1 Open Source, Free Software e Open Format nei processi di ricerca archeologica Atti del III Workshop (Padova, 8-9 maggio 2008) a cura di Luca Bezzi, Denis Francisci, Piergiovanna Grossi, Damiano Lotto
2 Nota all edizione. Il layout di impaginazione è opera dei curatori; è realizzato in linguaggio LaTeX e si basa sul modello degli Atti dei precedenti Workshop Open Source, Free Software e Open Format nei processi di ricerca archeologica tenutisi a Grosseto nel 2006 e a Genova nel 2007 (quest ultimo ancora in corso di stampa). Tutti gli interventi orali ed i posters del workshop sono stati pubblicati, tranne quelli di M. Landa, M. Lorenzini e L. Sanna, F. Morando. Gli abstract in lingua inglese di E. Demetrescu, A. D Ascoli e P. Forlin sono opera dei curatori. Vista la distanza di tempo tra il convegno e la pubblicazione degli Atti e nonostante il lavoro di aggiornamento effettuato, alcuni siti internet citati nei contributi potrebbero non risultare più attivi o aver modificato il proprio indirizzo. I lavori segnalati come in corso di stampa (cds) erano ancora tali alla data del 31 maggio Il logo in copertina è opera di Luca Bezzi. La pubblicazione degli Atti è stata finanziata col contributo del Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali: archeologia, storia dell arte, del cinema e della musica dell Università degli Studi di Padova. Roma 2012, Edizioni Quasar di Severino Tognon s.r.l. via Ajaccio 41-43, I Roma - ISBN: cb Il volume ed i singoli contributi degli Atti nella versione digitale sono distribuiti con licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione 3.0 Italia; ciò significa che il lettore è libero di riprodurre, distribuire, comunicare al pubblico, esporre in pubblico, rappresentare ed eseguire quest opera, di modificarla e di usarla per fini commerciali, a condizione che venga attribuita la paternità dell opera ai curatori del volume e ai singoli autori dei contributi nei modi indicati dagli stessi o da chi ha dato l opera in licenza.
3 Indice Presentazione Jacopo Bonetto, Giovanni Leonardi Introduzione Luca Bezzi, Denis Francisci, Piergiovanna Grossi, Damiano Lotto V IX 1. RELAZIONI 1 L analisi archeologica degli elevati attraverso l uso del free e open-source software Giovanni Luca Pesce 3 Reconstructing the past. Il 3D modeling nella ricerca archeologica Filippo Stanco, Davide Tanasi, Santo Privitera 17 Elementi di metodologia per le applicazioni open source e free software nella restituzione archeologica territoriale ed urbana. Il caso della Marrana di San Giovanni a Roma Emanuel Demetrescu 33 Reinterpretazione delle mappe di Google: WebGIS dinamico elementare e formati aperti con ASP e XML Gianluca Cantoro 43 Network solutions for the management and dissemination of the archaeological data Julian Bogdani, Erika Vecchietti 55 Libera circolazione di dati archeologici: il caso dello scavo di S. Vigilio di Ossana (TN) Nicoletta Pisu, Giuseppe Naponiello 69 Open Archaeology: i Fasti e la pubblicazione online Helga Di Giuseppe, Elizabeth Fentress 85
4 IV INDICE Libertà di accesso, ricerca e riserva di pubblicazione nelle scoperte archeologiche Maddalena Mazzoleni, Zeno Baldo 95 Trasparenza, circolazione e diritto intellettuale per il dato archeologico: un possibile modello dalle licenze Open Source Augusto Palombini, Andrea Schiappelli 101 L accessibilità all Informazione Territoriale: i programmi regionali e le iniziative nazionali ed europee Maurizio De Gennaro, Luca Zennaro POSTER 115 Mura Bastia. Anastilosi informatica della torre di Onigo (Pederobba, Treviso) Vladimiro Achilli, Alessandro Bezzi, Denis Bragagnolo, Massimo Fabris, Matteo Frassine 117 Journal of Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Archaeology. JIIA Eprints Repository: un esperienza OAI-PMH per l archeologia Antonella D Ascoli 127 Montegrotto Terme. Spatial analysis dei reperti mobili applicata alle superfici d uso della capanna pienomedievale (sec. XI-XII): metodologia e risultati Paolo Forlin 135 Roma città aperta. Virtual Rome e il paesaggio archeologico di Roma sul web Luigi Calori, Carlo Camporesi, Andrea Negri, Augusto Palombini, Sofia Pescarin 141 Sistema GIS e strumentazione tradizionale: una soluzione possibile Massimo Dadà, Giuseppe Naponiello 147 Arc-Team s.n.c. open research (sharing results) Alessandro Bezzi, Luca Bezzi, Rupert Gietl 159 Il WebGIS territoriale e di scavo di Montegrotto Terme (Padova) Piergiovanna Grossi, Francesco Pirotti 171 Flessibilità della scelta Open Source in archeologia: i casi di Villa di Villa (TV) e Fondo Paviani (VR) Damiano Lotto 183 Documentazione di scavo in open source: il caso di Montebelluna (TV) Denis Francisci 187
5 1 RELAZIONI
6 Network solutions for the management and dissemination of the archaeological data Julian Bogdani, Erika Vecchietti Sommario. L impiego di banche dati nella ricerca archeologica, ormai non solo ampiamente accettato e diffuso, ma promosso esso stesso a campo di riflessione e sperimentazione, si configura come una delle più innovative frontiere dell archeologia, sia per le potenzialità che le banche dati offrono allo sviluppo della metodologia di ricerca archeologica, sia per la possibilità che i più recenti sistemi di banche dati, molti dei quali sviluppati con applicazioni open source, mettono a disposizione per la gestione in rete dei dati. La possibilità infatti di creare network di ricerca basati sulla condivisione a vari livelli del dato archeologico costituisce un innovativo approccio metodologico, in grado di offrire nuove prospettive sia in fase di acquisizione e gestione dati, sia in fase di elaborazione. Il valore aggiunto di tale approccio consiste soprattutto nella possibilità, via web, di estendere la gestione del dato archeologico da una scala locale, attraverso la costituzione di reti interne ai singoli centri di ricerca, a un accesso in remoto, favorendo la creazione di un assetto policentrico della ricerca, in cui tutte le singole unità costituiscono nodi decentrati di un unico network di riferimento. Collegate a sistemi GIS o a interfacce per la navigazione web (ambienti virtuali, modelli tridimensionali...), le architetture di banche dati on-line, oltre a essere un sempre più diffuso ausilio per la ricerca archeologica, costituiscono un efficace sistema di censimento, monitoraggio, salvaguardia e valorizzazione del patrimonio archeologico. Abstract. The use of databases in the archaeological research, not only now broadly accepted and widespread, but itself promoted as a field of experimentation, reflection and education, is one of the most innovative frontiers in the archaeological theory and practice, both for the potential that databases offer to the development of the archaeological methodology, and for the opportunity that the most recent database systems, many of whom developed with open source applications, provide for the data management in a network environment. The possibility to create research networks able to share archaeological (at various levels) is an innovative approach, offering new perspectives both in the field of data acquisition and management, both in the elaboration and interpretation processes. The surplus value of this approach consist on the easy accessibility, via web, of the knowledge, and the extension of the management of the archaeological data from a local to a broader scale, fostering the creation of a polycentric research assessment, in which all the research units become remote access points of a main archaeological network. Related to GIS systems or other browsing interfaces (virtual environments, 3D models, web portals...), the architecture of online databases, as well as being an increasingly widespread support for the archaeological research, may become an effective system of inventory, monitoring, maintenance and enhancement of archaeological heritage. Università degli Studi di Bologna.
