, infrastrutture, finanza e credito). Situazione che appare potenzialmente in atto nel caso della Tuscia ed in modo minore nella Sabina e nell area litoranea meridionale. Un ulteriore spunto di riflessione, quindi, che questo approccio vuole offrire è la maggiore consapevolezza del carattere funzionale delle strutture agrituristiche ai fini della valorizzazione del potenziale sistemico di un territorio. In questo senso l ampliamento delle attività dell agriturismo verso forme multifunzionali può essere il presupposto di un ulteriore crescita in termini moltiplicativi degli impatti del turismo sul territorio. Si modifica la relazione territorio e filiera produttiva (agroalimentare-turismo), attraverso l evoluzione dell agriturismo: ) estensione, l agriturismo offre anche la vendita avvalendosi delle aziende limitrofe; 2) diversificazione, l agriturismo offre attività turistiche specifiche, altre attività accessorie fattorie didattiche) ed attività di vendita di prodotti artigianali e di servizi (sportive e wellness). La valorizzazione del prodotto culturale nella sua più ampia accezione (arte, storia, natura, mare, montagna, terme) è turismo made in Italy, che significa valore aggiunto turistico e indotto, in conseguenza della sinergia con la filiera agroalimentare (made in Italy dei prodotti tipici). Esso può rappresentare un importante fattore di successo nella sfida competitiva: uno sviluppo locale turistico che dipende dall integrazione del settore con il resto dell economia. Per comprendere la relazione fra sviluppo locale, sostenibilità del turismo rurale e sistema dell accoglienza in questo percorso di sviluppo locale, necessario incentrare il sistema territoriale sull agriturismo in senso globale e sull interazione fra la ruralità e la tipicità e le differenti combinazioni fra fattori chiave: l agriturismo visto non solo come forma di offerta coerente con un turismo rurale, ma come una visione nuova del prodotto turistico. Bibliografia Amin A. (1998), Una prospettiva neo-istituzionalista dello sviluppo locale, in Sviluppo locale, vol.v, n.8. Arroyo C.G., Carla Barbieri C., Rozier Rich S. (2013), Defining agritourism: A comparative study of stakeholders perceptions in Missouri and North Carolina, Tourism Management, n e 47. Brogna M. (2009), L aggregazione del territorio per lo sviluppo turistico, in Celant A., Ferri M.A. (a cura di), L Italia. Il declino economico e la forza del turismo. Fattori di vulnerabilità e potenziale competitivo di un settore strategico, Marchesi, Roma. Butler R.W. (2000), Tourism natural resources and remote areas in APDR Tourism sustainability and territorial organization, Summer Institute of the European Regional Science Association. Butler R.W., Pearce D.G. (1999), Contemporary issues in tourism development, Routledge Advance in Tourism, Londra. Celant A., Ferri M.A. (2009) a cura di, L Italia. Il declino economico e la forza del turismo.fattori di vulnerabilità e potenziale competitivo di un settore strategico, Marchesi, Roma. Celant A. a cura di (2001), Sviluppo rurale e agriturismo di qualità nel mezzogiorno, Patron, Bologna. Celant A. (1999), Gli apporti del turismo e il loro contributo alla formazione degli squilibri territoriali in Italia, in Colantoni M. (a cura di), Turismo: una tappa per la ricerca, Patron, Bologna.

48 47 Dallari F. (2007), Distretti turistici tra sviluppo locale e cooperazione interregionale, in Bencardino F., Prezioso M., Geografia del turismo, McGraw-Hill, Milano. Dallari F. (2006), Il turismo per lo sviluppo locale, in Dallari F., Mariotti A. (a cura di), Turismo. Fra lo sviluppo locale e cooperazione interregionale, Patron, Bologna. Dallari F. (2005), L'iconografia tra pianificazione paesaggistica e governo del territorio, in Contro il degrado del paesaggio verso il governo della complessità territoriale, Alinea, Firenze. Dallari F., Grandi S. (2005), Economia e Geografia del Turismo. L occasione dei GIS, Patron, Bologna. Dallari F. (2004), I sistemi locali di offerta turistica e le politiche di sviluppo locale, in GRANTUR, Turismo e crescita produttiva: fattori locali e competitività del territorio, ROMA, GRANTUR. Dallari F. (2004), Sviluppo e ricomposizione territoriale: sistemi locali e turismo, in Savelli A., Turismo, territorio, identità. Ricerche ed esperienze nell area mediterranea, Franco Angeli, Milano. Dallen T.J., Boyd Stephen W. (2007), Heritage e turismo (ed. italiana a cura di Bonadei R.), Hoepli, Milano. Dredge D., Jenkins J. (2005), Destination place identity and regional tourism policy, Tourism Geographies 5(4). Fleischer A., Tchetchick A. (2005), Does rural tourism benefit from agriculture?, Tourism Management 26. Hall C. M., Page S.J. (2002), The geography of tourism and recreation: enviroment, place and space, Routledge, Londra. Hausmann C. (2009), L agriturismo, in Celant A., Ferri M.A. (a cura di), L Italia. Il declino economico e la forza del turismo. Fattori di vulnerabilità e potenziale competitivo di un settore strategico, Marchesi, Roma. Hausmann C. (2009), Prodotti tipici e qualità del territorio, in Celant A., Ferri M.A. (a cura di), L Italia. Il declino economico e la forza del turismo. Fattori di vulnerabilità e potenziale competitivo di un settore strategico, Marchesi, Roma. Hausmann C., Di Napoli R., (a cura di) (2001), Lo sviluppo rurale. Turismo rurale e, agriturismo prodotti agroalimentari, Inea, Quaderno informativo n.4, II edizione aggiornata. Ioannides D., Debbage K.G. (1998), The Economic Geography of the tourist industry. A supply-side Analysis, Routledge, Londra-New York. Lew A., Hall M.C. (a cura di) (1998), Sustainable tourism: a geographical perspective, Logman, New York. Lozato-Giotart J.P. (2007), Geografia del turismo: dallo spazio visitato allo spazio consumato (edizione italiana a cura di Fiorella Dallari), Franco Angeli, Milano. Mill R.C., Morrison A.M. (1998), The Tourism system: an introductory text 3rd, ed. Kendall and Hunt, Dubuqe- Iowa. Ohe Y, Kurihara S. (2014), The Coastal Community Perception on the Socio-Economic Impacts of Agro- Tourism Activities in Coastal Villages in Malaysia, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Paolini D. (2009), Turismo ed enogastronomia, in Celant A., Ferri M.A. (a cura di), L Italia. Il declino economico e la forza del turismo. Fattori di vulnerabilità e potenziale competitivo di un settore strategico, Marchesi, Roma. Phillip S., Hunter C., Blackstock K. (2010), A typology for defining agritourism, Tourism Management 31,

