INTEGRATION RELATING TO AND MBER 27, 2013

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1 INTEGRATION TO THE DOSSIER OF SEPTEM RELATING TO GEOLOGICAL, MINING, HISTORICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARK OF SARDINIA MBER 27, 2013 IGLESIAS FEBRUARY 27 7 th 2014 Consorzio del Parco Geominerario Storico e Ambientale della Sardegna (Art. 114 comma 10, Legge n. 388 del D. Min. Amb. Del ) Via Monteverdi, 16 I Iglesias (CI) Tel Fax Cod. Fisc Web:

2 INDEX Integration to the dossier of September 27, 2013 relating to Geological Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia PART ONE 1. Introduction The coastline of Sardinia as the administrative and operation boundary of the Parco Geominerario Storico e Ambientale della Sardegna The rail system and connecting paths between the mining areas with high historical and landscape value of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia Geological outline of Sardinia Introduction The Paleozoic Basement Mesozoic and Cenozoic post-paleozoic sedimentary covers Neogene volcanic cycles Metallogeny in Sardinia Geosites The Project Ambitions Working Group The Geosites of the Geopark - those highlighted in yellow are already active Geosites of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia listed in the National Inventory Catalogue of the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA - MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT) Geosites external to the core areas of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia listed in the National Inventory Catalogue of the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA - MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT) Geosites of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia listed in the Feasibility study Main bibliography (with references therein) Link site actives PART TWO 1. Integration and Interaction Between Geological Heritage Environmental and Landscape with the Geomining and Historical Environmental Park of Sardinia.1 2. The Geological, Mining, Environmental and Historical Park of Sardinia The Geosites of Sardinia The Connection System between the Areas of Park The Project Working Group Following, the geosites inside and outside the core areas of the Geopark. The sites, highlighted in yellow in the list, are already protected and accessible Extract from the Regional Landscape Plan 2005 /2011 describing the geosites to be protected categorized into 8. the following groups: geomorphological, geostratigraphical, volcanological, mineralogical and petrographic, paleontological and pedological Established Natural Monuments (ex Regional Law 31/ Geosites of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia listed in the National Inventory Catalogue of the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA - MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT) Geosites of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia listed in the Feasibility Study Geosites external to the core areas of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental

3 Park of Sardinia listed in the National Inventory Catalogue of the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA - MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT) The following section shows almost two thousand Sardinian significant caves and caverns designated to be protected from the Regional Law 7 agosto Mining Areas Public Register - Resolution nr. 37/ Below all areas subject to the regulations of the regional protection and cataloged in PRAE (Mining Areas Public Register) such as quarries, mines, concessions, salt pans, etc Volcanic systems - Regional Landscape Plan 2005/2014 Below a map of the Volcanic Systems protected by the Regional Law of the Regional Landscape Plan/Sardinia s Landscape Plan 2005/ Other Sardinian institutional protection systems associated with the core areas such as Site of Community Importance, nature reserves, parks, marine parks, protected forests, etc National or regional parks and reserves established by Regional Law 394/91, lying both in the core areas of the Geomining Park of Sardinia and in the surrounding territory Areas of further natural interest established by European Directive CEE 43/92, Network Natura 2000 of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, lying both in the core areas of the Geomining Park of Sardinia and in the surrounding territory Map of the Sardinian coastline protected by the Regional Law of the Regional Landscape Plan/Sardinia s Landscape Plan 2005/ Map of the bays and headlands systems, cliffs and small islands, dune fields and beach systems protected by the Regional Law of the Regional Landscape Plan/Sardinia s Landscape Plan 2005/ Coastal wetlands and bordering territories comprised in a range of 300m depth from the shore line; internal wetlands and neighboring territories included in a range of 300m depth from the shore line protected by the following laws: L. 431/1985, d.p.r. n. 448/76, DPR 11 febbraio 1987, etc Rivers, streams and waterways and their banks with a limit of 150m each; river and bank systems. Waterfalls and springs, even if temporary protected by the following laws: RD 1775/33, DPG 368/93 etc Map of the monumental trees protected by the Regional Law of the Regional Landscape Plan/Sardinia s Landscape Plan 2005/ Forests, even fired, and forests undergoing reforestation constraint protected by the following laws: D.Lgs 386/03, D.Lgs 227/01, etc Categories of vegetation of particular importance, prairies and steppes protected by the Regional Law of the Regional Landscape Plan/Sardinia s Landscape Plan 2005/2014 and the European directive CE 43/92 (6310 Dehesas con Quercus spp sempreverde) Natural, Geological, Paleontological and Mineralogical Museums in the core areas and in the surrounding territory of the Geomining Park of Sardinia 65 PART THREE The Rail Network that connected the Areas of the Parco Geominerario e Storico della Sardegna (The Historical and Environmental GeoPark of Sardinia)

