Reproductive phenology of Dermochelys coriacea, Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas in Suriname and French Guiana

Dimensione: px
Iniziare la visualizzazioe della pagina:

Download "Reproductive phenology of Dermochelys coriacea, Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas in Suriname and French Guiana"

Transcript

1 Università degli Studi di Padova Facoltà di Scienze MM.FF.NN. Laurea Magistrale in Biologia Evoluzionistica Reproductive phenology of Dermochelys coriacea, Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas in Suriname and French Guiana Relatori: Marc Girondot, Université de Paris Sud XI, Laboratoire d'ecologie, Systématique et Evolution Lorenzo Zane, Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Biologia A.Vallisneri Laureanda: Anna Rizzo Anno Accademico: 2010/2011

2 2

3 Table of contents INTRODUCTION... 5 SEA TURTLES... 5 EVOLUTION AND PHYLOGENY... 5 BIOLOGY OF SEA TURTLES... 7 DISTRIBUTION AND LIFE HISTORY CONSERVATION AND THREATS FRENCH GUIANA AND SURINAME ROOKERY SEA TURTLE SPECIES NESTING IN FRENCH GUIANA AND SURINAME STATISTICAL METHODS FOR POPULATIONS ESTIMATION MARINE TURTLES AT CLIMATE CHANGE TIMING OF REPRODUCTION AIMS OF THE RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODS NESTING COUNTS DATA COLLECTION GIRONDOT 2010 NESTING SEASON MODEL SEASON PARAMETERS ESTIMATION DESCRIBING THE SOFTWARE NESTING COUNTS ANALYSIS BUILDING DATABASE NESTING SEASON FIT PHENOLOGY ANALYSIS SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES (SST) NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION (NAO) GENERAL LINEAR MODEL (GLM) IMPLEMENTATION IMPROVING THE MODEL PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION RESULTS NESTING COUNTS ANALYSIS NESTING TRENDS PHENOLOGY ANALYSIS CLIMATE FACTORS DATA (SST, NAO) GLM MODELS IMPROVING THE MODEL DISCUSSION TURTLE NESTING PHENOLOGY AT GLOBAL WARMING INTRASEASONAL NESTING PERIODICITIES SUMMARY (ITALIANO) BIBLIOGRAPHY

4 4

5 Sea turtles Evolution and Phylogeny Introduction Turtles (Class Reptilia, order Testudines) made their first appearance on fossil record some 200 million years ago, during the lower Jurassic, while fully marine forms were thought to have made their first appearance by 150 million years ago (Bowen et al. 1993b). A new first fossil sea turtle record, dating back to 220- million- years ago was reported from south western China in 2008 (Alroy et al. 2008), but it does not belong to the radiation leading to current species. The oldest fossil of this sea turtle radiation dates back to 110 million years, to the early Cretaceous (Hirayama 1998). The seven species of sea turtles present nowadays, representing the two families of Cheloniidae and Dermochelyidae grouped into the superfamily Chelonioidea, are the only living members from the marine radiation of the suborder Cryptodira, and constitute a monophyletic group. The extent Dermochelyidae only contains the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, while Cheloniidae includes six species classified into five genera: the loggerhead (Caretta caretta), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), Kemp s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtle, constituting the tribe Carettini; green (Chelonia mydas) and flatback (Natator depressus) turtle, the tribe Chelonini. The existence of an eighth species, the black turtle or East Pacific green turtle (Chelonia agassizii), has been a matter of debate due to conflicting morphometric and genetic data. It is now generally accepted to be a population or a subspecies of Chelonia mydas. The phylogeny of the group rests on morphological features, fossil evidence and molecular data. Elderly molecular analysis were principally based on cytochrome b (Bowen et al. 1993b) and control region mitochondrial DNA, and ND4- LEU trna (Dutton 1995). Recently, given the recognized problems in relying solely on mtdna, both mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S) and nuclear DNA markers (BDNF, Cmos, R35, Rag1, Rag2), as well as microsatellite loci, were taken into account (Naro- Maciel et al. 2008). Hence, perspectives on several other conflicting hypotheses over general and tribal affinities, as well as species boundaries, have been given new evidence. Among them, the widely recognized distant position of Dermochelys coriacea relative to all other species, the sister- taxon relationship between flatback and green turtle, and the close affiliation between ridleys (Lepidochelys genus) and the loggerhead turtle. Regarding species boundaries, there is general agreement about grouping L. kempi and L. olivacea as a sister group, while paraphyly of the green turtle seems to be more questionable. Actually, a deep split between Atlantic and Pacific green turtle does exist, with a divergence estimated to have started about 7 million years ago, predating other vicariant events such as the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (3-3,5 mya), and following the closure of the Tethys Sea (14-5

6 18 mya), an event preventing the mixing between many tropical marine species of the Atlantic and Indo- Pacific. Moreover, the cooling of southern ocean temperatures from the mid to late Miocene (from mya to about 6 mya) could have been at the origin of a split due to cold waters blocking dispersal via southern routes at the tips of South America and South Africa. However, as microsatellite and mtdna phylogeographic studies support evidence for recent linkages between green turtles from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific, it is generally accepted that limited gene flows prevents Atlantic and Pacific Green turtles lineages from being considered separated species (Naro- Maciel et al. 2008). Hence, general agreement has been reached about considering black turtle as a melanistic form of C. mydas, separated only at a population level in the Pacific (Dutton 1995). A summary of phylogenetic relationships among sea turtle species is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Phylogenetic relationships among sea turtle species (Naro- Maciel et al. 2008). 6

7 Biology of sea turtles Figure 2. Sea turtle skeleton. Source: seaturtle.com. Like other Cryptodira, sea turtles are characterized by a peculiar closure of their jaws, obtained by contracting muscles over a cartilage on the otic chamber. Moreover, the head is retracted in a vertical plane and assumes an S- shape between the shoulder girdles (Meylan and Meylan 1999). Compared with other Cryptodira, living sea turtles have a reduced ability to retract their head in the carapace, but they are conferred additional protection by a thick and nearly complete skull roofing. Sea turtles have horny keratin beaks, highly variable shaped among species due to specific food habits: inward pointed in hawksbill, adapted to beat off pieces of sponges; serrated in green turtle, to cut sea grass; sharp both on bottom and top for leatherback, to successfully slice jellyfish; large and thick in loggerhead and ridleys, to break hard shells like the ones of clams and crabs; generalized for flatback, to feed on both soft and hard shelled animals. Marine turtles are considered highly derived morphologically, and developed several adaptations for sea life, common to all species. In comparison with other turtles, their carapace presents a reduced amount of bone, probably an adaptation to gain flexibility when subjected to high water pressure (Spotila 2004). Secondly, the paddle- shaped limbs, in which all movable articulations between the distal bony elements are lost and three or four digits of the hand are markedly elongated. An enlarged shoulder girdle with a markedly elongated coracoid serves as attachment site for the well- developed pectoral muscles that are used for swimming. They are also streamlined to various degrees, which improves their hydrodynamic efficiency. Turtles use their flipper- like limbs simultaneously sweeping front limbs through the water, with a movement quite similar to the one of birds wings. The front flippers move up and out and then 7

8 down and in together in a power stroke that provides propulsion forward and up or down depending upon how the flippers are oriented. The turtles glide forward by momentum as they start to move their flippers, and turn by changing the amount of sweep of one of the front flippers and by rudder- like actions by the hind flippers. Sea turtles are deep divers, and hence they evolved a physiology more similar to the ones of living mammals than other reptiles. A typical sea turtle spends 95 per cent of its time underwater and not more than one hour a day, cumulatively, at the surface. It normally spends minutes at a time underwater searching for food, but it can resist without breathing up to 45 minutes. Sea turtles can reach quite deep dive, with leatherbacks retaining the primate, reaching up to 1250 m depth (Houghton 2008). Sea turtles can quickly empty and refill their lungs with just one or few breaths, because their air passages are reinforced with cartilage and surrounded by smooth muscles. During deep dives their lungs collapse and the blood flow to them is restricted; air is left just in the air passages, where there are no blood vessels. Another adaptation to marine life is the presence of wide salt glands behind each eye. These are lacrimal glands remarkably enlarged and modified in order to remove excess salt from body fluids. They both produce a thick, clear, salty mucous which lubrificates the eye during nesting process on land and excrete excess salt. Moreover, sea turtles esophagus is adapted to eliminate salt water ingested with food, by expelling the excess water out of the mouth with muscular contraction. There has been much debate on whether marine turtles were hot or cold- blooded. Actually turtles, particularly leatherbacks, can withstand quite cold water temperatures. Recently it was suggested that they could be homeotherms, due to the difference between their internal temperature and that of the water, which ranges from the 1,2 4,3 C of tropical seas up to the 8,2 C of northern Atlantic waters (James and Mrosovsky 2004, Southwood et al. 2008). Currently, recent observations have shown that turtles rely on heat generated by their diving activity, retained by their thick shell with a layer of fat, with still a low metabolic rate (Bostrom et al. 2010). This partial endothermy seems to increase with the size, along with increasing body volume vs body surface ratio. This pattern would explain quite well some peculiar turtle habits, like basking on the water surface for a long time with the carapace exposed to the sun, in order to gain warmth. Moreover, turtles of northern latitudes, as the winter occurs, are often affected by what is called cold stunning : when temperatures fall to about 7-10 C, they get too cold to swim and dive, and just float on the surface. Sea turtles are oviparous reptiles. They are iteroparous, nesting on land more than once during the reproductive season, often not in consecutive years. The male developed a longer tail in which the penis is located and is inserted into female s cloaca during copulation. Females are receptive to mating only during the month before the nesting season and the twelve hours after laying their clutch of eggs. Egg maturation, and hence duration of interesting period, is highly influenced by temperature 8