49 48 Pollice F. (2009), Le risorse competitive del territorio, in Celant A., Ferri M.A. (a cura di), L Italia. Il declino economico e la forza del turismo. Fattori di vulnerabilità e potenziale competitivo di un settore strategico, Marchesi, Roma. Pollice F. (2002), Territori del turismo: una lettura geografica delle politiche del turismo, Franco Angeli. Milano. Rocca G. (2000), Turismo, territorio e sviluppo sostenibile: itinerari metodologici e casi studio, Ecig, Genova. Salone C. (2005), Politiche territoriali. L azione collettiva nella dimensione territoriale, Utet, Torino. Sims R. (2009), Food, place and authenticity: local food and the sustainable tourism experience, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17 (3). Smith M.K. (2003), Issues in cultural tourism studies, Routledge, Londra-New York. Smith S.L.J.(1989), Tourism analysis. A handbook- 2nd edition, Logman, Edinburgo. Smith S.L.J. (1988), Defining Tourism: A Supply side View, Annals of Tourism Reserach, n.25. De Noronha Vaz T., Nijkamp P., Rastoin J.L. (2012), Traditional food production and rural sustainable development. A European Challenge, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Telfer Wall (1996), Linkage between tourism and food production, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp , 1996 Valentino P. A. (2003), Le trame del territorio: politiche di sviluppo dei sistemi territoriali e distretti culturali, Sperling & Kupfer, Milano. Wahab S., Pigram J.J. (a cura di) (1997.), Tourism development and growth, the challenge of sustainability, Routledge Londra-New York. Williams S. (1998), Tourism geography, Routledge, Londra-New York.

50 49 ALESSIO SIDOTI La partecipazione locale nella gestione degli impatti del turismo come strumento digovernance per lo sviluppo del turismo sostenibile Università di Santiago de Compostela e Roma Tor Vergata Abstract Il prodotto turistico culturale ha sperimentato negli ultimi anni una crescita costante che attraverso la promozione del patrimonio culturale ha contribuito a definire l' importanza dell'esperienza emotiva legata al viaggio, e la sua centralità nella soddisfazione del turista. La comunità locale assume un ruolo strategico nello sviluppo del turismo, diventando nucleo ed oggetto dell'esperienza turistica. Molti studi hanno sviluppato modelli per analizzare l'impatto del turismo sulla comunità (Doxey, 1975, Ap, 1992, Choi e Sirakaya, 2006), concentrandosi inizialmente sugli aspetti economici, risultato di una percezione del turismo quale industria di servizi legata al raggiungimento del profitto. In seguito, parallelamente alla consapevolezza dell'eccessivo utilizzo di risorse ambientali e culturali e della necessità dell'industria turistica di svilupparsi sulla promozione delle stesse (Hall, 2000), si sono sviluppati nuovi filoni di ricerca legati agli impatti relativi a tali dimensioni. Solo negli ultimi venti anni, con la diffusione del concetto di sviluppo sostenibile, sono andati diffondendosi approcci alla ricerca turistica capaci di trasformare un paradigma fondato su presupposti ideologici in azioni operative mirate al raggiungimento degli obiettivi su cui lo stesso concetto si sviluppa e trova giustificazione (Murphy and Murphy, 2004). Appare necessario dunque ridisegnare le direzioni degli studi legati alla valutazione degli impatti del turismo, superando la concezione per cui il beneficio o il costo associato all'impatto sia misurabile attraverso il livello di percezione del residente e la sua propensione ad offrire supporto allo sviluppo del turismo. Il sostegno dei residenti allo sviluppo del turismo è infatti positivamente correlato con una positiva percezione degli impatti del turismo (Vargas Sanchez et al., 2009). La vasta letteratura sugli impatti ha evidenziato l'eterogeneità delle percezioni di impatti (Gursoy e Rutherford, 2004) e la presenza di fattori predittivi, definiti intrinseci ed estrinseci (Lankford e Howard, 1994). Pochi studi hanno esaminato il concetto di partecipazione dei cittadini alla pianificazione del turismo e la sua influenza nel plasmare la percezione degli impatti del turismo, o meglio nel giudicare ed indirizzare la gestione dell'impatto stesso (Yon, 1998, Choi e Sirakaya). Adottando l'approccio del tourism community approach (Murphy, 1985), è necessario esaminare il ruolo che la partecipazione riveste in termini di percezione e di sostegno allo sviluppo del turismo. In tal senso è necessario considerare il concetto di partecipazione locale nella pianificazione del turismo nell'ambito delle caratteristiche che definiscono la destinazione: in primis esaminando la governance, poi individuando le diverse forme di partecipazione ed i limiti tecnico strutturali ad essa collegati (Tosun, 2006), con l'obiettivo di trasformare gli input della comunità in azioni effettive di governance. Appare necessario costruire un modello operativo che ipotizzi l'influenza della variabile partecipazione sulla formazione della percezione positiva degli impatti, che a sua volta produca il sostegno per lo sviluppo turistico. In termini più generali è necessario estendere la partecipazione e incoraggiare i residenti a sostenere la creazione di una città ospitale e coesa, offrendo input ed informazioni destinate agli attori chiave impegnati nella pianificazione e nella gestione del turismo.