4 PART ONE INTEGRATION TO THE DOSSIER OF SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 RELATING TO GEOLOGICAL, MINING, HISTORICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARK OF SARDINIA 1. INTRODUCTION The aim of this dossier is to supplement and complement the previous documents sent by the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia to the EGN Coordination. In particular we refer to the october , october and december ones. More specifically seeks to answer to the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 questions raised by EGN AC in the december letter. 2. THE COASTLINE OF SARDINIA AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND OPERATION BOUNDARY OF THE PARCO GEOMINERARIO STORICO E AMBIENTALE DELLA SARDEGNA On account of its environmental characteristics, the Island of Sardinia represents a peculiar phenomenon in the middle of the western basin of the Mediterranean. Its geological - paleontological and mineralogical elements, its biologic rarities and endemics, its forest and wet zone populations, the variety and importance of its spectacular natural landscapes in the morphology of its coasts, internal mountains, underground cavities and archaeological remains make it a small yet complete continent.. Nevertheless, among these characteristics, it was the geological and mining exigencies that most intensely spelled out the social and cultural history of the island, - an island identified as the seat of sought-after, strategic, natural resources, deposits whose variety and size have attracted Mediterranean and other populations from the most ancient times up to recent years. The mineral richness of Sardinia appear through the innumerable mines scattered in its territory. The mines have different productive, scientific and cultural values, but are all indispensable to understand the extraordinary evolution of events, in over 8,000 years of uninterrupted exploitation. Mining history reflects the history and the culture of the Mediterranean man, in his early attempts at making tools from local flintstone and obsidian, in the utilisation of metals in manifestations of early art, and in the exploitation of the exceptional mineral resources of the island, thus contributing to the development of the European industrial revolution. The cultural patrimony therefore involves first of all the succession of human communities that have exploited the island's mineral resources; secondly it involves the territory that in the interaction with the local populations has taken on its present aspect; and finally it involves the historical sense of events that have spelled out the history of the island and of its main resources, the mineral resources. The opportunities offered by these mineral resources and the economic, social and cultural forces both internal and external to the island's territory, have led trough time to the formation of infrastructures, which can still be seen on most of the mining sites. The natural landscape in these areas marked by the material culture, by the social organisation and by the settlements that have been built around the mining activities. All this has generated new, original forms of a social and cultural landscape characterising whole areas with a precise, universal identity, unique and representative of the entire geo-cultural Mediterranean region. From the evolution in time of these new land systems and human societies, a different context has emerged. In this context suggestive and evocative forms of man's hard work in open pit and underground mines are immersed in an environment that has miraculously conserved most of its values, adding value to the cultural landscape and consequently offering it other potentialities. 1 di 36

5 These aspects may be analysed by subdividing the complex mineral world of Sardinia in its main components, that are on the one hand the SW Sardinia hat is the must comprehensive of the mining regions, and on the other a system of minor sites and areas scattered all over the island, that may be minor in productivity and concentration, but are often fundamental for scientific reasons and because of the particular events having occurred there. With the official recognition in 1998 by UNESCO and Italian Government, and the institution in 2001of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia, in order to recover the immense human, historical and cultural heritage that the great industrial mining tradition of Sardinia created, especially in the last 150 years, the Sardinia Government identified in the " Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia" the strategically most appropriate instrument to facilitate the conversion and the economic and social development of the abandoned mining areas of Sardinia. On 30 September 1998 the Carta di Cagliari was signed by UNESCO, Ministry of Environment, Sardinia Government, the UNESCO Italian Commission, Cagliari and Sassari University, Ente Minerario Sardo The "Carta di Cagliari" fixed the basics for the protection and recovery of the technical-scientific, historical, cultural and natural environmental landscape heritage related to human events that have affected the geological and mineral resources of Sardinia and commits each signatory "to promote and support the formal establishment of the GSA Park of Sardinia". Though each of these mines is characterised by a different productive, scientific and cultural value, they are indispensable as a whole to understand the extraordinary evolution of events that have marked the mining history of Sardinia in over 8,000 years. The distribution of mining activity in Sardinia can be seen from an early mining map of Sardinia by the Minister Quintino Sella in 1870, where all the active mines had been inserted on a topographic