9 (Sato et al. 1998, Hays et al. 2002). Sex of the offspring is determined by temperature during the middle third of embryo development (Yntema and Mrosovsky 1982, Desvages et al. 1993). Pivotal temperature defined as theoretical temperature that produces 50% of each sex - is highly variable, on both a species- specific and population- specific basin, and ranges from 28.2 and 30.5 C (Mrosovsky 1994, Chevalier et al. 1999, Godfrey and Mrosovsky 2006). 9

10 Distribution and life history Sea turtles are observed on most ocean basins, from the northern and southern limits of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans to the Tropics and into the Mediterranean Sea. While leatherbacks seem to be the most northern spread, foraging into colder and even polar waters, hawksbills are known as the most tropical ones. All the species are cosmopolitan in their distribution, except for Kemp s ridley and flatback turtles. While the former is limited to the waters between the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern United States coast, with some individuals occasionally extending as far as the United Kingdom coast and Western Europe, the flatback is endemic only on the Australian continental shelf. General distribution of sea turtle species is illustrated in Figure 3. Figure 3. Overall distribution of sea turtles on a global basin. Source: Defenders of wildlife, A generalized history model (Meylan and Meylan 1999) developed with data from the green turtle, and elaborated by other authors, provides a framework to define the life history of all the species of sea turtles. Although each species diverge from the model in significant ways, they share some common aspects, regarding the seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitats, which explain much of the observed movements and migrations. After oviposition of clutches in large holes dug in sand beaches, young hatchlings emerge during night- time after a period which can last from 45 days with warmer sand temperatures to up to days for cooler ones (Spotila 2004). Upon leaving the nesting beach hatchlings begin a pelagic phase that lasts for several years, a period known as the lost years of sea turtles biology, whose duration widely varies among species and populations. The only exception to this pattern seems to be the flatback, which remains in coastal waters and lacks a pelagic phase (Hamann et al. 2011). 10

11 Figure 4. Green turtle hatchlings heading for the sea. Source: There are still great uncertainties on these early pelagic phase routes; we have a good knowledge about some species, like loggerhead, while there is little or no knowledge for others, like leatherback and ridleys. Research studies suggest that hatchlings spend the first days of their life swimming out to sea and feeding opportunistically on ctenophores and crustacean larval stages. They are often found in association with weed lines or drift lines existing near frontal boundaries of major currents. When they are far offshore, out of the reach of coastal fish and birds predators, they continue to head out into the open ocean and are carried by ocean currents to converging areas, where they find their foraging grounds, like drifting islands of sea weeds, where they feed upon a huge variety of plants, fish larvae, ctenophores, jellyfish, barnacles, crabs and shrimps, as well as insects from nearby land. After the initial lost years, most species of juvenile sea turtles move out of the open ocean and re- enter coastal waters. They occupy areas called developmental habitats where immature sea turtles commonly occur but where adults are rarely seen. They use mostly costal feeding grounds where they grow to adult size, entering and departing at predictable sizes. The juvenile turtles have a lower growth rate in respect to hatchlings, also due to less available food supply, and switch to their adult feeding habits. Loggerhead and Kemp s ridley begin to eat shellfish and crabs; green turtles turn to algae or seagrass, hawksbill to sponges and sea cucumbers, sea anemones and molluscs. Age of maturity occurs between 15 to 50 years or more, depending on the species and geographical area (Meylan and Meylan 1999, Stewart et al. 2007). Adult turtles spend most of their life inside foraging grounds. These can be fixed in space, like seagrass beds, or transitory, such as ocean areas with seasonal blooms of jellyfish or benthic invertebrates. Sexual maturity makes adults return to nesting grounds. During the reproductive season, both males and females swim up to waters surrounding nesting beaches, where they may remain up to several months. Males begin the migrations first, reaching the mating grounds and waiting for the females to appear. Figure 5. Green turtles mating, Malaysia. Source: 11

12 Mating occurs along the migratory corridor, at courtship or breeding stations, and in the proximity of a nesting beach, the longshore waters called internesting habitat. Reproductive habits of sea turtles are shared by different species. Females usually nest more than once during a single reproductive season, with one or more year internesting intervals which are specie- specific, during which turtles couple and forage (Fossette et al. 2008b, Casey et al. 2010). Others species- specific differences occur in parameters such as nesting habitat preferences, nesting strategy (aggregated or solitary), size at first reproduction, average clutch size, details of nest size and construction. Nesting behaviour, however, is highly conserved. Typically, solitary females enter nesting beaches during night time, providing any source of disturbance is absent. The only divergent reproductive behaviour is the one frequently observed in Kemp s and olive ridleys, called mass arrivals or arribadas. When an arribada occurs, huge aggregation of thousands of females gathers on the beach for nesting over a period of a few days. Nesting turtles crawl up the beach for a few minutes, until finding the right spot to dig the nest. After preparing the ground, clearing away any vegetation or debris and digging a body pit more- less of their body size, they start digging the nest with only the hind flippers. When a deep, flask- shaped hole is created, they drop the eggs. When they are all laid, the females start to cover the nest with hind flippers, and when the hole is filled, they continue to tamp down the sand till it is compact, and finally obscure the nest throwing and levelling sand on the whole area. This completed they head for the surf returning to interesting grounds. Figure 6. Leatherback turtle laying eggs in a nest. Source: All sea turtles exhibit migratory behaviour at different times of their lives, both for reproductive and foraging aims. Reproductive migrations between nesting and feeding grounds are the most known due to the facility of tagging females after the nesting effort. They extend over thousands of kilometres, from northern to southern areas. Migration routes obtained by recapture of tagged turtles as well as by satellite telemetry (Troëng et al. 2003, James et al. 2005, Hays et al. 2006, James et al. 2007, Fossette et al. 2010a, Fossette et al. 2010c ) integrated with molecular genetics permit the identification of the nesting beach origin of turtles captured at sea. 12

13 Conservation and threats It is known that several sea turtle populations are currently facing serious problems. Along with the spread and growth of human population all over the world, sea turtles have been exploited more and more. In addition, urbanisation and development of industrial economy has added new sources of damage, like pollutants and waste. As a result, some turtle populations have seen a conspicuous decline. Due to this, in fact all the seven species of marine turtles are considered at risk, and some populations are already locally extinguished. According to IUCN classification, hawksbill turtle, Kemp s ridley and leatherback turtle are considered Critically Endangered, loggerhead and green are classified as Endangered, and olive ridley is currently Vulnerable (IUCN 2011). For Kemp s ridley, data are deficient. Causes of decline are multiple, and involve both the action of local communities and the demand from populations of distant metropolis. First of all, the increased request for turtle meat and eggs, which from a limited and local use has turned into a worldwide market. Sea turtle eggs are sold both as a food source or an aphrodisiac. Individuals are taken for their meat, calipee (cartilage) and shell, considered a delicacy. But their bones and skin also become souvenirs, art objects and jewellery, boots, shoes and handbags, or oil. With mechanization of fishing techniques, indigenous people could exert a larger impact on populations. Even if now harvesting of adult and eggs is illegal in many countries, international concerted effort is still needed to mitigate legal collection and trade, including production of commercial substitutes, opinion pressure, education and enforcement (Hope 2002, Tomillo 2008 ). Another source of threat is still an indirect consequence of food demand, and consists of fishing by- catch. Shrimp trawling, gill netting and long- line fishing, often occurring on turtle gathering areas, are seriously threatening adult populations. Entangled in a net, a sea turtle is prevented Figure 8. "Underwater Sadness" by Ramon Dominguez. A sea turtle caught in a net in the Sea of Cortez, Mexico. Source: Figure 7. A poacher in Oaxaca, Mexico, takes eggs from a nesting leatherback. Source: form reaching the surface to breath and could be brought aboard alive, dying or dead. 13