7 56 NETWORK SOLUTIONS 1. Archaeological data from a contextual and multi-vocal perspective The archaeological research needs nowadays undoubtedly an increasingly multidisciplinary approach, because the complexity of the investigated evidence is such that only through a constant and continuous teamwork the more convincing results may be achieved 1. In this complex organization of the knowledge, the role of technology (particularly the one related to the networking) can represent a significant development not only for the management of the increasing amount of data gathered through the implementation of advanced methodologies, but also for the opportunities of collaboration given to experts in various research fields, able to work together on the same project dynamically sharing the data and the scientific results. This contribution 2 aims at being a reflection on the potential of networking not only from a methodological point of view, but also in the broader context of the management and dissemination of the cultural heritage. The development of networking through web based databases represents an ideal solution for a more effective dialogue among experts involved in various research teams; moreover, the implementation of such kind of shared platforms supplies archaeologists the opportunity to handle different kinds of data (text, raster, vectorial...) linked to each other at various levels to deepen the contextual approach 3, essential for a better understanding of the ancient world s dynamics. As well as in implementing web based databases, the multivocal approach advocated by J. Hodder 4 may be experienced in the educational field building up wikis 5, collective writing instruments that increase and develop through the collaboration of the web community: this collaborative method must be considered essential for the human and professional growth of the younger students 6. The opportunity to play an active role in writing a wiki may also become a support to help students constantly in touch with the most advanced forms of communication 7 learn the processes of knowledge and contents creation on the web, making them more aware and critical users of the different levels of information available on the net. 1 On the multidisciplinary approach in archaeological methodology see recently Manacorda 2008, pp ; Bogdani J. Bogdani (par. 2, 4-5); E. Vecchietti (par. 1, 3, 6). 3 About contextual archaeology see: Giannichedda 2002, p. 99; recently Manacorda 2008, pp , both with previous bibliography. Of great interest the web section of the research project headed by I. Hodder on the Neolithic site of Catalhöyük in Turkey (http:// last visited 2008, October, 31). The importance of a contextual approach, with a wide discussion on the artefacts terminology related to form, context and function, is well expressed in Allison 2004 and Allison Hodder (last visited 2008, October, 31). 6 Of great significance is the use of a dedicated wiki as a an excavation report in Zanini, Costa 2006, pp , with previous bibliography. 7 See Wikipedia, where the whole community is called to give its contribution to a huge universal media encyclopedia.
8 WORKING ON LOCAL VS. REMOTE SCALE 57 The strong educational vocation is then essential for an experimentation, such as this here presented, born in the wider context of the Laboratory of Topography 8 of the Department of Archaeology (University of Bologna): that particular situation led us to reflect on which kind of solution should be tested to create a system for data editing and archiving available on the web, enabling students to complete the assigned exercises (data entry) without forcing them to own a computer nor to install unlicensed softwares or applications 9 (fig. 1). Fig. 1. The networking structure of BraDypUS. 2. Working on local vs. remote scale The technology applied to archaeology has represented a crucial help in registration and management of complex amounts of information, even if tools or methodologies so broadly shared to become widespread standards don t yet exist 10. Among the DBMS 11 used in archeology in the recent years two applications have prevailed: MS Access 12 and FileMaker 13. These two software both work mainly in local (client-side) scale, meaning that the application is installed on a single computer and manages the databases inside it. Their success is especially 8 The Laboratory of Topography (Department of Archaeology, University of Bologna) is directed by E. Giorgi, who constantly supported the authors in the present experimentation. 9 Eaching students specific applications may bind them in many of their choices ahead; on the contrary, the use of free software will encourage them to experience the benefits of a free (or at least low cost) and easy-to-use application, able to ensure the maximum degree of data exchange and update. It is also undeniable that the most success of licensed software (eg. MS Office, ESRI ArcGIS or Autodesk AutoCAD) depends on their spread in schools and in public administrations, which led to a real acculturation of users to specific formats and interfaces. 10 See also Fronza 2007, p DBMS is an acronym for Data Base Management System and refers to a set of applications for organizing, managing and extracting the data into a digital archive. 12 Microsoft Inc. MS Access is the most widespread database application for ESRI ArcGIS. 13 Apple Inc. FileMaker has been used with excellent results in many projects, see the archive of the Terra Sigillata stamps from Iulia Concordia (FileMaker Developer 7.0, Annibaletto 2007, p. 51, footnote 1).