map of Sardinia that had been made by General Alberto Ferrero della Marmora in The same map was elaborated further by the Associazione Mineraria Sarda in 1921 and shows the extent of the mining concessions that existed in those times and their particular concentration in a few areas. The 8 areas that together make up the system of the Geological and Mining Park of Sardinia Represent the synthesis of mining activity in Sardinia from a historical, technical and scientific point of view Besides the geological and mining aspects that make up the distinguishing element of each individual area, particular attention has been devoted significant naturalistic elements of value and archaeological evidence present in the mining areas. These elements are so closely related to the mining areas that they make up an original landscape around them representing their economic, social and cultural background. 2 di 36

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7 3. THE RAIL SYSTEM AND CONNECTING PATHS BETWEEN THE MINING AREAS WITH HIGH HISTORICAL AND LANDSCAPE VALUE OF THE GEOLOGICAL, MINING, HISTORICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARK OF SARDINIA The mining industry in Sardinia has been influenced by the world economy, periods of great growth and periods of recession. Inevitably mining ended because deposits were exhausted or the cost of production became too high. Sardinia is almost unique in the world of mining not only for the 8000 years of its mining history but also because of the large range of mineral deposits: metal bearing (lead, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, copper silver, gold, cadmium, tin, antimony, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt); industrial: coal, quartz sand, refractory and bentonitic clays, baryte, fluorite, kaolin, feldspar, talc, ochres, and lithoids (ornamental stones, building material). The Parco Geominerario Storico e Ambientale della Sardegna is deeply rooted in Sardinian history and culture. It was established after a long process that arose from the consciousness of many scholars, enthusiasts and people who loved their own territory, all of whom recognize the value and the technical scientific and cultural importance of the ancient mining history of Sardinia. The mining activity, to a very great degree, gave birth to the Sardinian Rail Network, due to the need to move the materials produce in the various mining areas and by the need to move timber for industry and of course for the movement of workers and people between the various industrial areas. The first railway track on the island was built in 1861 by Societè Anonyme des Auts Fourneaux, Forge set Accieries, Petit Gaudet et C. di Rive de Gier (Loire-Francia), which linked the iron mine of San Leone to the beach of La Maddalena in the municipality of Capoterra. This 15.4 kilometer track was used to transport people and the mine products to the Gulf of Cagliari and as such opened it to international trade routes. In the report Conditions of the mining industry in Sardinia in 1871 by Deputy Minister Quintino Sella it was highlighted that production costs and transport costs were such as to make it uneconomic to mine certain minerals in certain areas of Sardinia. Despite doubts and opposition on the part of some Italian politicians, in 1862 Chevalier Gaetano Semenza and the group of Italian-English entrepreneurs obtained the concession to build a network that would link Cagliari, the Capital of Sardinia with Igliesias which was the most important mining area, and then Porto Torres, Terranova- Pausania (Olbia) were joined to network. The Royal society of Sardinian Railways was founded in London, England. This company laid down the rail routes, negotiated agreements with the State and opened the first section of Rail Road from Cagliari to Villasor in April By 1881 all the tracks that were based on the Welshman Benjamin Piercy s plan were finished, but in the meantime passenger traffic to the mainland was moved from Terranova to Golfo Aranci which resulted in 1883, in the need to construct an extension to the railway that then connected the two ports of Gallura. In 1876 an important rail track for the mining industry, was built to transport materials from the mine of Monteponi to Portovesme. Sardinia finally had its railway network. By the 31th December Steam locomotives, 106 carriages, 23 vans and 436 freight wagons were running on the Royal Sardinian Rail Network. The various Sardinian railways tracks can be seen in the attached maps and historical date that show that a network connecting the 8 areas of the Parco Geominerario Storico e Ambientale della Sardegna existed. It is obvious the important role played by the railways in unifying the 8 mining areas. This connection is documented by the movement of workers, machinery, materials, goods and everything else between the 8 mining areas as well as with the ports, that since the beginning of the mining history in Sardinia were the only connection to the rest of the world. The movement of people within Sardinia and between Sardinia and the rest of the Mediterranean is well documented, in fact Sardinia was on the Route of the Phoenicians in the Mediterranean and artifacts from the Sardinian obsidian trade have been found in the countries of mare nostrum (Our sea, the Mediterranean). In Sardinia the paths connecting the mining area developed first and sub sequentially the roads and railways and finally the sea routes. 4 di 36

