1 Mobility Services S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y for Urban Sustainability A European project for the City of Tomorrow ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT moses M O B I L I T Y S E R V I C E S F O R U R B A N S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y Bremen, Genoa, London-Southwark, London-Sutton, Palermo, Stockholm, Turin, Wallonia, UI TP
2 moses Contents 1 Greetings from Director Christian Patermann 1 The moses project 2 Greetings from the project partners 3 What is Car-Sharing all about? 5 Bremen 7 London Southwark and Sutton 9 Iniziativa Car-Sharing (Italy) 10 Genoa 11 Palermo 13 Turin 15 Stockholm 17 Walloon Region 19 UITP 21 moses contact details 22 Imprint Published by: Free Hanseatic City of Bremen The Senator fur Building and Environment moses co-ordination Ansgaritorstraße 2 D Bremen supported by the European Commission, DG Research in the 5th Framework Programme City of Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage moses will run for 42 months from May 2001 co-ordinated by the City of Bremen. Cities and towns throughout Europe are seeking for sustainable solutions to the growing environmental and societal problems to which they are confronted. While the resolution of these problems is normally carried out at the local level, the European Union can act in a more global way and support the development of tools and solutions that have the potential to be applied to various local situations. moses aims at developing further and extending the concept of Car-Sharing to all Europe, including the EU candidate countries. A special emphasis will be put on the integration of Car-Sharing into urban planning and development. moses is co-financed by the key action 'City of Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage' which belongs to the research programme on 'Environment and Sustainable Development' of the European Commission (EC). This project is going to define a set of technical and non technical (e.g. financial, regulatory) incentives to foster the diffusion of Car-Sharing. Such incentives should be applicable to the geographical, socio-economic and cultural conditions encountered in the different regions of Europe. A substantial effort will be put on the development of new technologies improving the overall quality of Car-Sharing services. Research will also address issues related to the assessment of the needs of existing and potential Car-Sharing users or of the impact of Car-Sharing on the quality of life in the urban environment. By offering a way to limit the need for using motorised forms of transport (while maintaining the same economic and social standards as of today!) and reducing urban pollution and congestion, the moses project will contribute to achieve the main goals of the EC research programme on environment: helping to safeguard and to improve the quality of life of European citizens. I am convinced the European Commission is right to support such an innovative project whose ultimate objective is to promote sustainable urban mobility. I therefore wish the moses project a very successful outcome! Christian Patermann Director Directorate General Research Directorate I Preserving the ecosystem: Research for the environment Greetings from Director Christian Patermann
3 The moses project Growing car numbers pose a serious threat to the ecological and social quality of our urban environment. The moses project»mobility services for urban sustainability«will help to combat these threats by contributing to urban sustainability strategies through the introduction of flexible Car-Sharing schemes.»car-sharing«schemes, or»car Share Clubs«as they are known in the UK, are the central element of moses. These modern services offer an alternative to the private car in the form of special Car-Sharing fleet vehicles available to members. Car-Sharing reduces the number of vehicles on urban roads and improves the quality of public space making a major contribution to the»city of Tomorrow«. Up to now, Car-Sharing has only taken hold to any degree in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Yet even here, practice falls well short of the potential revealed by research. In Germany, for example, which has the highest Car-Sharing rate in the EU, less than 