14 Figure 9. Turtle Excluder Device (TED). Source: naturescrusaders.wordpress.com. Some solutions have been established to limit this threat. Turtle excluder devices, or TEDs, have been developed for shrimp trawls. They consist of trap doors that permit turtles to swim out, and have managed to reduce turtle mortality by about a half. Smaller nets and their hourly check also reduce mortality. Another solution is to limit trawl location and timing, and to establish protected marine reserves to allow population recovery (Hays et al. 2003, Pinedo 2003, Lewison 2006, Petersen 2008, Gilman 2009, Dias da Silvaa 2010, Dono 2010, Varghese 2010). Another menace is constituted by oil spills. Oil often congeals and forms tar that gathers along the ocean s convergence zones and drift lines, the same where converging of nutrients causes plankton blooms and constitutes a breeding area for hatchlings. Both adult and hatchlings are found dead with signs of oil ingestion. Analysing United States turtles washed up dead, this cause of mortality represents 6 % of cases (Spotila 2004). Also other types of contaminants, like heavy metal and chlorinated compounds, can accumulate in turtles tissue and eggs with toxic effects (Frías- Espericueta, Sakai 2000b, a, Lam 2006, Baribieri 2009, García- Fernández 2009, Guirlet et al. 2010, Jerez 2010, Páez- Osuna 2010). Plastic bags, however, easy to be mistaken for jellyfish, are the most common source of mortality, obstructing turtles oesophagus and stomach, or Figure 10. Juvenile sea turtle recovered from the oil spill occurred in Gulf of Mexico in Source: causing digestive trait disease (Barreiros and Barcelos 2001, Mrosovsky et al ). The increasing urbanisation of coastal areas, finally, represents an important risk for hatchling success. The first problem for sea turtles in developed areas is the presence of barriers, concrete or wooden seawalls, rock jetties and sandbag structures, which prevent females from crossing the beach and nesting. Beach nourishment, carried out by mechanically pumping new sand on the beach, alters temperature, gas exchange and water content. Streetlights, lamps and car headlights can also be dangerous for hatchlings, which will be disoriented and walk away from the sea towards artificial light, leading to mortality due to predators, desiccation, or exhaustion (Bourgeois et al. 2009). In conclusion, it seems evident that, in spite of their protected status, sea turtles still need concrete measures on a local, national and international scale. Human induced threats could be reduced by several means. Firstly, assessing capture and mortality rates by fisheries to reduce by- catch and control both legal 14

15 and illegal fisheries and their practices. Secondly, by reducing poaching of eggs and killing of adults, as well as reducing habitat damage and artificial light pollution. From a scientific perspective, in order to be updated with current population status, it also seems necessary to maintain beach monitoring and demographic studies, as well as expanding research into the effects of environmentally driven changes on reproductive parameters, like clutch frequency and remigration intervals, to improve the interpretation of nesting beach trends. Research should be focused mainly on survivorship of juveniles and subadults. According to Heppel (2000) they constitute one of the main factors driving population dynamics. As they reach maturity in not less than a couple of decades, juvenile mortality severely affects recovery capacity (Spotila 2004). However, huge numbers of juveniles produced and a negative density effect on their growth rate may in some case support a rapid recovery (Bjorndal et al. 2000). Life history of males, which is almost unknown, should be taken into account as well. In a long term perspective, moreover, effort should be made in order to raise awareness among the native human populations and tourists, as well as reinforcing regional cooperation between neighbouring countries (Fossette et al. 2008c). 15

16 French Guiana and Suriname rookery As sea turtles nesting habitats are constantly disappearing due to urbanisation and human presence, preservation of undisturbed natural rookeries seems to be a matter of greatest importance for the survival of sea turtle populations. Among them, the coast of French Guiana and Suriname, with their 600 km of seashore and 100 km wide continental shelf, currently represent one of the major nesting sites left for sea turtles of the western Atlantic Ocean (Girondot 2012, in press). Leatherback turtles register the most massive presence, but olive ridley and green turtles are also an important one, while hawksbill turtle and loggerhead turtle are only occasionally observed. French Guiana and Suriname are localized on the North East coast of Southern America, bordering on Guyana (W) and Brazil (S and E). Due to its low latitude (5-6 N), the area is characterised by equatorial climate, and the proximity of the Amazon river, as well as the local Maroni river (Figure 12), which highly affects coastal dynamics, dominated by large scale seashore erosion and accretion, with the disappearance and emergence of new beaches within single years. The seashore, heading in an almost NW- SE direction, consists of long sandy beaches distributed patchily among mangroves and/or coastal rainforests with extensive mudflats, which makes them an ideal landscape for sea turtles, as indicated by the large number of females nesting in the area (Figure 11). Figure 11. General map of Suriname and French Guiana, with nesting sites. Legend: number of females nesting, , (SWOT) , , > 1000, < 25, unquantified. Source: The State of the World s Sea Turtles There is no evidence for the presence of nesting leatherback sea turtles before In the sixties, large numbers of leatherbacks nesting on the beaches of French Guiana were reported. In the eighties, nesting aggregation moved to the beach close to the Yalimapo- Awala villages. That discovery opened the way to 16

17 the establishment of the Amana Natural Reserve, in 1998, which includes all the nesting beaches historically identified around Yalimapo- Awala, as well as 30 km of marine fringe. Figure 12. Aerial view of Maroni estuary. Source: In addition, in recent years increasing numbers of females are being recorded in other non- protected eastern nesting sites in French Guiana, such as Kourou and Cayenne, the capital city. These sites, however, are subjected to threats and conflict of interests with local politics, as they undergo increasing urbanisation. While in protected sites a remarkably long population monitoring has been carried out, in new urban nesting sites it is difficult to deal with such threats. The first expedition to locate sea turtles nesting sites in Suriname took place in Since 1964, nest counts have been carried out by the Nature Reserve management organisation. Wia Wia Nature Reserve was implemented in 1961, amended and enlarged in In 1969, after declaring Maronwinje beaches a sanctuary, the Galibi Nature Reserve was established. Given the periodic phenomenon of seashore modification, it is difficult to accurately assess population trends and implement adequate conservation measures. For a better understanding of these demographic processes, different types of estimates have taken place: from individual tagging, to directly studying population demographic parameters by Capture- Mark- Recapture (CMR) studies of gravid nesting females, as well as direct counting. 17

18 Sea turtle species nesting in French Guiana and Suriname Leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines Family: Dermochelyidae Genus: Dermochelys Species: Dermochelys coriacea Figure 13. Leatherback turtle swimming. Source: colareboenglish.wordpress.com. The leatherback turtle named for its shell, covered with skin is the largest turtle in the world and one of the largest living reptiles. Its mass ranges between 250 to 907 kg, and length spans from 132 to 178 cm, but can occasionally reach up to 213 cm (Spotila 2004). The leatherback has no visible hard shell. It is made up of bones buried into his dark brown or black white spotted skin (carapace), or white dark spotted skin (plastron), with about seven pronounced ridges in its back and five on the underside, which confers a hydrodynamic profile. In comparison with other species, they have remarkably elongated carapace and forelimbs. Hatchlings look mostly white on the underside and black on the back, with white margined flippers and white strips running along the length of their carapace. Their softer, leathery shell is probably an adaptation to great depths, as the leatherback is known to be the deepest of sea turtles divers, reaching up to 1230 m. During deep dives, its carapace compresses and the lung collapses to avoid nitrogen narcosis, leaving air in the respiratory passages (Fossette et al. 2010b). Figure 14. Leatherback turtle hatchling. Source: Besides being a poikilothermic animal, the leatherback has a limited capacity to maintain a constant body temperature. Its muscle tissue shows a high and fairly constant metabolic rate, which permits the turtle to maintain quite a constant temperature in the much cooler northern waters. Its wide body mass and thick layer of fat under its shell and its shoulder and neck maximizes insulation against heat loss. In addition, it has the capacity to control its blood flow to flippers, dilating and constricting its outer blood vessels. For those reasons, the leatherback is also the most widespread of all turtles: its spatial range goes from tropical waters were it migrates for nesting, to 18