51 50 BIBLIOGRAFIA Ap, J., Residents perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 9 99 ), Choi, H., Sirakaya, E., Measuring residents attitude toward sustainable tourism: development of sustainable tourism attitude scale, Journal of Travel Research, 43 (2005), Doxey, G.V., A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: Methodology and research inferences, Travel and Tourism Research Associations Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings, (1975), Deery M., Jago L, Fredline L., Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda, Tourism Management 33 (2012), Gursoy D., Rutherford D, Host attitudes toward tourism. An improved structural model, Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (2004), Hall C.M., Tourism planning, Prentice Hall, Singapore, Lankford S.V., Howard D.R., Developing a tourism impact scale. Annals of Tourism Research, 21 (1994), Murphy, P.E., Tourism: A Community Approach. London, Murphy, P.E., Murphy A., Strategic management for tourism communities, Channel View, Tosun C., Expected nature of community participation in tourism development, Tourism Management 27 (2006), Vargas-Sanchez A., Porras-Bueno N., Plaza-Mejıa M., Explaining residents' attitude to tourism. Is a universal model possible? Annals of Tourism Research, 38 (2011), Yon Y., Determinants of Urban Residents Perceived Tourism Impacts. A Study on the Williamsburg and Virginia Beach Areas, 1998, Phd dissertation.

52 51 IVELYNA YOVEVA Strategic Networks for Sustainable Tourism Development International University College, Economics and Management Department, Bulgaria Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative approach towards introduction of an up-to-date sustainable development philosophy founded on the principles of combination and balance of common and individual interests on multilateral perspective, i.e. individuals vs. organizations, public groups vs. governmental authorities, industry vs. macroeconomic development, nation states vs. international regional development etc. The optimal implementation of such an approach is imminently dependent on an authentic selfawareness of own identity, values, purposes and motivation for positive contribution to the common wellbeing. The author s arguments are based on the conviction that when more individuals and organizations harness deeper understanding of the mutual benefits within their operations area and undertake collaborative efforts to solve common problem their steadfast long-term development may be secured even in times of social-economic-political-eco-etc. crises and within a dynamically changing environment. Main purpose of current article is the concentration of the research on looking for and applying the principles of consistency, exchange of good collaborative practices and consequently strategic and operational utilization of the synergy effect, systems thinking and the holistic approach. Collaborative efforts would lead to greater effectiveness and optimization that satisfies individual and common interests in multiple environmental dimensions. The study aims to analyze the potential of a new network paradigm for provision of effectively applied strategies within the contemporary sustainable development context. Some good practices within the area of joint development of sustainable strategic networks in tourism industry in Bulgaria are presented. A case study of a culinary and hospitality cluster recently established in the Dobrudzha region is about to demonstrates the strategic network viability and sustainability in a contemporary agricultural geographic context. Key words: sustainability, innovations, network effectiveness, systems thinking, synergy, tourism, culinary arts, hospitality The environment today The sustainable development concept places in its center the long-term environmental positive progress (Brundtland report, 1987). In that period a common saying within the report discussions states the following: A communications gap has kept environmental, population, and development assistance groups apart for too long, preventing us from being aware of our common interest and realizing our combined power. Fortunately, the gap is closing. We now know that what unites us is vastly more important than what divides us. Today contemporary circumstances of many entities are still very far from their practical sustainable advance which should serve as an indicator that sustainable development concept is more indispensable than ever. A core symptom of nowadays society and the overall environment progress is defined by many as being the intensifying dynamics of people, groups and processes. Numerous researchers (Ziemba,2013;