9 58 NETWORK SOLUTIONS due, in addition to the high performance at relatively low cost of purchasing, to the ease of use. The higher limit of these systems consists mostly in the lack of data sharing: they manage the data on an individual computer and the implementation of multiple simultaneous accesses (intranet) is difficult, and generally avoided 14. A second limit is the software update. Through careful policies, the various software houses have often forced customers to purchase the latest versions, constantly providing new releases no longer compatible with previous ones 15. Finally, the third limit is the data security. The local systems are more subject to the risks of data loss, so they require a frequent backup on external devices (hard drives, CD, DVD...). Physical damages to a terminal can lead to partial or complete loss of data. The limits listed above, derived from the practice of an assiduous use of databases in archeology, were the propulsive element of a wide range of experiments of online archives, already ongoing since few years (see the bibliography), based on server-side open source systems, providing a good response from the point of view of the costs (licenses), the safety of the data storage and the efficiency of the management, leading to a real revolution not only in the data collection and processing, but also in the networking methodology among the different teams involved in the research. The server-side systems provide a first significant solution to the problem of data safety: the files are saved and stored on external machines (servers), connected to the single terminals/users via web. The DBMS application is installed on the server too, making immediately available the data (both in read and edit mode) to each user without installing any software (only an internet browser is required). As for costs, even if the licensed web-based DBMS are very expansive and mostly inaccessible 16, it is true that in this field several experiences of open source projects are becoming successfully more and more competitive with the licensed products. Among those, a significant role is played by MySQL and PostgreSQL 17, systems involving not only the benefits of being server-side, but also the possibility of simultaneous browsing of the archives, via web, by an indefinite number of users, not only read but also in edit mode. This means that the upgrades 14 This limit becomes significant if a simultaneous access by different users is required. In the case of the on-field archaeological work, the need to manage a database gathering information on different archaeological contexts simultaneously excavated by different teams may cause serious problems of coordination and update. 15 The same problem moved further testing of open source applications for archaeological documentation, which resulted competitive with the licensed software: see the case-study of Villa at Villa Cordignano (TV), presented in Bezzi et alii 2007, in part. pp (MySQL DBMS, phpmyadmin web interface). 16 See for example Oracle (http://www.oracle.com, last visited 2008, October, 31st), a powerful licensed system of online databases. An interesting project aimed at spreading on the web a detailed archive of Roman amphora types (Williams 2006) is based on it. 17 Projects using MySQL and PostgreSQL are the Atlas of the Fortified Sites in Tuscany (PostgreSQL: Macchi Jánica 2006; Macchi Jánica, Serragli, Vichi 2007, p. 150), the P.I.C.A. (Portale Informatico Culturale delle Alpi Occidentali) project (Demarchi, Di Gangi, Lebole 2007), the WebGIS of the Bronze Age in Northern Italy (Bonomi et alii 2007, pp ) and the Spina Verde of Como (Alivernini, Brovelli, Magni 2007).
10 ONLINE DATABASES: THE STATE OF THE ART 59 performed by a user are immediately delivered to all the working group, which thereby becomes a research network. The only hurdle for this networking methodology is the need of a constant internet connection, granting the communication between the user terminal and the central server where the archives are stored Online databases: the state of the art The use of databases in the archaeological research, not only now broadly accepted and widespread, but itself promoted as a field of experimentation, reflection and education 19, is one of the most innovative frontiers in the archaeological theory and practice, both for the potential that databases offer to the development of the archaeological methodology, and for the opportunity that the most recent database systems, many of whom developed with open source applications, provide for the information management in a network environment. The possibility to create research networks able to share archaeological data (at various levels) is an innovative approach, offering new perspectives both in the field of data acquisition and management, both in the elaboration and interpretation processes. The surplus value of this approach consist on the easy accessibility, via web, of the knowledge, and the extension of the management of the archaeological data from a local to a wider scale, fostering the creation of a polycentric research assessment, in which all the research units become remote access points of a main archaeological network. Related to GIS systems or other browsing interfaces (virtual environments, 3D models, web portals...), the architecture of online databases, as well as being an increasingly widespread support for the archaeological research, may