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9 4. GEOLOGICAL OUTLINE OF SARDINIA 4.1. Introduction Sardinia from a geological point of view is one of the most complete "regions" of the European and Circum- Mediterranean area. It includes sedimentary, volcanic, metamorphic and intrusive sequences of several geologic cycles attributable to an age between the Lower Paleozoic and the Quaternary. Sardinia was joined to the bottom edge of the "European plate" and separated from it during the Oligocene- Miocene, as a result of the opening of the western Mediterranean (rifting phase and subsequent counter-clockwise rotation of the Sardinian-Corsican microplate). The geological history of Sardinia therefore is part of the geological history of western Europe and is totally different from that of the Italian peninsula. In the course of time, dynamic, physical and chemical processes led to the accumulation of metals and minerals of industrial interest in deposits of different types and origins. The rich mineral deposits of Sardinia have been known for millennia and from archaeological evidence we can reconstruct the history of its mines and quarries. The Sardinia-Corsica microplate represents an almost complete section across the South Hercynian Chain showing the transition from the low-to the medium-high-grade basement. The basement shows beautiful expositions of folded, sheared and metamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. From S to N the effect of the hercynian collision and the subsequent exhumation can be observed on all scales. In Sardinia, the basement retains good records of the entire hercynian cycle: in fact the Sardinia crust was only incidentally involved in the alpine collision without any reactivation of the basement in later orogenic buildings. The Sardinia segment of the Hercynian Chain shows a NW-SE trend and crops with good continuity from the N to the S The Paleozoic Basement The Paleozoic Basement of Sardinia belongs to the Southern European Hercynian Chain. The Hercynian Orogeny affected the whole Sardinian Basement with varying degrees of deformation and metamorphism, followed by important and extended post-collisional magmatism. The zonation of the Sardinian Hercynian Chain considering the increasing of the barrovian type metamorphism grade from SW to NE is generally divided in: 1. External zone (southern Sardinia, Iglesiente, Sulcis), with very low-to low-grade metamorphic rocks. 2. External Nappe zone (central-southern Sardinia), with low-grade metamorphic rocks; 3. Internal Nappe zone (central-northern Sardinia), with crystalline units consisting of low-to medium-grade metamorphic rocks; 4. Inner zone or "Axial zone", with medium-to high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites (N Sardinia) of Precambrian (?) to Lower Paleozoic age. The Internal and External Nappe zones are equilibrated under green schist facies conditions consist of Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic successions with a thick continental arc-related volcanic suite. The Axial zone consists of two different metamorphic complexes: a. a polymetamorphic high-grade complex made up of anatexites and metatexites hosting minor amphibolite bodies which equilibrated in LP/HT conditions which corresponds to the northernmost part of the island and extends to Corsica. In spite of this late re-equilibration, in places granulite relic assemblages of highintermediate P and unknown age are still detectable; b. a medium grade, chiefly metapelitic complex, consisting of micaschists and paragneisses bearing ky±stau±garnet and including quartzites and NMORB metabasalts boudins. The contact between these two complexes is well exposed along the Posada Valley as well as in Southern Gallura and Asinara island and it coincides with a wide transpressive shear belt and it is affected by upper Hercynian shear zones. Thrusting of complex A onto complex B has been inferred in places where the contact is not complicated by upper Hercynian retrograde dextral strike-slip shear. As concerns the geochronological data in Nurra and in Western Gallura the available Ar/Ar data on amphibole and muscovite yielded ages close to 350 Ma. In N-E Sardinia an upper limit to the collision-related metamorphism could be represented by the age of 344 ± 7 Ma (Rb/Sr age of isotopic exchange blocking among different compositional domains on a banded gneiss). More recent data yielded 328 ± 8 Ma (U-Pb dating on zircons) and at Ma (Ar/Ar on white micas) for the collision related metamorphism. It is worth noting that U-Pb dating on zircons point out a HP event at nearly 420 Ma in the retrogressed eclogites of NE Sardinia. The D2 transpressional deformation is constrained at Ma (Ar/Ar on white micas). The upper age limit of the deformation is constrained by the crosscutting Carboniferous granitoids at ~ Ma (Rb/Sr whole rock isochron, U-Pb on zircons). 6 di 36

10 From a stratigraphical point of view, the Sardinian Basement is characterized by a rather continuous Paleozoic succession. A reconstruction of the stratigraphic sequences from Late Precambrian?/Early Cambrian to Earliest Carboniferous can be made, thanks to weak tectonic deformations and low grade metamorphism which have not been destroyed the original lithological features and the palaeontological content especially in the External Zone and in the External Nappe Zone. Two sedimentary cycle are possible to distinguish in Sardinia: Caledonian (from the Late Precambrian? to the Early Ordovician); Hercynian (from the Late Ordovician to the Earliest Carboniferous). These important cycles are divided by a Middle Ordovician hiatus, evidenced by a strong angular unconformity due to the compressive movements known in the Iglesiente-Sulcis region as the Fase Sarda, and in the Sarrabus- Gerrei region as the Fase Sarrabese. In the autochthonous Paleozoic basement of the Iglesiente-Sulcis, corresponding to the External Zone of the Sardinian segment of the Southern European Hercynian Chain, the authors agree with the presence of a deformation phase preceding the Hercynian Orogeny, as formerly mentioned, named the Fase Sarda. This tectonic phase involved the pre-late Ordovician formations that had been compressed in E-W folds and deeply eroded before Upper Ordovician times. The occurrence of