53 52 Karvalics,2008; Bell,1973; Toffler,1980; Roztocki,2009; Webster,2002), practitioners and organizations as European Union, OECD, UN and the World bank see the reason in the statement that current realities are driven by the so called information society, communication technologies, post industrialization, internationalization and globalization processes. In the 8 s Toffler introduces the concept of the third wave civilization where the primary resource is information. ICTs, according to him which are based on the information superhighways and digital networks, determine the future fundamental changes in the economy and society. Machlup 96 ) has been already contributed to the idea about knowledge economy, thus emphasized not only the crucial information role but also its appropriation and utilization in the emerging e-reality. He assumes there are so called information industries such as education, law, media, computer industry, etc. and analyses their impact on socio-economic transformation and development of the economy, thus linking information with economic growth. Drucker(1966) writes about a new phenomena within the organization calling it the knowledge worker concerning people who use their brains more than their backs at the workplace. In other words last several decades together with other concomitant events are influenced more and more by rather intellectual than material based factors. The knowledge management concept (Frand, Jason; Hixon, Carol, 1999; Nonaka, 1995; Smedley, Jo, 2009; Wright, Kirby, 2005) although still under researched today is providing strategic and operational tools for creation, development, sharing and effective utilization of the organizational knowledge and represents a kind of multidisciplinary managerial approach based on the best information usage. Major prerequisite for its right application is the personal knowledge management which stands for the individual skills, abilities and competences for self-management of the personal knowledge which is to be used for common purposes fulfillment. The last highlights the critical importance of the human individual and his/her unique potential to generate sustainable organizational value. During recent years vast prominence was given to the concepts about the soft or hidden power (Stephenson, 2003) which relates to the perceptions about human capital, intellectual capital, social capital, knowledge capital etc. These researches support the idea that intangible nature of knowledge is much more valuable than the tangible or material resources and provides unexpected opportunities for sustainable development in the knowledge economy and information age (Wiederhold, 2013; Khavandkar, 2009; Maddocks, Beaney, 2002; Magrassi, 2002). Numerous authors and scholars nowadays strive to provide adequate methodologies for intellectual capital financial valuation and asset formation thus demonstrating its utmost strategic impact on organizational success. Therefore the following core features of contemporary reality might be brought forward: - Intense dynamics of processes; - Increase of information volume made available by the rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies(ICT); - Increasing significance of knowledge as crucial driver of the socio-economic development; - Increasing significance of human potential to utilize knowledge for the effective achievement of goals, purposes and values fulfillment; - Inherent characteristics of nowadays environment are its multidimensional and complex nature.

54 53 Sustainable development today and beyond The fundamental definition lies in the report of Brundtland commission under the title Our common future This definition states: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore classical sustainable development philosophy is built around the concept of balance between current and future needs. Technology and social organization are perceived as restraining the environmental (namely the ecological one) core ability to meet those needs. Current paper provides a peculiar alternative view on above opinion as it offers effective utilization of contemporary emerging trends for appropriate implementation of the sustainable development strategies within number of perspectives like personal level, formal and non-formal organizations, industry, regional and international development according to the so called network approach. Most of the sustainable development definitions so far are built in reference to the idea that sustainable development should reflect long-term preservation of the ecological environment while a multitude of inherent perspectives with the potential to be sustainably developed have been overlooked and respectively underestimated. Few authors (Paulauskas, 8) refer to sustainability as new quality of life and culture value criticizing the limited perceptivity of sustainability concept as just an ethical issue required by some regional governing bodies(as EU, UN etc). There are some additional researches which are mostly based on the ecological, economic and social aspects on macro-level rather than giving much account to the individual human development/on microand meso-level/ and its crucial intermediary role in the implementation of current and future sustainable development strategies. According to Melamed and Ladd 3) combining human development and environmental objectives are firmly on the agenda for a new set of global priorities after 5. This statement substantiates the fact that it is just this current moment when human development is started being placed in the center of sustainable development context. According to the Monrovia communiqué future sustainable growth vision should be people centered and planet sensitive UN Development Group, 2013). Future MDG goals encompass in other words not only the ecological preservation but also address poverty reduction through human development based on active educational reassurance which has minimal negative impact on resource use. For the pertinent fulfillment of those goals the UN Development Working group foresees organization and accomplishment of relevant partnerships for knowledge and resource transfer. The last are to be exercised for the overall, community and individual sustainable growth. The dynamically changing environment distinguished by new technologies advance, intense market competition, social and political instability, global and regional trends etc. further enforces the necessity of firsthand joint measures for proper new realities adaptation. Therefore it may be said contemporary world stays in front of two extreme options: 1. The continuous lack of on-time appropriate steps to swiftly changing circumstances leads to activity extinction. 2. If fundamental structural changes in the overall environment are perceived as opportunities not threats and appropriate steps towards their utilization are undertaken there s substantial probability the activity not only to survive but to flourish and develop on a sustainable basis. Therefore we may say today we encounter new phenomena of a peculiar culture, where integrating and facilitating the new attitudes of sustainable development into the traditional culture concedes new opportunities and places new challenges (Paulauskas, 2008). Systems thinking and holistic approach towards applied sustainability