19 temperate and even subarctic waters (Figure 15). It is found worldwide, in both hemispheres and all oceans with only the exception of Arctic and Antarctic waters. Occasionally individuals swim from the Indian Ocean into the Atlantic (Åkesson et al. 2003). However, genetic differences from populations around the Leatherback Sea Turtle Range world have been observed.. -=====- ===:::J'Miles 7/, 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 Note: Map represents approximate range of species. NMFS, Office of Protected Resources March 2009 Figure 15. Leatherback turtle distribution. Source: U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Leatherbacks make the longest migration, indeed, from the equatorial and subtropical latitudes of their nesting sites (Figure 16) up to the northern foraging areas. They forage from the surface down to great depths, feeding mainly on jellyfish, colonial siphonophores like Portuguese man- of- war, tunicates and other soft bodied animals. This specialized diet permit them to be the most fast growing turtles species the massive adult size is reached in just 7-13 years and to cover the high energy costs of both long distance migration and high reproductive output. Leatherbacks nest in extremely variable intervals, ranging from 1 to 6-7 years. The majority of females, however, are reported to nest every second year (70 %) and third year (25 %). The number of clutches laid per female in an entire reproductive season ranges from 1 to 9 in 9-10 days intervals, and it is positively related to previous migration duration (Fossette et al. 2008a). It can lead to as many as 14 nests per female during a season. Like other sea turtles, they have temperature sex determination, with pivotal temperature known to occur around 29 C (Bro et al. 1999). 19

20 Figure 16. Leatherback turtle worldwide rookeries. Legend: number of females nesting, < 25, , , , > 1000, unquantified. Source: The State of the World s Sea Turtles (SWOT). 20

Data Alignment and (Geo)Referencing (sometimes Registration process)

Data Alignment and (Geo)Referencing (sometimes Registration process) Data Alignment and (Geo)Referencing (sometimes Registration process) All data aquired from a scan position are refered to an intrinsic reference system (even if more than one scan has been performed) Data

Dettagli

Informazioni su questo libro

Informazioni su questo libro Informazioni su questo libro Si tratta della copia digitale di un libro che per generazioni è stato conservata negli scaffali di una biblioteca prima di essere digitalizzato da Google nell ambito del progetto

Dettagli

È un progetto di Project by Comune di Numana Ideazione

È un progetto di Project by Comune di Numana Ideazione LA CALETTA È proprio nell ambito del progetto NetCet che si è deciso di realizzare qui, in uno dei tratti di costa più belli della Riviera del Conero, un area di riabilitazione o pre-rilascio denominata

Dettagli

e-spare Parts User Manual Peg Perego Service Site Peg Perego [Dicembre 2011]

e-spare Parts User Manual Peg Perego Service Site Peg Perego [Dicembre 2011] Peg Perego Service Site Peg Perego [Dicembre 2011] 2 Esegui il login: ecco la nuova Home page per il portale servizi. Log in: welcome to the new Peg Perego Service site. Scegli il servizio selezionando

Dettagli

Ministero della Salute Direzione Generale della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Bando Giovani Ricercatori - 2007 FULL PROJECT FORM

Ministero della Salute Direzione Generale della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Bando Giovani Ricercatori - 2007 FULL PROJECT FORM ALLEGATO 2 FULL PROJECT FORM FORM 1 FORM 1 General information about the project PROJECT SCIENTIFIC COORDINATOR TITLE OF THE PROJECT (max 90 characters) TOTAL BUDGET OF THE PROJECT FUNDING REQUIRED TO

Dettagli

TAL LIVELLO A2. Test scritto in 5 parti ( 50 minuti) Prova d ascolto (10 minuti) PARTE I: Comprensione del testo. PARTE II: Cloze test

TAL LIVELLO A2. Test scritto in 5 parti ( 50 minuti) Prova d ascolto (10 minuti) PARTE I: Comprensione del testo. PARTE II: Cloze test TAL LIVELLO A2 Test scritto in 5 parti ( 50 minuti) Prova d ascolto (10 minuti) PARTE I: Comprensione del testo PARTE II: Cloze test PARTE III: Grammatica PARTE IV: Scrittura guidata PARTE V: Scrittura

Dettagli

PRESENT SIMPLE. Indicativo Presente = Presente Abituale. Tom s everyday life

PRESENT SIMPLE. Indicativo Presente = Presente Abituale. Tom s everyday life PRESENT SIMPLE Indicativo Presente = Presente Abituale Prerequisiti: - Pronomi personali soggetto e complemento - Aggettivi possessivi - Esprimere l ora - Presente indicativo dei verbi essere ed avere

Dettagli

Guida ai Parametri di negoziazione dei mercati regolamentati organizzati e gestiti da Borsa Italiana

Guida ai Parametri di negoziazione dei mercati regolamentati organizzati e gestiti da Borsa Italiana Guida ai Parametri di negoziazione dei mercati regolamentati organizzati e gestiti da Borsa Italiana Versione 04 1/28 INTRODUZIONE La Guida ai Parametri contiene la disciplina relativa ai limiti di variazione

Dettagli

Gi-Gi Art. 859 - User's Guide Istruzioni d'uso

Gi-Gi Art. 859 - User's Guide Istruzioni d'uso doc.4.12-06/03 Gi-Gi Art. 859 - User's Guide Istruzioni d'uso A belaying plate that can be used in many different conditions Una piastrina d'assicurazione che può essere utilizzata in condizioni diverse.

Dettagli

Narrare i gruppi. Rivista semestrale pubblicata on-line dal 2006 Indirizzo web: www.narrareigruppi.it - Direttore responsabile: Giuseppe Licari

Narrare i gruppi. Rivista semestrale pubblicata on-line dal 2006 Indirizzo web: www.narrareigruppi.it - Direttore responsabile: Giuseppe Licari Narrare i gruppi Etnografia dell interazione quotidiana Prospettive cliniche e sociali ISSN: 2281-8960 Narrare i gruppi. Etnografia dell'interazione quotidiana. Prospettive cliniche e sociali è una Rivista

Dettagli

group HIGH CURRENT MULTIPLEX NODE

group HIGH CURRENT MULTIPLEX NODE HIGH CURRENT MULTIPLEX NODE edizione/edition 04-2010 HIGH CURRENT MULTIPLEX NODE DESCRIZIONE GENERALE GENERAL DESCRIPTION L'unità di controllo COBO è una centralina elettronica Multiplex Slave ; la sua

Dettagli

Istruzione N. Versione. Ultima. modifica. Funzione. Data 18/12/2009. Firma. Approvato da: ASSEMBLAGGIO COLLAUDO TRAINING IMBALLO. service 07.

Istruzione N. Versione. Ultima. modifica. Funzione. Data 18/12/2009. Firma. Approvato da: ASSEMBLAGGIO COLLAUDO TRAINING IMBALLO. service 07. Istruzione N 62 Data creazione 18/ 12/2009 Versione N 00 Ultima modifica TIPO ISTRUZIONE ASSEMBLAGGIO COLLAUDO TRAINING MODIFICA TEST FUNZIONALE RIPARAZIONE/SOSTITUZIONE IMBALLO TITOLO DELL ISTRUZIONE

Dettagli

CatalogoItalianBuffalo210x245esec_Layout 1 24/04/15 17.55 Pagina 1

CatalogoItalianBuffalo210x245esec_Layout 1 24/04/15 17.55 Pagina 1 CatalogoItalianBuffalo210x245esec_Layout 1 24/04/15 17.55 Pagina 1 CatalogoItalianBuffalo210x245esec_Layout 1 24/04/15 17.55 Pagina 2 BUFALO MEDITERRANEO ITALIANO Mediterranean Italian Buffalo RICONOSCIUTO

Dettagli

HIGH SPEED FIMER. HSF (High Speed Fimer)

HIGH SPEED FIMER. HSF (High Speed Fimer) HSF PROCESS HSF (High Speed Fimer) HIGH SPEED FIMER The development of Fimer HSF innovative process represent a revolution particularly on the welding process of low (and high) alloy steels as well as

Dettagli

Zeroshell come client OpenVPN

Zeroshell come client OpenVPN Zeroshell come client OpenVPN (di un server OpenVpn Linux) Le funzionalità di stabilire connessioni VPN di Zeroshell vede come scenario solito Zeroshell sia come client sia come server e per scelta architetturale,

Dettagli

APPLICATION FORM 1. YOUR MOTIVATION/ LA TUA MOTIVAZIONE

APPLICATION FORM 1. YOUR MOTIVATION/ LA TUA MOTIVAZIONE APPLICATION FORM Thank you for your interest in our project. We would like to understand better your motivation in taking part in this specific project. So please, read carefully the form, answer the questions

Dettagli

Official Announcement Codice Italia Academy

Official Announcement Codice Italia Academy a c a d e m y Official Announcement Codice Italia Academy INITIATIVES FOR THE BIENNALE ARTE 2015 PROMOTED BY THE MIBACT DIREZIONE GENERALE ARTE E ARCHITETTURA CONTEMPORANEE E PERIFERIE URBANE cured by

Dettagli

Mario Sbriccoli, Ercole Sori. Alberto Grohmann, Giacomina Nenci, UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA REPUBBLICA DI SAN MARINO CENTRO SAMMARINESE