important eo-caledonian deformations in the Iglesiente-Sulcis region is adequately documented by the marked angular unconformity between the Early Cambrian Early Ordovician succession of Nebida, Gonnesa, Campo Pisano and Cabitza formations and the overstanding Middle? Late Ordovician Puddinga coarse clastic metasediments ( M. Argentu formation ). This unconformity is of regional importance because of its evidence, both at outcrop scale in several localities of SW Sardinia (Nebida, Masua, etc.), and at cartographic scale. In fact the wide E-W folds (e.g., Iglesias Syncline, Gonnesa Antycline), involving the Early Cambrian Early Ordovician formations, are cut towards W, where they are covered unconformably by the Puddinga metaconglomerates. The eo-caledonian age of these wide E-W folds, and their preceding of the main hercynian N-S compressive structures, which also interested the post-fase Sarda successions which are Late Ordovician to Early Carboniferous in age, was demonstrated by the refolding of the E-W folds axial surfaces by the Hercynian N-S folds. While in the Iglesiente Sulcis (External Zone) the deformation stuctures induced by the Fase Sarda are clearly recognizable, since in this area the subsequent hercynian deformations were weak, in Eastern Sardinia (Nappe Zone), the effects of the pre-hercynian deformations and metamorphism referable to the Fase Sarrabese are not so clearly recognizable in the outcrops, because of stronger hercynian deformations that have hardly obliterated the eo-caledonian structures. Nevertheless, in Eastern Sardinia there are some important elements comproving well-defined eo-caledonian Middle Ordovician tectonic deformations. These are the following: 1. The angular unconformity ( Discordanza sarrabese Auct.) that in the Sarrabus separates the Middle Cambrian Early Ordovician Arenarie di San Vito formation, based on Acritarch studies, from the overlying Middle Ordovician volcanic complex. 2. In all the Nappe Zone a thick and widespread subaerial calc-alkaline magmatism from post-tremadocian to pre-late Ordivician is present. The magmatic complex covers the local Cambrian-Early Ordovician successions (the Arenarie di San Vito in Sarrabus-Gerrei, and the equivalent formazione di Solanas in Central Sardinia). 3. The Sarrabese unconformity is diffusely marked by coarse metasandstones and polygenic metaconglomerates overlaying the Arenarie di San Vito, so attesting to wide, extended emersions during Middle Ordovician times. The geodynamic model proposed by some authors seems to indicate that the Fase Sarda Fase Sarrabese is related to the compression of the Cambrian-Ordovician back-arc basin, i.e. the Iglesiente-Sulcis area, originated by the shifting of the Ordovician volcanic arc towards the North Gondwana continental margin. The more complete Paleozoic sequences of the Sardinian Basement crop out in the so-called Autochthonous units of the External Zone (Sulcis-Iglesiente), and in the structurally higher Allochthonous Units of the External Nappe Zone. In fact, in these metamorphic lower grade areas a stratigraphic reconstruction of these rather continuous Cambrian-Carboniferous successions has been possible on a palaeontological basis. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit of the low-grade metamorphic succession of the External Zone is the Bithia formation (Upper Precambrian?-Early Cambrian) it is prevalently formed by metasandstones, metargillites, meta-greywackes, metalimestones and metaconglomerates (thickness about 2000 m). These metasediments are related to slope and terrigenous shelf environments, placed along the North-Gondwana continental margin. The only fossil evidence consists of scarce and poorly preserved acritarchs. A Late Precambrian age is inferred mainly on the basis of its 7 di 36

11 stratigraphic relationship with the overlaying Nebida formation (Lower Cambrian). The lower boundary of the Bithia formation is tectonic, and therefore the lowest part of this unit is not known. The Cambrian-Lower Ordovician succession is constituted at bottom by the Nebida formation ( m thick), represented by arenaceous-argillitic sediments, subordinately carbonatic, bearing rich fossiliferous levels (trilobites, archeocyathids) yielding an Early Cambrian age. The Nebida formation is thought to have been deposited during a tendentially regressive deltaic-marine system, characterized by a lower side represented by a prodelta area, with oolitic shoals, lagoon and beach and a upper side represented by a proximal delta, with facies of backshoal evolving from lagoonal to tidal flat conditions, under a hot, tendentially more arid, climate. The Cambrian sequence of Sulcis-Iglesiente continues with the metalimestones and metadolostones of the Gonnesa formation (Metallifero Auct.) ( m thick) related to tidal flat environments under hot-dry conditions and to supra-to subtidal environments. The paleontological content, represented by Lower Cambrian calcimicrobes and archeocyatids is very low. The transition from the Gonnesa formation to the overlying Campo Pisano is usually marked by a subaerial erosional surface evidenced by weak karstic features and by breccia horizons related to rapid subsidence and drowning of the platform due to extensional movements. The Campo Pisano formation ( Calcescisti Auct.) (80 m thick) deposed in a shallow water environment; abundant remnants of trilobites, brachiopods, echinoderms, sponges, hyolitids and foraminifers have been found. On the basis of trilobites this formation has been ascripted to the lowest part of the Middle Cambrian. The transition to the Cabitza formation ( Scisti di Cabitza Auct. ) (400 m thick) is gradual. Sedimentary structures such as cross-and convolute laminations, ripple-marks, flute casts, as well as trace fossils can be observed. The lowest part contains brachiopods, carpoids and trilobites of Middle Cambrian age. Trilobites