1% of the potential market has been realised after ten years effort. In October 2000, there were only 43,000 Car-Sharers out of a potential German market of 6 million. For this reason, moses has set itself the ambitious target of achieving 12,000 Car-Sharing users by the end of Car-Sharing is a supplement to public transport, taxis, car rental, walking and cycling. The active involvement of Public Transport operators is a crucial element. Their practical co-operation may include rebates for frequent public transport users, special taxi rates, common information services, integrated smart-card systems and»inter-modal mobility stations«. moses will provide answers to the following key questions: How to increase the role of Car-Sharing under market conditions? How to integrate Car-Sharing into land-use planning and new development? How to involve other transport providers? What are the most significant components and factors of growth for Car-Sharing? moses is a research project designed to explore the prospects for developing and expanding Car-Sharing in reallife locations and conditions across Europe. moses partners will either improve existing services or introduce major new Car-Sharing services. Proposals include technical developments (e.g. the use of latest I+C technologies) and new service features like: Instant-access Open-end booking Information and booking via mobile phone On-street mobility stations Co-operation with public transport Car-Sharing as part of housing and business fleet management concepts Integration of alternatively fuelled cars. The application of modern and customer-related technologies will be developed and piloted, building on the longterm Car-Sharing experience of the City of Bremen. The moses project intends to practically contribute to a more sustainable future. The name of the key action»city of Tomorrow«under which the project is funded is therefore regarded as a challenge for the project team. The project results will be widely disseminated for the benefit of other municipalities. The moses website seminars at various project sites and the»guidebook for Actors«will give other stakeholders access to the moses experience. Hypotheses within moses: What can be achieved by innovative mobility services in less than a decade? In EU cities, about 10% of private cars could be replaced without restrictions to personal mobility if all supporting options are used. Car mileage across the EU could be reduced by billion kilometres annually. This equates to an energy saving of 6-8 million tons of CO2! A more efficient use of urban infrastructure. Demand for city parking space could be reduced by more than 10%. Public transport will win (back) new passengers. Urban life will become more attractive as public space is returned to social use. The negative impacts of traffic will be reduced. Land-use requirements for car parking associated with new developments will be reduced. Local economies will profit. Innovative mobility services, including delivery services, and the change in mobility patterns will support local shopping and service infrastructure. 2
4 3 Bremen Bremen hat das moses Projekt initiiert, um den Car-Sharing Service weiter zu verbessern zum Nutzen für die Kundinnen und Kunden und für unsere Stadt. Car-Sharing leistet als innovatives Serviceunternehmen einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Stadt der Zukunft. In Bremen gibt es bereits sichtbare Erfolge: Car-Sharing Kunden, das heißt 600 Autos weniger auf unseren Straßen. Ich freue mich, dass Bremen seine Erfahrungen mit Freunden in Europa teilen kann und dass Europa uns in der weiteren Entwicklung unterstützen wird! Senatorin Christine Wischer Freie Hansestadt Bremen Genoa Il Car Sharing a Genova. La città di Genova si sviluppa lungo una stretta fascia costiera compresa tra il mare e le montagne e, a causa del suo particolare assetto territoriale, è una città difficile dal punto di vista urbanistico, per la quale la mobilità costituisce un importante problema cui occorre trovare soluzioni efficaci ed innovative. Il servizio di car sharing costituisce uno dei tasselli di un sistema di soluzioni innovative per la mobilità sostenibile che il Comune di Genova sta realizzando. Questo progetto punta soprattutto sull intermodalità e il privilegio al