Mario Sbriccoli, Ercole Sori. Alberto Grohmann, Giacomina Nenci, UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA REPUBBLICA DI SAN MARINO CENTRO SAMMARINESE copertina univ. 21 11-04-2005 16:30 Pagina 1 A State and its history in the volumes 1-20 (1993-1999) of the San Marino Center for Historical Studies The San Marino Centre for Historical Studies came into

Dettagli

PEP Pompe centrifughe di processo a norme API 610 - XI edizione Centrifugal process pumps according to API 610 - XI edition Norms

PEP Pompe centrifughe di processo a norme API 610 - XI edizione Centrifugal process pumps according to API 610 - XI edition Norms PEP Pompe centrifughe di processo a norme API 610 - XI edizione Centrifugal process pumps according to API 610 - XI edition Norms Campo di selezione - 50 Hz Selection chart - 50 Hz 2950 rpm 1475 rpm Campo

Dettagli

Sistemi di gestione dei dati e dei processi aziendali. Information Technology General Controls

Sistemi di gestione dei dati e dei processi aziendali. Information Technology General Controls Information Technology General Controls Indice degli argomenti Introduzione agli ITGC ITGC e altre componenti del COSO Framework Sviluppo e manutenzione degli applicativi Gestione operativa delle infrastrutture

Dettagli

PROTOCOLLO DI STUDIO MEDIANTE TEST ALLA FLECAINIDE NELLA SINDROME DI BRUGADA

PROTOCOLLO DI STUDIO MEDIANTE TEST ALLA FLECAINIDE NELLA SINDROME DI BRUGADA PROTOCOLLO DI STUDIO MEDIANTE TEST ALLA FLECAINIDE NELLA SINDROME DI BRUGADA 2 La SINDROME DI BRUGADA è una malattia generalmente ereditaria, a trasmissione autosomica dominante, che coinvolge esclusivamente

Dettagli

LE RISORSE ENERGETICHE FOSSILI LORO EVOLUZIONE A LIVELLO MONDIALE

LE RISORSE ENERGETICHE FOSSILI LORO EVOLUZIONE A LIVELLO MONDIALE LE RISORSE ENERGETICHE FOSSILI LORO EVOLUZIONE A LIVELLO MONDIALE Alessandro Clerici Chairman Gruppo di Studio WEC «World Energy Resources» Senior Corporate Advisor - CESI S.p.A. ATI--MEGALIA Conferenza

Dettagli

Lezione 20: Strutture di controllo di robot. avanzati

Lezione 20: Strutture di controllo di robot. avanzati Robotica Mobile Lezione 20: Strutture di controllo di robot Come costruire un architettura BARCS L architettura BARCS Behavioural Architecture Robot Control System Strategie Strategie Obiettivi Obiettivi

Dettagli

Business Process Management

Business Process Management Business Process Management Come si organizza un progetto di BPM 1 INDICE Organizzazione di un progetto di Business Process Management Tipo di intervento Struttura del progetto BPM Process Performance

Dettagli

PerformAzioni International Workshop Festival 22nd February 3rd May 2013 LIV Performing Arts Centre Bologna, Italy APPLICATION FORM AND BANK DETAILS

PerformAzioni International Workshop Festival 22nd February 3rd May 2013 LIV Performing Arts Centre Bologna, Italy APPLICATION FORM AND BANK DETAILS PerformAzioni International Workshop Festival 22nd February 3rd May 2013 LIV Performing Arts Centre Bologna, Italy APPLICATION FORM AND BANK DETAILS La domanda di partecipazione deve essere compilata e

Dettagli

L OPPORTUNITÀ DEL RECUPERO DI EFFICIENZA OPERATIVA PUÒ NASCONDERSI NEI DATI DELLA TUA AZIENDA?

L OPPORTUNITÀ DEL RECUPERO DI EFFICIENZA OPERATIVA PUÒ NASCONDERSI NEI DATI DELLA TUA AZIENDA? OSSERVATORIO IT GOVERNANCE L OPPORTUNITÀ DEL RECUPERO DI EFFICIENZA OPERATIVA PUÒ NASCONDERSI NEI DATI DELLA TUA AZIENDA? A cura del Professor Marcello La Rosa, Direttore Accademico (corporate programs

Dettagli

CMMI-Dev V1.3. Capability Maturity Model Integration for Software Development, Version 1.3. Roma, 2012 Ercole Colonese

CMMI-Dev V1.3. Capability Maturity Model Integration for Software Development, Version 1.3. Roma, 2012 Ercole Colonese CMMI-Dev V1.3 Capability Maturity Model Integration for Software Development, Version 1.3 Roma, 2012 Agenda Che cos è il CMMI Costellazione di modelli Approccio staged e continuous Aree di processo Goals

Dettagli

PANNELLO FRONTALE: QUERCIA STYLE CANNELLA PROFILO: PINO NERO PIANO DI SERVIZIO E ZOCCOLO: AGGLOMERATO MEROPE

PANNELLO FRONTALE: QUERCIA STYLE CANNELLA PROFILO: PINO NERO PIANO DI SERVIZIO E ZOCCOLO: AGGLOMERATO MEROPE Una proposta dall estetica esclusiva, in cui tutti gli elementi compositivi sono ispirati dalla geometria più pura e dalla massima essenzialità del disegno per un progetto caratterizzato da semplicità

Dettagli

BATTERIE ENERGA AL LITIO

BATTERIE ENERGA AL LITIO BATTERIE ENERGA AL LITIO Batterie avviamento ultraleggere - Extra-light starter batteries Le batterie con tecnologia al Litio di ENERGA sono circa 5 volte più leggere delle tradizionali al piombo. Ciò

Dettagli

1. Uno studente universitario, dopo aver superato tre esami, ha la media di 28. Nell esame successivo

1. Uno studente universitario, dopo aver superato tre esami, ha la media di 28. Nell esame successivo Prova di verifica classi quarte 1. Uno studente universitario, dopo aver superato tre esami, ha la media di 28. Nell esame successivo lo studente prende 20. Qual è la media dopo il quarto esame? A 26 24

Dettagli

Mod. VS/AM VALVOLE DI SFIORO E SICUREZZA RELIEF VALVES AND SAFETY DEVICES

Mod. VS/AM VALVOLE DI SFIORO E SICUREZZA RELIEF VALVES AND SAFETY DEVICES Mod VS/AM VALVOLE DI SFIORO E SICUREZZA RELIEF VALVES AND SAFETY DEVICES VALVOLE DI SFIORO E SICUREZZA RELIEF VALVES AND SAFETY DEVICES Mod VS/AM 65 1 2 VS/AM 65 STANDARD VS/AM 65 CON RACCORDI VS/AM 65

Dettagli

COMINCIAMO A SENTIRCI UNA FAMIGLIA

COMINCIAMO A SENTIRCI UNA FAMIGLIA COMINCIAMO A SENTIRCI UNA FAMIGLIA IL PRIMO GIORNO CON LA FAMIGLIA OSPITANTE FIRST DAY WITH THE HOST FAMILY Questa serie di domande, a cui gli studenti risponderanno insieme alle loro famiglie, vuole aiutare

Dettagli

Rilascio dei Permessi Volo

Rilascio dei Permessi Volo R E P U B L I C O F S A N M A R I N O C I V I L A V I A T I O N A U T H O R I T Y SAN MARINO CIVIL AVIATION REGULATION Rilascio dei Permessi Volo SM-CAR PART 5 Approvazione: Ing. Marco Conti official of

Dettagli

Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009

Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009 Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009 SECCOTECH & S 8 SeccoTech & Secco Tecnologia al servizio della deumidificazione Technology at dehumidification's service Potenti ed armoniosi Seccotech

Dettagli

LEZIONE 4: PRESENT SIMPLE / PRESENT CONTINUOUS

LEZIONE 4: PRESENT SIMPLE / PRESENT CONTINUOUS LEZIONE 4: PRESENT SIMPLE / PRESENT CONTINUOUS TEMPO PRESENTE In italiano non vi sono differenze particolari tra le due frasi: MANGIO UNA MELA e STO MANGIANDO UNA MELA Entrambe le frasi si possono riferire

Dettagli

Il Form C cartaceo ed elettronico

Il Form C cartaceo ed elettronico Il Form C cartaceo ed elettronico Giusy Lo Grasso Roma, 9 luglio 2012 Reporting DURANTE IL PROGETTO VENGONO RICHIESTI PERIODIC REPORT entro 60 giorni dalla fine del periodo indicato all Art 4 del GA DELIVERABLES

Dettagli

Present Perfect SCUOLA SECONDARIA I GRADO LORENZO GHIBERTI ISTITUTO COMPRENSIVO DI PELAGO CLASSI III C/D

Present Perfect SCUOLA SECONDARIA I GRADO LORENZO GHIBERTI ISTITUTO COMPRENSIVO DI PELAGO CLASSI III C/D SCUOLA SECONDARIA I GRADO LORENZO GHIBERTI ISTITUTO COMPRENSIVO DI PELAGO CLASSI III C/D Present Perfect Affirmative Forma intera I have played we have played you have played you have played he has played

Dettagli

Qual è l errore più comune tra i Trader sul Forex e come possiamo evitarlo? David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist drodriguez@dailyfx.