55 54 New environmental realities and sustainable development perceptions impose the application of innovative and unexplored approaches as current circumstances are complicating and intensifying. Hence there is necessity of complex solution to the complex global, regional, community and individual problems. Systems thinking stands for a mindset of variety of habits and practices ( within a framework based on the belief that the ingredients or component parts of an entity might be best understood in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems, rather than in isolation. Systems thinking focuses on cyclical rather than linear cause and effect (Bertalanffy, 1976; Hutchins, 1996; Meadows, 2008; Seddon, 2008; Vester, 2007). According to such a perception each object of analysis and management might be accepted as a system on several levels personal, community level, corporate organization, non-profit organization, regional system(tourism industry for example), national system(the nation state), international system(set of international relations) etc. One demonstration of the systems thinking approach may be observed on Fig.1 where the individual system operation is presented through the self-management cycle. The subsystems within the individual systems are as follows: 1. Perceptual system through the five senses which contribute to information accumulation 2. Cognitive system which processes accumulated information in order appropriate decisions to be made 3. Decision-making system which organizes plans, sets goals and makes decision for action. 4. Implementation system which executes and works on the purposes fulfillment. Fig.1.Self-management cycle of a live organism Source: Paulauskas, 2008 As the model of the system development is cyclical and therefore ceaseless the qualitative analysis and appropriate manipulation of systemic objects requires an approach to the whole entity, namely a holistic approach. According to the Meriam-Webster dictionary ( holistic relates to or is concerned with the whole or with the complete systems rather than with the analysis of, treatment of, or dissection into parts. Consequently a system to be best understood and organized it is necessary one to have observation on the entire variety of relations or connections among system s component which matters more than the components themselves. This represents a kind of systemic-structural approach (Bedny, Karwowski, 2007) which gives account simultaneously on the overall entity development and its components specific role for accomplishment of certain progress. According to the holistic approach different systems like physical, biological, chemical, technological, social, economic, mental, regional, linguistic, etc. should be perceived as whole separate entities which interact together in order to form an overall system -environment which is to be sustainably developed. Indeed the changes in certain system might affect another one which should stimulate the coordination of concerned systems thinking in order to avoid the negative development of the overall system-environment.

56 55 According to Bertalanffy(1971) environmental systems are frequently so complex that their behavior is or appears to be "new" or "emergent". In other words it cannot be studied and understood from the properties of the elements alone and it is hard to be predicted on the basis of collected information only. Emergence (Bunge, 2003; Clayton, 2005; Fromm, 2004; Goldstein, 1999) in complex systems is the phenomena how new complex systems and/or patterns arise out of the multiplicity of relatively simple interactions which resembles the living creatures organizational behavior. Some longitudinal sociological research enabled to discover the regularity that self-management structures and efficiency of society is nearing a structure and efficiency of self-management of live organisms Paulauskas, 999). According to Gordon(2010) individuals in the ant colony for example switch tasks in response to changes in the environment and interactions with other ants, i.e. the ant behavior is not just a fixed response to chemical signals. But the complexity of complex biological systems is not what makes living systems unique. The behavior of ant colonies arises from dynamical networks of interaction. The author stands for the idea that the pattern of interaction in complex biological systems is more important than content. Ant colonies perform many different tasks and are about to change tasks if there are changes occurring in the environment. A network approach for sustainable development Networks are collection of links which are combined and influenced by specific rules ( One of the most crucial networking rules is the collaboration for creation. Over time the connections in the network may migrate and relate to other subjects and form a new network structure ( This provides the idea that networks are to be examined within a time frame, in other words they are dynamic, lively and has to be perceived as changing not static objects. Although most of contemporary definitions about networks are related mainly to the network technological dimension the online dictionary states that a network is: arrangement of intersecting horizontal and vertical lines and a group or system of interconnected people or things. Two key network features may be observed in mentioned defections, namely ties or connections and a holistic nature of the networks. The last provides ground for perceiving networks as a peculiar kind of systems which allows the systemic thinking to be applied in their advanced study. According to the University of Twente 3) network analysis focuses on the relationships between people, instead of on characteristics of people themselves. This statement reiterates again the systems thinking philosophy and provides ideas how networks may be analyzed and perceived as complex entities, or systems at a higher level. The same university 3) declares that: Network analysis techniques focus on the communication structure of an organization where the human factor for the network functioning is introduced. Structural features that can be distinguished and analyzed through the use of network analysis techniques are for example the (formal and informal) communication patterns in an organization or the identification of groups within an organization (cliques or functional groups). Also communication-related roles of employees can be determined (e.g., stars, gatekeepers, and isolates). Special attention may be given to specific aspects of communication patterns: communication channels and media used by employees, the relationship between information types and the resulting communication networks, and the amount and possibilities of bottom-up communication. Additional characteristics that could, in principle, be investigated using network analysis techniques are the communication load as perceived by employees, the communication styles used, and the effectiveness of the information flows. ( The role of communication within the network is presented as crucial driver for the network development. On Fig.2 the communication process model diagram demonstrates a circular flow of the information where