mezzo pubblico. Per questi motivi il car sharing può rappresentare un contributo importante poiché si inserisce nella rete di trasporto genovese come un servizio pubblico integrativo per la mobilità, con caratteristiche importanti per Genova: pur essendo un trasporto pubblico è capillare e soddisfa la domanda individuale; è facilmente integrabile con altri sistemi di trasporto; consente di ridurre la domanda di sosta. Palermo Il forte aumento di traffico motorizzato di passeggeri e merci rappresenta uno dei problemi ambientali della città di Palermo perché produce emissioni inquinanti in atmosfera, alti livelli di rumore e spreco energetico, oltre alla congestione e occupazione degli spazi pubblici. Dal 1998 la legislazione italiana ha fissato il valore limite del benzene a 10 (g/m3; per tale ragione l'amministrazione Comunale ha avviato una politica di promozione del trasporto pubblico, dei mezzi ecologici (GPL, metano, elettrici), e dei sistemi innovativi per la mobilità sostenibile, quali il car-sharing. Il servizio di car-sharing cittadino, denominato CAR SHARING CLUB, è già attivo nella nostra città dal Con il Progetto moses l'amministrazione Comunale si propone l'ambizioso obiettivo di aumentare il numero degli abbonati attraverso l'ampliamento dell'offerta per i cittadini ed i turisti, sia in termini di veicoli, che di infrastrutture disseminate all'interno dell'area urbana. Il Commissario Straordinario Prof. Dott. Guglielmo Serio L'Assessore alla Mobilità e Trafffico Arcangelo Merella Turin Il sistema di Car-Sharing in fase di realizzazione a Torino, che vede come gestore locale la nuova società Car City Club s.r.l. creata con altri azionisti privati, da ATM incaricata della realizzazione e gestione del progetto dalla Città, dovrà da un lato tenere conto delle raccomandazioni di»iniziativa Car-Sharing«volte a perseguire una strategia comune di promozione ed avvio di tale servizio garantendo un certo livello di standardizzazione con conseguente interoperabilità di diversi circuiti. Dall'altro lato, la partecipazione al Progetto Europeo moses e la realizzazione del sistema di Car-Sharing consentirà di sperimentare servizi di mobilità alternativi all'uso dell'auto privata e di confrontare queste esperienze in un contesto europeo. Arch. Luigi Bertoldi Vice Direttore Mobilità Città di Torino
5 London We are thrilled to be the first borough in London one of the most polluted and congested places in Britain to take advantage of this ingenious scheme. Councillor Nick Dolezal London Southwark Portfolio Member for the Environment and Transport Stockholm Stockholm har sedan länge gjort stora satsningar på miljöbilar inom den kommunala fordonsflottan och är stolta att få delta i projektet moses. Införandet av ett smart bokningssystem skulle stimulera en effektivare användning (öka samutnyttjandet) av fordonen vilket i förlängningen kan leda till minskade kostnader och lägre miljöbelastning. Att dessutom söka samarbete med taxi och kollektivtrafik för att anställda enkelt och attraktivt skall kunna välja resesätt efter behov är mycket värdefullt. Dessa erfarenheter kan sedan föras vidare till andra intressenter som privata företag, bostadsrättsföreningar och andra organisationer. Nyttjandet av bilpooler är ett steg i rätt riktning för att erhålla en hållbar utveckling utan att begränsa individens rörlighet. Genom deltagande i europeiska samarbetsprojekt som moses finns goda möjligheter att utbyta erfarenheter och göra gemensamma utvärderingar med andra städer. EU-projektet erbjuder också en möjlighet att öka på hastigheten i den befintliga satsningen i Stockholm. Wallo0n Region Au cours de ces dernières décennies, les besoins en mobilité n ont cessé de croître et de se diversifier. Afin de les satisfaire, l usage de l'automobile s est intensifié, ayant pour effet l'augmentation des nuisances qui y sont liées (congestion, accidents, pollution de l air, etc.). Faire face à une demande croissante en mobilité tout en préservant le bien-être des individus et la qualité de leur environnement représente donc un des enjeux majeurs de notre 21ème siècle. Pour y parvenir, il nous faut modifier les comportements de déplacements afin de garantir une mobilité durable pour tous. Cette approche implique le développement et la mise en place de nouveaux outils