Qual è l errore più comune tra i Trader sul Forex e come possiamo evitarlo? David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist drodriguez@dailyfx. Qual è l errore più comune tra i Trader sul Forex e come possiamo evitarlo? David Rodriguez, Quantitative Strategist drodriguez@dailyfx.com Avvertenza di Rischio: Il Margin Trading su forex e/o CFD comporta

Dettagli

Materia: INGLESE Data: 24/10/2004

Materia: INGLESE Data: 24/10/2004 ! VERBI CHE TERMINANO IN... COME COSTRUIRE IL SIMPLE PAST ESEMPIO e aggiungere -d live - lived date - dated consonante + y 1 vocale + 1 consonante (ma non w o y) cambiare y in i, poi aggiungere -ed raddoppiare

Dettagli

Il test valuta la capacità di pensare?

Il test valuta la capacità di pensare? Il test valuta la capacità di pensare? Per favore compili il seguente questionario senza farsi aiutare da altri. Cognome e Nome Data di Nascita / / Quanti anni scolastici ha frequentato? Maschio Femmina

Dettagli

Il vostro sogno diventa realtà... Your dream comes true... Close to Volterra,portions for sale of "typical tuscan"

Il vostro sogno diventa realtà... Your dream comes true... Close to Volterra,portions for sale of typical tuscan Il vostro sogno diventa realtà... Vicinanze di Volterra vendita di porzione di fabbricato "tipico Toscano" realizzate da recupero di casolare in bellissima posizione panoramica. Your dream comes true...

Dettagli

DDS elettronica srl si riserva il diritto di apportare modifiche senza preavviso /we reserves the right to make changes without notice

DDS elettronica srl si riserva il diritto di apportare modifiche senza preavviso /we reserves the right to make changes without notice Maccarone Maccarone Maccarone integra 10 LED POWER TOP alta efficienza, in tecnologia FULL COLOR che permette di raggiungere colori e sfumature ad alta definizione. Ogni singolo led full color di Maccarone

Dettagli

Editoriale VALUTAZIONE PER L E.C.M.: ANALISI DEI QUESTIONARI DI GRADIMENTO

Editoriale VALUTAZIONE PER L E.C.M.: ANALISI DEI QUESTIONARI DI GRADIMENTO Lo Spallanzani (2007) 21: 5-10 C. Beggi e Al. Editoriale VALUTAZIONE PER L E.C.M.: ANALISI DEI QUESTIONARI DI GRADIMENTO IL GRADIMENTO DEI DISCENTI, INDICATORE DI SODDISFAZIONE DELLE ATTIVITÀ FORMATIVE

Dettagli

il materiale e Le forme evocano direttamente il corpo celeste, lo riproducono in ogni venatura. Proprio come avere una piccola luna tutta per sé.

il materiale e Le forme evocano direttamente il corpo celeste, lo riproducono in ogni venatura. Proprio come avere una piccola luna tutta per sé. il materiale e Le forme evocano direttamente il corpo celeste, lo riproducono in ogni venatura. Proprio come avere una piccola luna tutta per sé. COLLECTION luna material and shapes evoke the celestial

Dettagli

INTERNET e RETI di CALCOLATORI A.A. 2014/2015 Capitolo 4 DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Fausto Marcantoni fausto.marcantoni@unicam.

INTERNET e RETI di CALCOLATORI A.A. 2014/2015 Capitolo 4 DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Fausto Marcantoni fausto.marcantoni@unicam. Laurea in INFORMATICA INTERNET e RETI di CALCOLATORI A.A. 2014/2015 Capitolo 4 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol fausto.marcantoni@unicam.it Prima di iniziare... Gli indirizzi IP privati possono essere

Dettagli

ORIENT. Italian design made in Emirates. your style, your bathroom

ORIENT. Italian design made in Emirates. your style, your bathroom ORIENT ORIENT Italian design made in Emirates your style, your bathroom ORIENT Orient, collezione tradizionale, dal design morbido e semplice si adatta perfettamente a qualsiasi bagno. Facile ed immediata

Dettagli

Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009

Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009 Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009 SECCOASCIUTT 16 SeccoAsciutto EL & SeccoAsciutto Thermo Piccolo e potente, deumidifica e asciuga Small and powerful, dehumidifies and dries Deumidificare

Dettagli

Principali prove meccaniche su materiali polimerici

Principali prove meccaniche su materiali polimerici modulo: Proprietà viscoelastiche e proprietà meccaniche dei polimeri Principali prove meccaniche su materiali polimerici R. Pantani Scheda tecnica di un materiale polimerico Standard per prove meccaniche

Dettagli

DTT : DECODER, SWITCH- OFF PROCESS, CNID. Roberto de Martino Contents and Multimedia Department RAK/AGCOM

DTT : DECODER, SWITCH- OFF PROCESS, CNID. Roberto de Martino Contents and Multimedia Department RAK/AGCOM DTT : DECODER, SWITCH- OFF PROCESS, CNID Roberto de Martino Contents and Multimedia Department RAK/AGCOM List of contents 1. Introduction 2. Decoder 3. Switch-off process 4. CNID Introduction 1. Introduction

Dettagli

INFORMATIVA EMITTENTI N. 22/2015

INFORMATIVA EMITTENTI N. 22/2015 INFORMATIVA EMITTENTI N. 22/2015 Data: 23/04/2015 Ora: 17:45 Mittente: UniCredit S.p.A. Oggetto: Pioneer Investments e Santander Asset Management: unite per creare un leader globale nell asset management

Dettagli

BOSCH EDC16/EDC16+/ME9

BOSCH EDC16/EDC16+/ME9 pag. 16 di 49 BOSCH EDC16/EDC16+/ME9 BOSCH EDC16/EDC16+/ME9 Identificare la zona dove sono poste le piazzole dove andremo a saldare il connettore. Le piazzole sono situate in tutte le centraline Bosch

Dettagli

MODULO DI ISCRIZIONE - ENROLMENT FORM

MODULO DI ISCRIZIONE - ENROLMENT FORM Under the Patronage of Comune di Portofino Regione Liguria 1ST INTERNATIONAL OPERA SINGING COMPETITION OF PORTOFINO from 27th to 31st July 2015 MODULO DI ISCRIZIONE - ENROLMENT FORM Direzione artistica

Dettagli

General Taxonomy of Planology [Tassonomia generale della Planologia] (TAXOCODE) Reduced form [Forma ridotta] Classification Code for all sectors of

General Taxonomy of Planology [Tassonomia generale della Planologia] (TAXOCODE) Reduced form [Forma ridotta] Classification Code for all sectors of General Taxonomy of Planology [Tassonomia generale della Planologia] (TAXOCODE) Reduced form [Forma ridotta] Classification Code for all sectors of study and research according the Information System for

Dettagli

Lezione 12: La visione robotica

Lezione 12: La visione robotica Robotica Robot Industriali e di Servizio Lezione 12: La visione robotica L'acquisizione dell'immagine L acquisizione dell immagine Sensori a tubo elettronico (Image-Orthicon, Plumbicon, Vidicon, ecc.)

Dettagli

UN BUON VIAGGIO INIZIA PRIMA DI PARTIRE 3 SERVIZI ALITALIA. SEMPRE DI PIÙ, PER TE.

UN BUON VIAGGIO INIZIA PRIMA DI PARTIRE 3 SERVIZI ALITALIA. SEMPRE DI PIÙ, PER TE. UN BUON VIAGGIO INIZIA PRIMA DI PARTIR 3 RVIZI ALITALIA. MPR DI PIÙ, PR T. FAT TRACK. DDICATO A CHI NON AMA PRDR TMPO. La pazienza è una grande virtù. Ma è anche vero che ogni minuto è prezioso. Per questo

Dettagli

LA DIFFERENZA È NECTA

LA DIFFERENZA È NECTA LA DIFFERENZA È NECTA SOLUZIONI BREVETTATE PER UNA BEVANDA PERFETTA Gruppo Caffè Z4000 in versione singolo o doppio espresso Tecnologia Sigma per bevande fresh brew Dispositivo Dual Cup per scegliere il

Dettagli

WWW.TINYLOC.COM CUSTOMER SERVICE GPS/ RADIOTRACKING DOG COLLAR. T. (+34) 937 907 971 F. (+34) 937 571 329 sales@tinyloc.com

WWW.TINYLOC.COM CUSTOMER SERVICE GPS/ RADIOTRACKING DOG COLLAR. T. (+34) 937 907 971 F. (+34) 937 571 329 sales@tinyloc.com WWW.TINYLOC.COM CUSTOMER SERVICE T. (+34) 937 907 971 F. (+34) 937 571 329 sales@tinyloc.com GPS/ RADIOTRACKING DOG COLLAR MANUALE DI ISTRUZIONI ACCENSIONE / SPEGNERE DEL TAG HOUND Finder GPS Il TAG HOUND

Dettagli

I was not you were not he was not she was not it was not we were not you were not they were not. Was I not? Were you not? Was she not?