57 56 participants are not just senders or recipients but active communicators who actively exchange messages on a two way basis and are at the same time sources and receivers of the messages. A new subject within the network reality emerges, i.e. the communicating actor who appears to be strategic node of the networking system and who behaves as the leading agent of change in the same network. The active interactions between his/her self-awareness, personal knowledge management, skills, competences, values and motivation as well as those interactions related with other network members will lead or not to further positive and sustainable advance. Fig.2. A Transactional Model of Communication Source: Foulger, 2004 A possible approach in achieving sustainability and development places the people of the community (network) in the center of the communication process. This technique also known as the participatory approach utilizes interpersonal communication through community media (Government of Italy, UNESCO, World Bank, IDRC, CTA, 2005). The members of the culture are agents of change in the community and outside it. Technology role then is secondary as people are the development drivers in their social and economic contexts which lead to a major restructuring process (Government of Italy, UNESCO, World Bank, IDRC, CTA, 2005). Communication for social change, referred to as communication for sustainable social change and development, involves the use of variety of communication techniques to address inefficient systems, processes, or modes of production within a specific location that has not incurred major technological advances. Different mediums and approaches are used to help individuals among the targeted society to acquire new knowledge and skills. This will allow communities not only to experience change but to guide it as well (Government of Italy, 2005). Unfortunately the discrepancy between communication goals and real interaction within the network may hinder network effectiveness and the emergence of a new benefit within and across the network. Game theory analysis might be helpful here as it contributes to the understanding of network development because of its ability to differentiate between cooperative intent and strategic reality. It perceives the absence of anyone of the following three conditions as indicators of network collaboration absence: (1) every actor s motivation is common knowledge, 2) legally binding agreements exist among members, and (3) all benefits derived from cooperation are returned to the members in a manner they consider equitable (Ford, E., Wells, R., Bailey, B., 2004). Therefore the consistency between purpose driven information exchange and real actions undertaken represent crucial prerequisite for transformation of the group/organization activities into networked ones and thus providing potential for new system formation.

58 57 The practice of establishment of partnerships(in tourism industry for example), clustering of activities and formal structures, the stakeholder approach, authentic identity awareness on a multiple-level basis for example as an individual, as participator in one or other organization, provide additional and still underresearched opportunities to benefit from the network attachment and develop towards sustainability. According to Ramos(2010) inherent in the network organizations of the future is the disappearing of direct control in its current form. Actually in the network organization appears a kind of mutual control among network participators. Networks are more flexible than hierarchy and may manipulate it. (Stephenson, 2003, There is one research (Wan-Yu Chen; Hui-Ying Hsu; Kuei-Kuei Lai, 2008) that concentrates on the potential of the technological structure of business methods in insurance industry and builds on the holistic network approach which limits the analysis comprehensiveness and does not provide ideas how to reflect the real overall environmental complexity. The network synergy effect As it was implied the sustainable network effectiveness depends on two major factors: 1. Purpose-driven communication among network participators and across number of networks 2. Appropriate interactions within and among the networks concerned with particular sustainable development initiative When those factors are present and operate accordingly, the interaction among participators, systems and networks is about to generate an effect of higher order, namely a synergy effect. Synergy (Fuller, 1975) presents an interaction of two or more forces so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. In the context of organizational behavior (Buchanan & Huczynski, 1997) following the view that a cohesive group is more than the sum of its parts, synergy is the ability of a group to outperform even its best individual member. The synergy or synergistic effect are based on the assumption of mutual learning and influence among network participants (Mekonnen, Dorfman, 2013). Synergy in mentioned studies is defined as working together and is opposed to the so called learning effect which embraces the process of acquisition of skills and information accumulation. The synergy out of applying the holistic networking approach presents qualitatively new positive outcome (added value) emerging out of the effective interaction of the systems/network elements. The synergy phenomena may be observed in numerous natural, technical, organizational etc. systems and is explicitly suitable for analysis of complex objects. When/if communication and/or interaction steps are not undertaken appropriately the positive network synergy effect might absent. Some researchers have suggested that public measures towards joint activities may simply crowd out private resources between community members Cox and Jimenez, 995; Coady, 4; Dercon, ), and that such informal social protection measures are collapsing under increasing stress (Devereux, 2006). Consequently it is necessary all interested in the sustainable development stakeholders to purposefully and collaboratively organize and act on achievement of the network synergistic benefets. There is scarce research on the network synergy effect provided by Nijkamp and Reggiani(1996) with their paper Modelling Network Synergy: Static and Dynamic Aspects and by Xu, Taylor & Pisello 4) within the construction industry. Currently there is no evidence of research on the network synergistic