pour soutenir et encourager une utilisation accrue des modes de transport plus respectueux de l'environnement. Dans ce cadre, l'implantation d'un service de Car-Sharing sur le territoire de la Région wallonne est crucial, car il est ce chaînon manquant permettant, en complémentarité avec les transports en commun, les taxis, le vélo et la marche, de faire fléchir la pression toujours plus grande de l'automobile sur notre environnement. José DARAS Ministre des Transports, de la Mobilité et de l'energie UITP As flexibility has become the key concept for the 21st century, mobility has replaced transport individual or public. The approach has thus become a global one to provide a customer orientated service to the public. Therefore public and private transport should not always be seen as competitors but should rather complement each other and act as partners. This partnership would answer the need of the citizens for a»comprehensive mobility«. In this context, operators should sell a broad mix of mobility products by building new alliances with actors like Car-Sharing, taxis,... It is important to ensure that each actor brings its core competencies into the partnership to avoid any competition. Operators can then fulfil their main task of»helping the customer to find his way around in an easy and stress free manner«. Baring this in mind, the role of the UITP in the moses project is to increase the awareness of the public transport sector about the possibilities offered by the Car-Sharing systems. Different means will be used to achieve this target: dissemination of information to the members (website, association magazine, working groups,...), organisation of a workshop on Car-Sharing and the publication of an official UITP position on Car-Sharing. Better mobility for all people worldwide Hans Rat International Association of Public Transport (UITP) Secretary General 4 Alf Samuelsson Greetings from the project partners
6 What is Car-Sharing all about? 5 As car numbers continue to rise, the pressure on urban space becomes more and more apparent. So do impacts on the quality of life of our children and the problems experienced by walkers, cyclists and users of Public Transport. Local air quality can be improved by better fuels and propulsion technologies but the congestion associated with increasing car use will remain. An alternative to the costly allocation of yet more space to the private car is to take a big step towards the modern service society. This means using cars and their related infrastructure more efficiently offering even more mobility and flexibility with fewer negative impacts. Car-Sharing offers high-quality, well-maintained vehicles with a choice of types from the small»smart«car for a weekend trip for two, to an estate for a family's shopping needs, up to a van for moving bulky furniture. It also provides an alternative to car ownership for people who do not depend on their own vehicle for daily trips like commuting. Car-Sharing is a pay-as-you-drive system, encouraging people to think more carefully about their choice of modes and alternatives. For example, being aware of the transportation costs can make shopping at local shops more attractive than driving to edge-of-town supermarkets. Each trip taken involves a conscious decision, and surveys show that Car-Sharers use public transport more frequently. Every kilometre not driven results in less traffic, congestion and noise. How Does Car-Sharing Work? Car-Sharing is a specific car-rental system giving access at any time, at decentralised stations. The access is controlled by modern electronic systems. To join a Car-Sharing scheme, users have to show their driving licence, an ID and must agree to abide by the rules of membership. Any new customer receives a personal smart card and pin code (or key fob) to have access to the car. Usually, there is a choice of different tariffs. Mileage costs are combined with a time-based rate. Experience shows that for an annual mileage of 10,000-12,000 kilometres, Car-Sharing is cheaper than owning a car. booking internet booking booking office computerised fleet management [ access via intelligent locker alternative: on board computers nearby locations smart-card opens the car pin code releases immobiliser different car types: from small...