also attest to a Late Cambrian age for the middle-upper part of this formation, while an Earliest Ordovician (Tremadocian) age has been deduced for the highest part of the sequence on the basis of graptolites and acritarchs. In the External Zone of the Sulcis-Iglesiente the metasediments of the Upper Ordovician transgression overlie the Cambrian-Earliest Ordovician sequence. This angular unconformity is related to the Fase Sarda, which is also responsible for the development of a continental environment. This transgressive cycle was favoured by a new extensive tectonic event connected to the collapse of the Ordovician magmatic arc and with related thermic crustal subsidence. The bottom of the post Fase Sarda transgressive sequence is represented by the typical clastic deposits of the Mt. Argentu formation ( Puddinga Auct. p.p.), deposed in a continental environment. Enormous scattered carbonatic boulders ( Olistoliti Auct.), probably fell along slopes controlled by synsedimentary faults. Towards the top of the sequence, the grain of the deposits decreases, passing to the finer sediments of a distal floodplain to a transitional-littoral environment. In this facies the only fossils recovered belong to one species of soft bodied, trilobite-like arthropod. The post Fase Sarda sequence continues with shallow marine metasediments deposed on a neritic platform, often containing a rich Upper Ordovician fauna (bryozoans, brachiopods, cistoids, trilobites and conodonts). The uppermost part is characterized by alternations of micaceous sandstones and meta-argillites, with parallel and wavy lamination, containing scattered clasts ranging from centimetric to millimetric in size, interpreted as glacio-marine deposits. These are similar to and coeval with the so-called paratillites, well known in the perimediterranean region, related to cold oceans bordering the Ordovician inlandsis of Northern Gondwana. This sequence has been subdivided into four units (Mt. Orri, Portixeddu, Domusnovas, and Rio San Marco formations). An Upper Ordovician age of such formations has been affirmed by fossils of trilobites, conodonts, brachiopods and graptolites. In SW Sardinia Silurian and Devonian sedimentation is characterized by a pelagic sedimentation over wide areas, in places under euxinic conditions at the bottom and oxygenated ones on the surface; three formations have been identified: the Genna Muxerru, Fluminimaggiore and Mason Porcus formations. A shallow high energy deposition occurred during the cephalopod limestone sedimentation. In the External Nappe zone the Paleozoic sequence begins with thick terrigenous metasediments known either as Arenarie di San Vito Auct. (Sarrabus-Gerrei regions, SE Sardinia), or the Solanas formation (Sarcidano-Barbagia SE and Central Sardinia). These formations (thickness of more than 500 m) are characterized by alternations of micaceous metasandstones, quartzites, metasiltites and metapelites, deposed in a wide submarine fan-delta system, characterized by turbidity current depositional processes. The age is comprised between Middle Cambrian and Early Ordovician, on the basis of an acritarch association. The Cambrian-Ordovician siliciclastic sediments are unconformably overlain (Fase Sarrabese) by a thick metavolcanic complex, up to m thick developed between the Lower and Upper Ordovician, generating effusive and pyroclastic rhyolite to andesite products, as well as intrusives. These magmatic rocks have a calc-alkaline affinity, and are related to volcanic arc activity. In the Gerrei Unit, the Middle Ordovician volcanic sequence is represented by metavolcanites and Porfiroidi Auct. During Late Ordovician time, the end of the subduction and the following gravitative collapse of the magmatic arc produced extensional tectonics, which favoured the Upper Ordovician marine transgression. 8 di 36

12 This magmatic cycle must be related to an important and wide-spread Ordovician geodynamic event, which took place accompanied by tectonic movements, unconformities and magmatic activity with analogous composition, features and age in almost all of the Hercynian South European Massifs. The hypothesis of the development of a volcanic arc posed on continental crust is well documented. The volcanic arc progressively shifted from NE to SW during Lower to Upper Ordovician times, in the geodynamic framework that developed during the convergence of Gondwana and Armorica. The South-verging gradual shift of the magmatic arc caused compressive movements along the north-gondwanian margin, where Sardinia was then located. These movements determined here the development of folding, emersion and sub-aerial erosion phenomena on the Cambrian-Lower Ordovician formations. In the supposed Ordovician arc-trench system the Iglesiente-Sulcis area should correspond to a back-arc basin, characterized by the absence of volcanism and by rapid syntectonic sedimentation with wide olistholites (the Puddinga deposits). This area was deformed throughout with thrusts and folds (Fase Sarda) due to the migration of the magmatic arc towards SW. The importance of these compressive eo-caledonian tectonics and of their related deformations probably decreased towards the arc zones, corresponding to the Outer Nappe Zone (Sarrabus, Gerrei, etc.), characterized by thick volcanic successions, by thin conglomerates without olistholites, and by a sedimentary hiatus (the Sarrabese Unconformity) interposed between the Ordovician volcano-sedimentary complex and the Cambrian Early Ordovician succession ( Arenarie di San Vito ). The subduction processes were interrupted during Late Ordovician times. Consequently, the magmatic arc and the neighbouring areas collapsed; this promoted the late Upper Ordovician marine transgression. The deposits linked to this new sedimentary cycle (the Hercynian Sedimentary Cycle ) cover both the arc volcanic products (the Outer Nappe