59 58 effect in the sustainable development context which makes the topic relevant for further profound studies and search for applied implementation. Culinary Arts and Hospitality Cluster, Dobrudzha, Bulgaria The cluster (, in Bulgarian) is organized with the idea of creation of a specialized tourist attraction in the sphere of culinary arts and hospitality in the traditionally agricultural region of Dobrudzha 2, Bulgaria. The cluster establishment is in Dobrich town one of ten biggest Bulgarian cities and major administrative, economic and educational center of country s northeast. The place for centuries has been an inhabited crossroad and today possesses numerous monuments commemorating state foundation by Proto-Bulgarians led by Khan Asparuch, the Slavonic alphabet creation by the brothers Cyril and Methodius, the protection of the homeland during the Ottoman invasion on the Balkans by despot Dobrotitsa. This is the place where Anastas Petrov - the founder of classical ballet school in Bulgaria - was born. Numerous poets, artists and actors were also born here. Dora Gabe, Yordan Yobkov, Ivaylo Petrov, Adriana Budevska are some of those renowned people. It is worth to be noted there is much greater potential for the regional development than just current traditional image as the land of Southern Dobrudzha is former location of some of most ancient European societies, known for their settled lifestyle, stable construction and the art of metal and gold sacredness. The findings of Durankulak lake and Varna necropolis present first Proto-European civilizations which are stated to be 2000 ahead of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures. The extinction of this culture is associated with great natural disaster a universal flood, similar to the one described in the Bible. Archaeological remains of antiquity (IV-III century BC II-IV century AD) and the early Middle Ages (VII-XI centuries AD) have been found on the territory of Dobrich. Old Bulgarian necropolis was found in the city center, most probably out of the Pechenegs devastating invasion depopulating large parts of the region. One of the last strongholds before the fall of Bulgarian kingdom under Ottoman rule the despotism of Dobrotitsa was in this region. Culinary Arts and Hospitality Cluster, Dobrudzha, Bulgaria is established as a non-profit association for private benefit under the designation of Culinary Arts and Hospitality Association(CAHA). CAHA is operating under the project BG161PO C0001 Sustainable Development of Culinary Arts and Hospitality Cluster within the Operational Program Development of the Competitiveness of Bulgarian Economy Association founders and current cluster members are mainly from North- East Bulgaria with experience in the educational, culinary sector and tourism industry. They are: International College Ltd. International Management Institute Association International University College HRC Culinary Academy Bulgaria Ltd. E-Tours Ltd. Ecotel Ltd. Inter Ltd. Accounting House Rayko Tsonchev Profiled School of Tourism and Entrepreneurship- Dobrich AKRISTO Ltd. 2 Dobrudzha is a region on the Balkan Peninsula covering part of the lower Danube plain. To the east it borders the Black Sea, to north and northwest the lower reaches of the Danube, to the south the Valley of Batova River. To the south west Dobrudzha is gradually passing into Ludogorie region. Dobrudzha is divided into Southern Dobrudzha, which is part of Bulgaria and Northern Dobrudzha which is in the Romanian territory/

60 59 Main cluster mission is to support the creation and supply of unique products of the culinary arts in the spirit of Bulgarian tradition and world trends. Main cluster aim is to establish and promote Bulgarian cuisine as unique tourist attraction thus creating strategic prerequisites for development of cultural tourism in Bulgaria. Next step in CAHA activities is the popularization of Dobrudzha region as sustainable tourist destination. CAHA achieves their purposes through number of activities as trainings, specific tourist culinary tours, plans and carries out advertising and marketing promotions, assists in participation of national and international fairs, carries out studies and analyses of the market and consumer demand, the competition and quality improvement opportunities. The organization network serves as valuable coordination agent of numerous enterprises currently on national and in the near future on international level. Within and after the project implementation period ( ) expected results encompass: Development of comprehensive tourist product(culture, nature, ethnography, cuisine) that will enhance regional competitiveness; Improvement of tourist product quality supplied in Dobrudzha destination; Modification and diversification of the region s traditional tourism which will lead to economic development in terms of new jobs opportunities, increased demand and positive cash flow; Accelerated introduction of innovative technologies in the culinary arts field through experience and know-how transfer with foreign partners; Introduction of e-marketing and e-trade(through online booking system, etc); Introduction of company quality standards and certification of tourist activities etc. Region and alternative tourism forms promotion through information sessions etc. Having in mind the above one could analyses the cluster activities as innovative good practice realized in a traditional agricultural region where land fertility is evaluated at the most. The culinary arts and cultural tourism perspectives uniquely tie established tradition with future development. The fact that diverse organizations from different academic and business spheres participate in the network conceded opportunities for effective members interaction, cluster growth and achievement of sustainable synergistic network effect. Following are some recommendations for the future strategic network development in the sustainable tourism context: 1. Joint efforts for procurement of accessible databases by the sustainable network members. 2. For the mutual positive progress continuous collaborative practical efforts should be undertaken so that balanced individual and mutual benefits are epitomized from the sustainability-dynamism relation in network context. 3. The communicating actor agent to be perceived as main driver of the sustainable networking development. 4. Cluster growth could be sustained by the local and national authorities in order to generate not only economic but social effect as well. 5. Cluster management could undertake the so-called stakeholder approach in order synergy to be sustained and emergence law to be observed.