become an effective system of inventory, monitoring, maintenance and enhancement of archaeological heritage. Even more, then, Internet becomes a significant part of the archaeological methodology and not just a final mean of communication, often marginal, of the results of studies, researches and restorations 20. Recently, a great impulse to the development and methodological discussion on open source applications for archeology has been provided by the University of Siena, culminated in a series of meetings (the first of which, Open Source, Free Software e Open Format nei processi di ricerca archeologici, broadly quoted in this contribution) aimed at surveying the state of the art in Italy and abroad and creating common platforms for discussion on the role of open source in the archaeological research. The main experiences of open formats in archeology have the purposes (often simultaneously pursued) to develop, on the net: platforms for the dissemination/edition of the archaeological information to a broad range of users at different levels of access and with multiple aims (research, sustainable development, protection and preservation) 21 ; 18 This limit will soon be got over by the increasingly widespread of low-cost mobile internet connections. Another solution at par Gabucci 2006, Bogdani Pescarin 2006, p In addition to the famous case of Catalhöyük (http://www.catalhoyuk.com, last visited 2008, October, 31), see Alivernini, Brovelli, Magni 2007 for the Spina Verde of Como, Bonomi et alii 2007 for the Bronze Age in Northern Italy WebGIS, Demarchi, Di Gangi, Lebole 2007 for the web portal Portale Informatico Culturale delle Alpi Occidentali, Macchi Jánica,
11 60 NETWORK SOLUTIONS systems for managing the excavation/survey data 22 ; portals for the online edition and sharing of knowledge, to enhance the development of electronic reviews, whose scientific value is equal to that of the traditional paper ones 23 ; collaborative- multivocal writing systems (wiki), to document, in addition to the registration of the excavation diary or report, the different paths followed by the investigators during the interpretation process 24. From an overview of the specific bibliography (see infra) it is clear that most of the ongoing experimentations have the characteristic of being specifically created to meet the needs of a specific project 25 : the system presented below moves instead from a different platform, being conceived in order to fit various research activities (from the on field excavation and survey to the bibliographical archives) of the Department of Archeology of the University of Bologna. The difficulty of managing highly diversified data (not just by data typology, but also gathered through different methods and technologies) and the will to preserve the specificity of each research project, led to the construction of a structure (the BraDypUS 26 digital archive system) whose peculiar feature is the flexibility. Serragli, Vichi 2007 for the Atlas of the Fortified Sites in Tuscany, the IRWEB Project for the inventory and preservation of the stone carvings in Lombardy (Poggiani Keller R., Pacchieni T., Liborio C., Ruggiero M.G., Vitali D., La catalogazione ed il monitoraggio conservativo dell Arte Rupestre su Internet: il progetto IRWEB della Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Lombardia, electronic publication on last visited 2008, October, 31). 22 Cuniolo 2007; Bezzi et alii See ArcheoServer (Bonomi et alii 2007, pp ) and Open Record in Archeology (Fronza 2007, pp ); other initiatives, notable for the effort to make accessible via web the ongoing archaeological researches in the world, through news and interim reports, are the Fasti On Line project (http://www.fastionline.org, last visited 2008, October, 31) of the International Association for Classical Archeology (AIAC, Fentress, Di Giuseppe, Hunt 2009), which has also an electronic magazine ( FOLD&R: Fasti On Line Documents & Research ), the Open Context (http://www.opencontext.org, last visited 2008, October, 31) of the Alexandria Archive Institute (AAI) in collaboration with the University of Chicago, the electronic journals Journal of International Intercultural Archeology (http://www.jiia.it, last visited 2008, October, 31) and Groma (http://www.groma.info/rivista, last visited 2008, October, 31). 24 Zanini, Costa 2006, pp Many open source projects applied to archaeology were conceived by archaeologists with specific skills in IT and developed in order to meet immediate needs (in the present case, to coordinate the data entry of the laboratory s students through the web), generally without the long preliminary phase of design and testing characterizing the innovation processes in other research fields. In archeology, frame and content provider in most cases coincide. 26 BraDypUS (http://www.bradypus.net, last visited 2008, October, 31), gender name of the sloth, containing the acronym (in capital letters) of Banca Dati Unità Stratigrafica (Stratigraphic Unit DataBase) is an evolution of the previous USdb (http://www.groma.info/usdb). We wish to thank all the research teams, primarily the Santa Maria Maggiore project in Trento (Scientific Directors: I. Baldini and M.T. Guaitoli, Department of Archaeology, University of Bologna), for giving us the opportunity to test and develop the system successfully (http://www.santamariamaggiore.trento.it, last visited 2008, October, 31). See also Bogdani, Vecchietti 2009.