I was not you were not he was not she was not it was not we were not you were not they were not. Was I not? Were you not? Was she not? Il passato Grammar File 12 Past simple Il past simple inglese corrisponde al passato prossimo, al passato remoto e, in alcuni casi, all imperfetto italiano. Con l eccezione del verbo be, la forma del past

Dettagli

La via del acqua e del sole The Way of The Sea and The Sun

La via del acqua e del sole The Way of The Sea and The Sun La via dell acqua e del sole The Way of The Sea and The Sun ABRUZZO La via dell acqua e del sole The Way of The Sea and The sun 133 chilometri di costa, lungo la quale si alternano arenili di sabbia dorata

Dettagli

SOL terra Marco Zanuso Jr, Christophe Mathieu 2014

SOL terra Marco Zanuso Jr, Christophe Mathieu 2014 SOL terra Marco Zanuso Jr, Christophe Mathieu 2014 MADE IN ITALY SOL - Marco Zanuso Jr, Christophe Mathieu 2013 Sol è un sistema basato interamente sull interpretazione di innovativi principi di calcolo

Dettagli

JUMP INTO THE PSS WORLD AND ENJOY THE DIVE EVOLUTION

JUMP INTO THE PSS WORLD AND ENJOY THE DIVE EVOLUTION JUMP INTO THE PSS WORLD AND ENJOY THE DIVE EVOLUTION PSS Worldwide is one of the most important diver training agencies in the world. It was created thanks to the passion of a few dedicated diving instructors

Dettagli

24V DC ±10% 0.5... 1 W. Fluido Fluid. 15 Nl/min

24V DC ±10% 0.5... 1 W. Fluido Fluid. 15 Nl/min elettropiloti 0 mm 0 mm solenoids Elettropilota Solenoid valve 0 mm 00.44.0 ACCESSORI - ACCESSORIES 07.049.0 Connettore per elettropilota 0 mm con cavetto rosso/nero, lunghezza 400 mm - connector for 0

Dettagli

Il programma Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE

Il programma Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE Il primo bando del programma Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE, Verona, 20.02.2015 Il programma Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE Benedetta Pricolo, Punto di contatto nazionale, Regione del Veneto INFORMAZIONI DI BASE 246

Dettagli

trovando in loro, veramente ma non pomposamente, le leggi principali della nostra natura:

trovando in loro, veramente ma non pomposamente, le leggi principali della nostra natura: From : The principal object - To : notions in simple and unelaborated expressions. The principal object, then, proposed in these Poems was to choose incidents L oggetto principale, poi, proposto in queste

Dettagli

Section I - The Process of Project Risk Management in Selex-ES and the supporting tools

Section I - The Process of Project Risk Management in Selex-ES and the supporting tools Agenda Section I - The Process of Project Risk Management in Selex-ES and the supporting tools Section II - The Data Representation Problem and the construction of the Model Section III - Data Analysis

Dettagli

Process automation Grazie a oltre trent anni di presenza nel settore e all esperienza maturata in ambito nazionale e internazionale, Elsag Datamat ha acquisito un profondo know-how dei processi industriali,

Dettagli

Smobilizzo pro-soluto di Lettere di Credito Import

Smobilizzo pro-soluto di Lettere di Credito Import definizione L operazione presuppone l emissione di una lettera di credito IMPORT in favore dell esportatore estero, con termine di pagamento differito (es. 180 gg dalla data di spedizione con documenti

Dettagli

Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009

Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009 Catalogo Trattamento dell Aria - Collezione 2009 SECCO PROF SE 2 SeccoProf, SeccoProf EL, SeccoUltra, SeccoMust Tolgono l umidità dappertutto Removing humidity everywhere Un intera gamma professionale

Dettagli

Castello di San Donato in Perano Matrimoni nel Chianti Weddings in Chianti

Castello di San Donato in Perano Matrimoni nel Chianti Weddings in Chianti Castello di San Donato in Perano Matrimoni nel Chianti Weddings in Chianti Sede di Rappresentanza: Castello di San Donato in Perano 53013 Gaiole in Chianti (Si) Tel. 0577-744121 Fax 0577-745024 www.castellosandonato.it

Dettagli

Presentazioni multimediali relative al senso del tatto DIMENSIONI LIVELLO INIZIALE LIVELLO INTERMEDIO LIVELLO AVANZATO

Presentazioni multimediali relative al senso del tatto DIMENSIONI LIVELLO INIZIALE LIVELLO INTERMEDIO LIVELLO AVANZATO PERCORSO DI INSEGNAMENTO/APPRENDIMENTO TIPO DI UdP: SEMPLICE (monodisciplinare) ARTICOLATO (pluridisciplinare) Progetto didattico N. 1 Titolo : Let s investigate the world with our touch! Durata: Annuale

Dettagli

Lavorazione artigianale Italiana Handmade in Italy. da noi ogni sapone è unico. Authentically Made in Italy Florence

Lavorazione artigianale Italiana Handmade in Italy. da noi ogni sapone è unico. Authentically Made in Italy Florence Lavorazione artigianale Italiana Handmade in Italy da noi ogni sapone è unico alveare soap gori 1919 soap factory lavorazione artigianale italiana Handmade in Italy I nostri saponi sono il frutto di un

Dettagli

Delta. Centro di progettazione e sviluppo. Research & Development Department. Controllo resistenza alla corrosione Corrosion resistance testing.

Delta. Centro di progettazione e sviluppo. Research & Development Department. Controllo resistenza alla corrosione Corrosion resistance testing. Delta PATENT PENDING Sistema di apertura per ante a ribalta senza alcun ingombro all interno del mobile. Lift system for doors with vertical opening: cabinet interior completely fittingless. Delta Centro

Dettagli

ENERGY-EFFICIENT HOME VENTILATION SYSTEMS

ENERGY-EFFICIENT HOME VENTILATION SYSTEMS SISTEMI DI RECUPERO RESIDENZIALE HOME RECOVERY SYSTEMS RECUPERO DI CALORE AD ALTA EFFICIENZA HIGH EFFICIENCY HEAT RECOVERY VENTILAZIONE A BASSO CONSUMO LOW ENERGY VENTILATION SISTEMI DI RICAMBIO CONTROLLATO

Dettagli

Antonio Motisi. Dipartimento di Colture Arboree Università degli Studi di Palermo

Antonio Motisi. Dipartimento di Colture Arboree Università degli Studi di Palermo Giornate di Studio: Un approccio integrato allo studio dei flussi di massa e di energia nel sistema suolo pianta atmosfera: esperienze e prospettive di applicazione in Sicilia Tecniche di misura dei flussi

Dettagli

Import-export. di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo

Import-export. di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo Il riso rappresenta dopo il frumento la coltura più diffusa al mondo. L Italia è il principale Paese produttore ed esportatore di riso dell

Dettagli

ITALTRONIC SUPPORT ONE

ITALTRONIC SUPPORT ONE SUPPORT ONE 273 CARATTERISTICHE GENERALI Norme EN 6071 Materiale PA autoestinguente PVC autoestinguente Supporti modulari per schede elettroniche agganciabili su guide DIN (EN 6071) Materiale: Poliammide

Dettagli

The Verification Process in the ASTRI Project: the Verification Control Document (VCD)

The Verification Process in the ASTRI Project: the Verification Control Document (VCD) The Verification Process in the ASTRI Project: the Verification Control Document (VCD) L. Stringhetti INAF-IASF Milano on behalf of the ASTRI Collaboration 1 1 Summary The ASTRI/CTA project The ASTRI Verification

Dettagli

IT Service Management, le best practice per la gestione dei servizi

IT Service Management, le best practice per la gestione dei servizi Il Framework ITIL e gli Standard di PMI : : possibili sinergie Milano, Venerdì, 11 Luglio 2008 IT Service Management, le best practice per la gestione dei servizi Maxime Sottini Slide 1 Agenda Introduzione

Dettagli

Virtualizzazione con Microsoft Tecnologie e Licensing

Virtualizzazione con Microsoft Tecnologie e Licensing Microsoft Virtualizzazione con Microsoft Tecnologie e Licensing Profile Redirezione dei documenti Offline files Server Presentation Management Desktop Windows Vista Enterprise Centralized Desktop Application