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64 63 ELISA LADDUCA Artists Residencies: When Contemporary Art catalyzes Sustainable Destination Management Account executive at GTA Travel Abstract Artists Residencies are the hospitality formula dedicated to artists communities. Boasting a long tradition that can be dated back to the renowned Parisian Impressionist painters or even to the age of Grand Tour, these creative places are becoming more and more popular throughout the world, shaping themselves into an ample spectrum of different organizations. In this study they are presented as an innovative approach of Destination Management aiming at long term positive results for the locals, the artist residents and the territory that hosts the initiative. This work is the outcome of my previous work experiences and studies. In 2010 I had the chance to work for Civitella Ranieri, American Foundation based in New York City and operating in Umbria. In the medieval castle of Umbertide (Umbria, Italy) every year groups of composers, writers, musicians, artists, academic and intellectuals that have passed the selection and awarded a bursary, come to live together, as temporary residents of the village, and to dedicate themselves to creation. My second experience took place in France where I lived and worked for six months at CAMAC, multidisciplinary art center housed in the old monastery of Marnay -sur- Seine, in the region of Champagne Ardennes. In this tranquil place a multicultural peer community of creative minds gathers far away from the turmoil of everyday life and gives birth to significant interaction with the local community, interpreting the genius loci as raw material for their works. I can personally witness that Artists Residencies are able to trigger revitalizing processes on a territory. This happens without altering its identity, instead by valorizing its nature and peculiarities. The long term positive effects are the results of an intervention that makes citizens proactive participants, and not just passive spectator of all the activities taking place at the center. Based on these considerations, in this study I would like to introduce Artists Residencies as a best practice of sustainable Destination Management. The paper will be articulated as follow: 1) Definition of the Art Scene today - What is identified as Contemporary Art? - Who are the main players? Where does it happen? - What is the relationship between producers and users?

65 64 2) Microeconomic analysis of the Art Market - The Art Market. - Art as investment: safe haven. - Public Art: positive and negative externalities. 3) Artists Residencies - General overview of the hospitality formula: What does differentiate an Artists Residence from a guest s house and from a cultural center? - Varied organizational patterns. - Artists programs and selection processes. - Residencies Networks. - Main Founding Programs. - Case studies. 4) Sustainability, Destination Management and Art - What is sustainability? - What should distinguish Destination Management to be sustainable? - Is Contemporary Public Art sustainable? 5) Artists Residency an innovative model of sustainable Destination Management - Short term effects and long term impacts of the initiative on the territory, on locals and on artists in residence. - Relational Aesthetic: a bottom- down example of Public Art.

66 65 OMERO MARIANI EDEN PRETIOSAE AQUAE EDEN Network, Runner-Up, Aquatic Tourism, 2010 COMUNE DI TERNI - Direzione Sviluppo economico e Aziende Servizi turistici IAT del Ternano Governance EDEN Network Eden network, Aquatic Tourism, is a project of 16 Municipalities of central Italy, who decided to build a new travel destination, besides regional and local boarders. Inspired by the richness of the waters, the two main rivers, the river Nera, in Umbria and the river Velino, in Latium and as much as 4 lakes, Piediluco, Ventina, Lungo and Ripasottile, bordering the waters with the municipalities which have decided to join forces to build a sustainable tourist destination. The project started in 2010 on initiative of the Municipality of Terni, project leader, which began a consultation with the municipalities of the Valnerina Terni, Arrone, Ferentillo, Montefranco and Polino, then extended, step by step, to those of the Latium such as Colli sul Velino, Morro Reatino, Poggio Bustone, Rivodutri, Greccio, Castel Sant Angelo, Contigliano, Cantalice, Cittaducale, Labro, participating in the EU contest, EDEN 2010, aquatic tourism, presenting a project of a system of water, mountains, nature and environment, which have on the richness of waters its uniqueness. This project was national wide awarded with the 2 nd best runner up, and belongs now to the European EDEN Network since 23 rd October 2012, when the project leader Terni, subscribed, in Brussels, the Declaration of Brussels. The pilot project European Destination of Excellence was launched in 2006 by the European Commission, as a means of initiating Community action in support of European tourism, with the aim to draw attention to the value, diversity and shared characteristics of European tourist destination and promote emerging destination where the economic growth objective is pursued in such a way as to ensure the social, cultura and environmental sustainability of tourism. On December 2007, the pilot project was transformed by the Budget Authority to a preparatory action, with the following aims: 1. Enhance visibility of the emerging European tourist destination of excellence especially the lesser known; 2. Create awareness of Europe s tourist diversity and quality; 3. Promote all European countries and regions; 4. Help de-congestion, combat seasonality, rebalance the tourist flows towards the non traditional destination; 5. Award sustainable forms of tourism; 6. Create a platform for the exchange of good practices at European level promote networking between awarded destinations which could persuade other destinations to adopt sustainable tourism development model;

67 66 The European destination, undersigning the Brussels Declaration belong to the EU EDEN Network and agree to collaborate with each other through the dedicated web-portal launched by the European Commission, to exchange experiences and good practices, with the support of the European Commission, through the organization of annual meetings to be held in one of the winning destinations and to provide a solid outcome of the Network actions and provide a conference conclusions after each of the conferences held. Furthermore destinations commit themselves to guarantee a constant exchange of information and knowledge on tourism development programs and research, and to ensure a constant exchange of experiences on the participation in the EDEN project. The destinations will promote support actions for developing areas to create sustainable tourism development and identify the best practice adopted by other destinations At a local level the Municipalities have signed on June 2013 an Agreement to establish a Governance for sustainable tourism policies under the brand of EDEN, nominating a President and a Technical Committee for its management fixing the main principles of the developing strategies. A very first action of the Agreement was the signing in May 2014, the Memorandum of Understanding with the Umbrian Consortium Francesco's Ways, to promote tourism and to encourage the marketing of accommodation facilities along the axis the Franciscan path that runs through the whole destination Eden, Pretiosae Aquae.

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