Zone), and the Iglesiente-Sulcis Cambrian-Early Ordovician sedimentary formations (the Caledonian Sedimentary Cycle ). In the External Nappe Zone (Sarrabus, Gerrei, Arburese) the Upper Ordovician marine successions ( m thick) are constituted by quartzites, metasandstones and metaconglomerates, metasiltites and meta-argillites (Punta Serpeddì formation), sometimes with carbonate content. Placer levels and fossiliferous horizons occur (bryozoans, brachiopods, trilobites, and gasteropods). Carbonatic metasediments of Late Ordovician age (up to tens of metres thick) bear a fossiliferous association (conodonts and echinoderm remains). In the Sarrabus (SE Sardinia) these sediments, ascribed to the Tuviois formation are partially or totally silicified owing to submarine hydrothermal phenomena, and therefore they are also called Quarziti or Calcari silicizzati Auct. The most complete Silurian-Devonian successions of the Nappe Zone crop out in the Gerrei region (SE Sardinia). Incomplete sequences are discontinuously present also in Sarrabus (SE Sardinia) and the Arburese (SW Sardinia) regions. In the Gerrei tectonic Unit, the older Silurian sediments are black shales (Lower Graptolitic Shales) with typical siliceous levels (radiolarites) known as lydite. Spherical organic microfossils have also been found. The age of this complex (30-40 m thick) is comprised between Llandovery and Early Ludlow, even if not all the graptolite biozones have been documented. The Upper Silurian sediments, occurring in the Ockerkalk facies, are represented by ochraceous nodular limestones, bearing lobolites, conodonts and rare nautiloids. The Silurian-Devonian boundary could be placed in connection with the transition from the Ockerkalk to a new black shale sedimentation (Upper Graptolitic Shales), dated to the Lochkovian on the basis of graptolites. The two black shale facies, characteristic of anoxic conditions at the bottom, as well as the Ockerkalk one, developed in open marine conditions with scarce sedimentary supply from land. The sequence ends with massive pelagic metalimestones ( m thick), known as Calcari di Villasalto or Calcari a Clymenie, biostratigraphically calibrated on the basis of conodonts. Recently, Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian) beds have been documented on the basis of conodonts. In Southern Sardinia, thick siliciclastic sequences (hundreds of metres thick), formerly regarded as Cambrian- Silurian in age, have been recently dated as Lower Carboniferous and interpreted as synorogenic deposits accumulated in foredeep basins located between the advancing nappe front of the Sardinian Hercynian Chain and the foreland or External Zone (Iglesiente-Sulcis area). In the Gerrei a stratigraphic transition between the Upper Devonian Early Carboniferous limestones and the Hercynian flysch ( Conglomerato di Villasalto ) is described by some authors. These synorogenic deposits are represented by metasandstones, quartzites and metasiltites, with intercalations of polygenic metaconglomerates, metabreccias bearing clasts of Silurian lydite, and metavolcanites. The deposition was mainly turbiditic, as also proved by exotic megablocks (olistolithes and olistostromes) up to hundreds of metres in size. On the basis of conodonts it has been possible to date such exotic blocks at various Devonian intervals and indirectly infer a post-devonian age for the Sardinian Hercynian flysch. Magmatic activity, related to extensional post-collisional tectonics of the Sardinian Hercynian Orogen, took place between the 9 di 36

13 Late Carboniferous and Permian (radiometric age: Ma) and led to the formation of one of the largest batholiths in SW Europe. The intrusive sequence consists of: 1. an earlier syn-tectonic Mg-K calc-alkaline association (northwestern Corsica) emplaced at ~ Ma; 2. a late- to post-tectonic high-k calc-alkaline association cropping out in Corsica and Sardinia emplaced from 310 to 280 Ma. 3. Peraluminous association. The high-k calc-alkaline late-tectonic intrusions range in composition from gabbro and diorite to leucogranite. These plutons are mainly composed of monzogranites and granodiorites with minor amounts (<5%) of gabbroic and tonalitic rock-types. In the tonalite-granodiorite plutons the gabbroic rocks represent small intrusions earlier or contemporaneous with the associated tonalite up to granodiorite rocks. Post-tectonic intrusions consist of leucogranites and represent the younger units. The high-k calc-alkaline association also includes highlyperaluminous granitoids. The latter mainly consist of granodiorites and monzogranites, with minor tonalites and leucogranites. Most of Authors proposed a mixing model of mafic and acid magmas to explain textural, petrochemical and isotopic features of the tonalite/granodiorite association. However, for Arburèse igneous complex, a model of crystal fractionation accompanied by crustal contamination (AFC) has been proposed. Most Authors agree that granitic and leucogranitic rocks originated by partial melting of continental crust, even if in the Arburèse region (SW Sardinia) AFC processes have been proposed to interpretate the origin of peraluminous varieties. The source of late orogenic Hercynian gabbros is a subcontinental mantle contaminated by 5% of material subducted 450 Ma ago during a previous Ordovician cycle. The whole Sardinia batholith is crosscutted by a NS trending lamprophyric dike swarm showing calc-alkaline and transitional up to alkaline characters. During the Upper Carboniferous-Permian, ignimbrites, lava flows and subvolcanic bodies were emplaced. The Late Hercynian extensional movements were responsible for the birth and evolution of fluvio-lacustrine molassic basins, where terrigenous sediments, bearing a Late Upper Permian floristic association and vertebrate remains (microsauria) accumulated Mesozoic and Cenozoic post-paleozoic sedimentary covers The