7 How Do You Pick Up a Car-Sharing Vehicle? To book a vehicle of their choice, customers contact their Car-Sharing service by phone or Internet, select a car from the nearest or most convenient Car-Sharing station, specify the date and time they want to pick it up and return it. Access to vehicles is either by key obtained from a secure locker at the Car-Sharing station, or directly via a smart card or key fob. Smart card vehicles have a transponder set in their windscreen and an on-board computer linked via mobile phone to a central booking office. The smart card identifies the member, the computer opens the central locking, and once the correct pin-code has been typed into a dashboard console, the immobiliser is released. The ignition keys are in a slot of the car s glove compartment. Satisfied Car-Sharing Users»Car-venience«is a key word for Car-Sharing services. Easy and reliable booking, proximity of Car-Sharing stations to customers' homes or businesses and a high availability of cars are the basis for satisfied clients. The future will bring even better services, like instant access, openended booking and the ability to return vehicles to a different station from where they were picked up to increase choice and independence. How Does Car-Sharing Help Urban Development? Surveys show that each Car-Sharing vehicle removes between four and ten private cars from the road, winning back public space for public use. Car-Sharing is one of the rare options to win back public space e.g. for social life, landscaping or bicycle racks. When integrated into new developments, Car-Sharing can reduce building costs by removing the need for large, expensive parking areas. 6 Car-Sharing access via smart card pin-code required car-key available... to van reserved parking spaces
8 7 Bremen The City of Bremen is well known for its initiatives in the field of sustainable transport and mobility. As a traditional seaport, transport and accessibility have always been crucial for the urban development of the city's 540,000 inhabitants. Car-Sharing in Bremen started in It has developed into a modern, convenient and reliable service, which in conjunction with Public Transport in many cases offers even more flexibility than the private car. In 2001, there were more than 2,400 clients using the mobility service of the Car-Sharing operator cambio a major partner in the moses project. More than 40 locations allow access to the cars at any time. It is a challenge for the City of Bremen to further develop the technology, service quality and the density of the network of Car-Sharing stations to provide even more reliable, flexible and immediate access to Car-Sharing services. Developments in and for Bremen To further improve the urban environment, new services and technologies will be implemented. As Car-Sharing is a market-based service, the focus will be on»user needs«. Supply also needs to balance demand. The necessary research work will be carried out by the University of Bremen. Booking via mobile phone It is already possible to book Car-Sharing cars by telephone (available 24 hrs) and the internet. The moses project will introduce even more flexible booking by mobile phone (WAP or SMS). Open end booking and instant access Some customers would like to be able to leave open the date and time for returning their Car-Sharing car. Providing this service requires special Car-Sharing locations having several cars and»intelligent locker«systems. The booking software also has to be adapted. The»intelligent locker«informs the client at the station which car is his and allows him to book an»open«return date and time.»intelligent locker«systems with display and voice communication also provide»instant access«to cars without prior booking. Integration with Public Transport The availability of Public Transport season tickets and the electronic car-key is well-known under the brand name»bremer Karte plus AutoCard«. This special offer was first introduced in Further awareness raising measures will be taken in cooperation with the Public Transport operator BSAG, who is a major partner in the moses project. German Rail is planning a co-operation on a nation-wide scale based on the same smart-card system used in Bremen. That nation-wide offer (DB Car-Sharing) will link many services for the benefit of the traveller, offering further incentives for intermodal travel and more independence from the private car. Integration into Urban Development The moses project in Bremen is going to involve further actors to integrate Car-Sharing into both urban regeneration and the planning of new development (e.g.»carreduced«housing). Local retailers and shopkeepers are also seen as potential partners, because Car-Sharers are more rational in their mobility behaviour and more likely to do their shopping in their neighbourhood or in the city centre than in edge-of-town shopping centres.