Dettagli

5 cabins (1 main deck+ 4 lower deck) Legno: essenza di rovere naturale Rigatino Wood: striped oak

5 cabins (1 main deck+ 4 lower deck) Legno: essenza di rovere naturale Rigatino Wood: striped oak Tipo: Type: 5 cabine (1 main deck+ 4 lower deck) 5 cabins (1 main deck+ 4 lower deck) Legno: essenza di rovere naturale Rigatino Wood: striped oak Tessuti: Dedar Fanfara, Paola Lenti Fabrics: Dedar Fanfara,

Dettagli

GENERAL CATALOGUE CATALOGO GENERALE LV & MV solutions for electrical distribution Soluzioni BT e MT per distribuzione elettrica

GENERAL CATALOGUE CATALOGO GENERALE LV & MV solutions for electrical distribution Soluzioni BT e MT per distribuzione elettrica Advanced solutions for: UTILITY DISTRIBUTION TERTIARY RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRY Soluzioni avanzate per: DISTRIBUZIONE ELETTRICA TERZIARIO ENERGIE RINNOVABILI INDUSTRIA The company T.M. born in year 2001,

Dettagli

RIF 101 TECNA, MECA MULTINEEDLE ROTATIVE HOOK LOCK STITCH QUILTER

RIF 101 TECNA, MECA MULTINEEDLE ROTATIVE HOOK LOCK STITCH QUILTER RIF 101 TECNA, MECA MULTINEEDLE ROTATIVE HOOK LOCK STITCH QUILTER Price ExWorks Gallarate 60.000,00euro 95 needles, width of quilting 240cm, 64 rotative hooks, Pegasus software, year of production 1999

Dettagli

NEUROSCIENZE EEDUCAZIONE

NEUROSCIENZE EEDUCAZIONE NEUROSCIENZE EEDUCAZIONE AUDIZIONE PRESSO UFFICIO DI PRESIDENZA 7ª COMMISSIONE (Istruzione) SULL'AFFARE ASSEGNATO DISABILITÀ NELLA SCUOLA E CONTINUITÀ DIDATTICA DEGLI INSEGNANTI DI SOSTEGNO (ATTO N. 304)

Dettagli

40 motivi per cui le puttane sono le mie eroine

40 motivi per cui le puttane sono le mie eroine 40 motivi per cui le puttane sono le mie eroine Le puttane sanno condividere le parti più private e delicate del corpo con perfetti sconosciuti. Le puttane hanno accesso a luoghi inaccessibili. Le puttane

Dettagli

zanzariera per porte - finestre flyscreen for french - doors

zanzariera per porte - finestre flyscreen for french - doors zanzariera per porte - finestre flyscreen for french - doors ZANZAR SISTEM si congratula con lei per l acquisto della zanzariera Plissè. Questa guida le consentirà di apprezzare i vantaggi di questa zanzariera

Dettagli

IBM Cloud Computing - un opportunità? - una moda? Andrea Reggio Myserverfarm. 2011 IBM Corporation

IBM Cloud Computing - un opportunità? - una moda? Andrea Reggio Myserverfarm. 2011 IBM Corporation IBM Cloud Computing - un opportunità? - una moda? Andrea Reggio Myserverfarm 2011 IBM Corporation Cosa si intende per Cloud Computing Cloud è un nuovo modo di utilizzare e di distribuire i servizi IT,

Dettagli

ncdna Per ncdna si intende il DNA intronico, intergenico e altre zone non codificanti del genoma.

ncdna Per ncdna si intende il DNA intronico, intergenico e altre zone non codificanti del genoma. ncdna Per ncdna si intende il DNA intronico, intergenico e altre zone non codificanti del genoma. ncdna è caratteristico degli eucarioti: Sequenze codificanti 1.5% del genoma umano Introni in media 95-97%

Dettagli

Per effettuare una chiamata in conferenza, seguire queste semplici istruzioni:

Per effettuare una chiamata in conferenza, seguire queste semplici istruzioni: premium access user guide powwownow per ogni occasione Making a Call Per effettuare una chiamata in conferenza, seguire queste semplici istruzioni: 1. Tell your fellow conference call participants what

Dettagli

Alberto Maurizi, Francesco Tampieri, CNR ISAC

Alberto Maurizi, Francesco Tampieri, CNR ISAC Contributi locali e non locali agli inquinanti nella Pianura Padana: dal caso particolare a una discussione generale sui modelli di composizione dell atmosfera Alberto Maurizi, Francesco Tampieri, CNR

Dettagli

T H O R A F L Y. Sistemi di drenaggio toracico Thoracic drainage systems. Catalogo 2009 - Catalogue 2009 GRUPPO C GROUP C

T H O R A F L Y. Sistemi di drenaggio toracico Thoracic drainage systems. Catalogo 2009 - Catalogue 2009 GRUPPO C GROUP C T H O R A F L Y Sistemi di drenaggio toracico Thoracic drainage systems Catalogo 2009 - Catalogue 2009 GRUPPO C GROUP C SOMMARIO GRUPPO C (SUMMARY C GROUP) 1/C II SISTEMI DI DRENAGGIO TORACICO COMPLETI

Dettagli

LA VIOLENZA NEI LUOGHI DI LAVORO. CLAUDIO CORTESI cld.cortesi@gmail.com

LA VIOLENZA NEI LUOGHI DI LAVORO. CLAUDIO CORTESI cld.cortesi@gmail.com LA VIOLENZA NEI LUOGHI DI LAVORO CLAUDIO CORTESI cld.cortesi@gmail.com VIOLENZE NEI LUOGHI DI LAVORO: COSA SONO? any action, incident or behaviour, that departs from reasonable conduct in which a person

Dettagli

PMI. Management Maturity Model, OPM3 Second Edition 2008

PMI. Management Maturity Model, OPM3 Second Edition 2008 Nuovi standard PMI, certificazioni professionali e non solo Milano, 20 marzo 2009 PMI Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, OPM3 Second Edition 2008 Andrea Caccamese, PMP Prince2 Practitioner

Dettagli

Riparazione BMW R1150RT 2001 Kit di riparazione gomme aggiornamento febbraio 2007

Riparazione BMW R1150RT 2001 Kit di riparazione gomme aggiornamento febbraio 2007 Riparazione BMW R1150RT 2001 Kit di riparazione gomme aggiornamento febbraio 2007 Procedura ispirata al foglietto istruzioni allegato al kit di riparazione, in dotazione alle moto BMW, riveduto e rimaneggiato

Dettagli

KERMESSE 20 sospensione / suspension lamp Giulio Iacchetti 2012

KERMESSE 20 sospensione / suspension lamp Giulio Iacchetti 2012 KERMESSE 20 sospensione / suspension lamp Giulio Iacchetti 2012 CLASSE I - IP20 IT Avvertenze La sicurezza elettrica di questo apparecchio è garantita con l uso appropriato di queste istruzioni. Pertanto

Dettagli

wood 8.1 Una collezione racconta il mondo. Passioni, impulsi e sogni di chi la disegna, di chi la possiede. Alcune durano una stagione, altre una vita intera. Ma una collezione di arredi inventa uno stile,

Dettagli

Evoluzione del Servizio di Meteorologia Aeronautica di ENAV S.p.A. : Meteosat Second Generation

Evoluzione del Servizio di Meteorologia Aeronautica di ENAV S.p.A. : Meteosat Second Generation Evoluzione del Servizio di Meteorologia Aeronautica di ENAV S.p.A. : Meteosat Second Generation Con la Disposizione Organizzativa n.07/04 viene fissata la missione della Funzione Meteorologia il cui obiettivo

Dettagli

L Health Technology Assessment: tutti ne parlano, non. conoscono. Marco Marchetti

L Health Technology Assessment: tutti ne parlano, non. conoscono. Marco Marchetti L Health Technology Assessment: tutti ne parlano, non tutti lo conoscono Marco Marchetti L Health Technology Assessment La valutazione delle tecnologie sanitarie, è la complessiva e sistematica valutazione

Dettagli

sull argomento scelto ( evidenziare il testo passandoci sopra con il tasto sinistro del mouse e copiare premendo i tasti Ctrl + C )

sull argomento scelto ( evidenziare il testo passandoci sopra con il tasto sinistro del mouse e copiare premendo i tasti Ctrl + C ) This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.

Dettagli

La soluzione completa per l irrigazione The real, complete solution for irrigation

La soluzione completa per l irrigazione The real, complete solution for irrigation La soluzione completa per l irrigazione The real, complete solution for irrigation difendi il made in Italy, scegli un azienda italiana La soluzione completa per l irrigazione Irritec realizza prodotti

Dettagli