12 BRADYPUS SYSTEM BraDypUS system. The reasons for a web accessible database for archeology The effective management and correct storage of the archaeological data is today a complex process, involving a wide variability of formats, required to record different types of informative sources (tables, textual data, raster and vectorial images, video, bibliography...), and must take into consideration the trend, started after the massive use of IT in archaeology, of completeness, objectivity and accuracy in data recording, which progressively led to a sort of bulimia of the cognitive process, which aims at accumulating the data without any real critical assessment of their interpretive potential and capability to organize them effectively 27. BraDypUS is a management system based on customized databases combining the ease of use with the high performance of widespread open source applications. The main advantage of BraDypUS, compared to other database systems, is that it is designed and realized in order to fit the working methodology of archaeologists, adapting easily to the needs of each project. The flexibility is granted by the different structure of each BraDypUS installation 28 : the specific features of each project determine the characteristics of the descriptive apparatus, the items within each table, and the links between the various sources. The result is the whole amount of archaeological records gathered, interactively managed and safely stored on an external server Technical outline The system is a software pack whose engine is based on the open source serverside relational DBMS (RDBMS) MySQL 30 ; the web interface is written in PHP, a programming language equally free and open source. Development costs are kept low, then, through the implementation of free softwares and libraries. 27 Zanini, Costa 2006, pp Installation means a specifically designed descriptive apparatus, available on-line, with different access privileges. 29 Eg., the analytical description of a context of an archaeological excavation involve a complex apparatus: in most cases it will require basic information on the Stratigraphical Units and on the different archaeological materials contained (finds of different typology such as ceramic, metallic, wooden, stone artefacts bones, seeds...), but also contents collected from other specific experts of the research team (anthropologists, palaeozoologists, geologists, archaeometrists...). Normally, these sets of information are managed separately, in the sense that each descriptive apparatus is itself an archive, and each team member processes his own specialist data often in a total lack of connection with the work of his colleagues. BraDypUS provides the technical support in order to merge and put into communication in an individual database all these different sources. This collaborative methodology gives archaeological record back the consistency that the excavation, with its analytical documentation, often removed. The records that can be entered and linked with existing ones are limitless, both in a hierarchical (eg.: territory site context finds...) and in a horizontal (eg.: ceramics metals coins architectural decoration...) order. 30 AB MySQL, one of the best and fastest RDBMS available, is broadly implemented in the creation of dynamic web sites. This widespread dissemination, combined with being open source, grants stability and compatibility with future formats. On the features of MySQL used as a basis for managing data in the research project of the University of Genoa in Sentinum (Sassoferrato, AN), see Cuniolo 2007, pp. 123 ff.
13 62 NETWORK SOLUTIONS To consult a BraDypUS based database, only a simple web browser is required. The system is currently compatible with all the most widespread web browsers (MS Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera) although it is recommended the use of Mozilla Firefox Solutions for offline field work In situations where an internet access is not available, as in many archaeological sites, a BraDypUS local networking system (LAN or WLAN) can be installed on an individual terminal. This solution, recommended for the on-field work teams, is easily implemented by using a simple device consisting in a router and an external hard drive. The software pack is physically installed on the external hard drive that, once connected to any terminal (eg. via USB), turns into a full web server already configured for the proper functioning of the system. The software pack (in the hard drive) consists in the web server application, the system for database management and for file sharing (according to various protocols) and other softwares, including the web browser 31. In this way it is possible to create a fast web server plug & play ready to use on a computer (or simultaneously on multiple terminals through a simple router based local network). In the external hard drive are also stored the data, so that when the on-field campaign is closed, it can be used for a fast and safe backup. The system allows the possibility of semi-automatic synchronization of data between the online database and the local system, in order to have, at the end of the field work, all the data collected and widely shared on the web. 5. Examples of applications The system has been applied to several different case studies (in the fields of ancient topography, archaeology, education and dissemination). The SITARC and the Paikuli Project, two of the more complex and advanced, are presented above SITARC The Geographical Information System of the Caonian region, Albania (SI- TARC), born inside the Albanian-Italian Archaeological Mission at Phoinike 32, gathers all the information on the archaeology of the Albanian region of Caonia, from published notices (archival and bibliographic survey) to the new acquisitions (on field topographical survey and excavations). The project is carried out simultaneously in different countries (Italy, Albania, France), and for this reason the implementation of the database is necessarily developed via web (fig. 2). The SITARC s structure looks like an open pyramid, which means that: the organization of the descriptive apparatus follows a hierarchical order (area > site > context > stratigraphical units > finds); above all, this hierarchy is expandable both horizontally, both vertically. 31 The present solution is aimed at avoiding the installation of any software on the terminal used as a network server. 32 Scientific Direction: S. De Maria (Department of Archaeology, University of Bologna).
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