9 Die Freie Hansestadt Bremen hat sich mit ihren Aktivitäten im Bereich nachhaltiger Mobilität in ganz Europa Anerkennung erworben. Als traditionelle Hafen- und Handelsstadt spielen Erreichbarkeit und Verkehr seit jeher eine besondere Rolle für die Entwicklung der Stadt mit ihren rund Einwohnern. Car-Sharing besteht in Bremen seit Es hat sich zu einem modernen, bequemen und zuverlässigen Service entwickelt, der in Verbindung mit den öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln sogar mehr Flexibilität bieten kann als das private Auto. Im Jahr 2001 nutzten mehr als Kunden die Mobilitätsdienstleistung des Car-Sharing-Anbieters cambio einem wesentlichen Partner im moses Projekt. Mehr als 40 Car-Sharing-Stationen im Stadtgebiet erlauben Zugang zu den Fahrzeugen zu jeder Zeit. Für die Freie Hansestadt Bremen ist es eine Herausforderung, die Technologie, die Dienstleistungsqualität und das Netzwerk der Car-Sharing-Stationen weiter voranzutreiben, um einen noch verlässlicheren, flexibleren und spontaneren Car-Sharing Service zu ermöglichen. Entwicklungen in und für Bremen Um die städtische Umweltsituation weiter zu verbessern, sollen neue Dienstleistungen und Technologien eingeführt werden. Da Car-Sharing eine marktbasierte Dienstleistung ist, bilden die Anforderungen durch die Kunden die Grundlage für die weitere Entwicklung. Angebot und Nachfrage müssen ausgewogen sein. Die Universität Bremen ist verantwortlich für die hiermit verbundenen Forschungsfragen. Buchung per Handy Derzeit ist die Buchung bereits per Telefon und auch per Internet rund um die Uhr möglich. Im moses Projekt wird zusätzlich die noch spontanere Buchung per Handy eingeführt werden (WAP oder SMS). Open-end-Buchung und»instant access«direkter Zugriff Manchmal ist es dem Car-Sharer wichtig, sich nicht auf eine Abgabezeit für das gebuchte Auto festzulegen. Um ein solches Angebot in die Praxis umzusetzen, sind spezielle Car-Sharing-Stationen mit einer größeren Anzahl von Autos und verbesserten Tresoren (»key manager«) notwendig und muss die Buchungssoftware weiterentwickelt werden. Der intelligente Stationscomputer zeigt dem Kunden auf dem Display, welcher Wagen für ihn vorgehalten wird. Der Rückgabezeitpunkt bleibt»offen«. Intelligente Stationscomputer ermöglichen es auch, direkt an der Car-Sharing- Station ein Auto ohne vorherige Buchung zu nutzen. Kooperation mit Bus & Bahn Die Kooperation zwischen den öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln und Car-Sharing ist bereits weitläufig unter dem Markennamen»Bremer Karte plus AutoCard«bekannt. Das Gemeinschaftsangebot von ÖPNV-Dauerkarte und dem elektronischen Autoschlüssel wurde in Bremen bereits 1998 eingeführt. Weitere Informationen und Werbeaktionen werden im Rahmen von moses gemeinsam mit dem moses Partner Bremer Straßenbahn AG (BSAG) erfolgen. Die Deutsche Bahn will in Kooperation mit örtlichen Car- Sharing Unternehmen Car-Sharing für BahnCard-Inhaber anbieten, basierend auf dem selben Smart-Card Zugang wie in Bremen bereits angewandt. Dieses deutschlandweite Angebot (DB Car-Sharing) wird verschiedene Mobilitätsdienstleistungen zum Nutzen der Reisenden verbinden, was auch mehr Unabhängigkeit vom privaten Auto bedeutet. Car-Sharing und Stadtentwicklung Das Bremer moses Projekt wird weitere Akteure einbeziehen, um Car-Sharing sowohl in die Entwicklung neuer Bauvorhaben als auch in die Stadterneuerung zu integrieren (z.b. Autoarme Wohnquartiere). Auch der örtliche Einzelhandel wird als Partner angesehen. Es wird angenommen, dass Car-Sharer mit rationalerem Mobilitätsverhalten weniger die großen Einkaufszentren im Umland anfahren als in Innenstadt oder Nachbarschaft einzukaufen. 8 Bremen
10 9 London-Southwark & Sutton Background Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London, has identified private car congestion as one of the major stumbling blocks to a cleaner and more efficient transport system for the capital. Under the EU ZEUS project, Southwark and Sutton Councils in London have been working for some years to improve alternatives to the private car; including cycling, walking, public transport and clean electric and gas vehicles. However, providing an alternative to ownership in the form of a car club/car-sharing scheme has not happened. Only now, with support from the EU moses project, is this breakthrough being made in the capital. In 2001, through their links with moses, Southwark and Sutton became the first London boroughs to sign up jointly to a Car-Sharing scheme that will save people money, cut congestion and reduce pollution. Sharing Vehicles is»carvenience«carvenience, is the name of a new»hire-by-the-hour«scheme operated by car-hire company Avis. The scheme (officially launched on European Car Free Day on 22 September 2001) is simple. CARvenience members, who pay an annual fee, are issued with a personalized electronic key fob. When they want to use a car, they ring and reserve one. They can book for as long as they need, weeks in advance or in as little as 15 minutes. Members then pick up the car from one of a number of designated parking stations in one of the boroughs. Clever in-car technology lets Avis know the mileage so members don't have to worry about providing details every time. Even fuel is included in the cost. Southwark and Sutton Councils started the scheme by identifying potential parking station sites and working together on a publicity campaign to attract members. Residents and businesses have been consulted every step of the way. Initially, the scheme makes 14 cars available in Sutton and 18 cars at London Bridge in Southwark, from newly approved parking bays with distinctive markings, improved security and lighting. As the scheme develops, these sites will incorporate secure cycle parking, rain-shelters, and telephone/ internet terminals with hot links to the reservation office and help-lines for bus/train timetables and ticket sales. The photographs show a Carveniance car near Tower Bridge and models of proposed on-street and off-street Car- Sharing stations moses in Southwark and Sutton One focus of moses in the two boroughs is to develop common standards so that other parts of London can follow quickly. Most standards are poorly developed in the UK. However, the main focus is to develop a strong connection between Car-Sharing and new residential development that is either car-free, or less car dependent. It seems that many European Car-Sharing schemes have failed to optimise their links to, and influence on, urban development. In terms of land-use, Sutton and Southwark are therefore developing a truly integrated London Car-Sharing scheme that ensures the idea is no longer seen as an»add-on«, but becomes a central part of modern European urban regeneration and city redevelopment. The Car-Sharing initiative is also linked into sub-regional transport forums (SWELTRACK and SELTRANS) which include transport operators and adjoining local municipalities. Besides providing a forum for liaison and dissemination this provides additional financial support for the scheme, the funding being approved annually through Local Transport Plans approved by Transport for London (TfL). A further characteristic of the scheme in London is highlighted by the close working partnership with Sustainable Energy Action (SEA) formerly Southwark Energy Agency. This provides a strong research dimension in the energy saving field as well as links to the Agency's development of green travel plans. London
11 Iniziativa Car-Sharing (Italy) 10 Iniziativa Car-Sharing (ICS) is an Italian consortium of ten cities (Torino, Genova, Venezia, Parma, Brescia, Bologna, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Firenze, Roma) and the Province of Milano devoted to the spread of Car-Sharing. Directly funded by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, ICS helps cities to implement Car-Sharing schemes and coordinate the development of common operational and technological standards and procedures. Membership is free to Municipalities. Funds are restricted to members and subject to the quality of projects and the availability of funds when proposals are submitted. The administrative head office and President of ICS are based in Modena, while the operational head office and Director are in Genoa, at the respective Municipalities. Iniziativa Car-Sharing (ICS) e un'associazione di dieci città italiane (Torino, Genova, Venezia, Parma, Brescia, Bologna, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Firenze, Roma) e la Provincia di Milano preposta alla diffusione del sistema di Car-Sharing. ICS è finanziato direttamente dal Ministero dell'ambiente per fornire assistenza alle città che intendano sviluppare sistemi di car sharing al fine di istituire uno standard nazionale operativo e tecnologico e procedure unificate in una prospettiva unitaria. L'adesione dei Comuni ad ICS è libera e l'accesso ai fondi, riservato agli aderenti, è regolato in base alla qualità dei progetti presentati dalle città ed al tempo di presentazione delle proposte. La sede amministrativa di ICS ed il Presidente sono a Modena mentre la sede operativa ed il Direttore sono a Genova, dislocati presso i rispettivi uffici comunali. Brescia Torino Provincia di Milano Parma Reggio Emilia Venezia Genova Modena Bologna Firenze Italy Roma