Permian-Carboniferous continental deposits are unconformably overlain by Meso-Cenozoic sequences (estimated thickness about 6000 m), sometime associated with volcanites and volcanoclastites. The Mesozoic succession is built up by a complete Triassic transgressive-regressive cycle in typical German facies, starting with terrigenous continental deposits (Buntsandstein) and ending, after a fossiliferous shallow marine carbonate level (Muschelkalk), with marly-clayey sediments with gypsum (Keuper). Both the distribution of outcrops and of the sedimentary facies supports a western provenance for the Triassic transgression. During Mesozoic, Sardinia was undergoing regional extension, which favoured shallow marine transgressions, starting from the west areas (Nurra and Sulcis) and in the Gulf of Orosei. Only in the Middle Jurassic did marine conditions prevail over the whole island. In the central part the Jurassic cover ( Tacchi or Tonneri Auct.) horizontally lies above the Paleozoic basement, often with an intervening basal quartzitic conglomerate. Extensional tectonic features were also present during the Early and Middle Jurassic; some authors support the idea of mainly NE-SW trending tensional tectonics in this chronostratigraphic interval, which would have been active in Provence, Sardinia and the Maritime Alps. The same tectonic feature at the Lower Jurassic transition has been documented in Corsica, too. In NW Sardinia (Nurra), detritic quartz are present in limestones, found at three different levels (Early Pliensbachian, Aalenian and Bajocian). In the Nurra region two cycles may be distinguished in the Triassic-Jurassic successions. The first ranges from the Middle Triassic to Lower Jurassic (frequent hardgrounds develop in Upper Aalenian). In Eastern Sardinia, where sedimentation started later, the first cycle ranges from Bathonian to Lower Callovian, and is bounded at the top by hardgrounds with iron ooids marking a major regressive episode. The regressive regime begins more or less contemporaneously around the whole island: in Nurra during the Bajocian; in Central Sardinia and in Eastern Sardinia during the Bajocian-Bathonian. The last cycle starts from the Oxfordian transgression, particularly marked in Eastern Sardinia; it ends in the basal Cretaceous (Lower and Middle Berriasian) with the establishment of the Purbeckian facies that represents the acme of this regressive event. Marine conditions start again in latest Berriasian earliest Valanginian and continue without interruption with neritic platform deposits (Urgonian facies) at least up to the Lower Aptian in Western Sardinia, and up to the Lower Albian in Eastern Sardinia. A great stratigraphic hiatus, accompanied by the genesis of bauxite deposits, occurs in Western Sardinia: in Nurra it clearly overlies all the sediments of the Upper Aptian- Upper Cenomanian interval. The hiatus was related to a Middle Cretaceous compressive phase which was responsible for an angular unconformity between the Middle-Upper Cretaceous and the underlying pre-bauxite 10 di 36

14 Mesozoic deposits. The hiatus gradually increases from East to West. It is minimal on the outskirts of Eastern Sardinia (Orosei), where the unconformity comes within the pelagic Albian, an angular unconformity separates the Lower Cretaceous succession from the subsequent discontinuous Upper Albian conglomerate with phosphatic and glauconitic pebbles, characterized by rich, condensed, ammonite fauna. In the Anglona region (Central-Northern Sardinia) the neritic limestones of the Upper Cenomanian unconformably cover the Middle Triassic. The progressive reduction of the hiatus, accompanied by bathymetric conditions, which gradually become more pelagic, indicates the eastern origin of the transgression. A general emersion, affecting the whole island, is found in the uppermost Cretaceous. It starts earlier in the West than in the East of Sardinia. In the West, the latest marine sediments are of Campanian age, whilst in the East there are Lower Maastrichtian marine sediments. During the Mesozoic and the Paleogene, Sardinia and Corsica formed an integral part of the southern margin of the European plate. Separated from it during the Burdigalian because of spreading of the Provençal Basin and the anticlockwise rotation, Corsica and Sardinia shared the geological history of Western Europe (Iberian Peninsula Southern France) up to the Early Burdigalian. At the end of the Mesozoic Sardinia was completely emerged. The continental phase lasts until the Palaeocene; Danian, Thanetian-Lower Ypresian marine fossil pebbles are contained in the Cenozoic conglomerate cropping out in Eastern Sardinia. Deep wells in the Sulcis lignitiferous basin (SW Sardinia) indicate the presence of the marine Thanetian-Lower Ypresian at the bottom of the Eocene succession. Supratidal miliolitic limestones ( Miliolitico Auct.) of Lower Ypresian age in the Sulcis Palaeogene basin suggest the beginning of a gradual regression. These sediments are first interbedded and then overlain by a paralic facies characterized by thick coal seams of Upper Ypresian, as palynological studies indicate. This sequence unconformably overlies (Laramic phase) various lithological complexes ranging in age from Paleozoic to Late Mesozoic. The further compressive Middle Eocene tectonic phase is responsible for the basal unconformity of the Cixerri formation (Middle-Upper Eocene), which truncates them from the Paleozoic to Lower Eocene beds. This continental formation crops out in SW Sardinia and has a regional palaeogeographic importance, as it represents a late emerged land preceding the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin. The occurrence in the Cixerri formation of conglomerates containing Middle-Cretaceous endemic species of the Iberian Provençal domain, and the direction of their transport, offer further evidence of the geographic contiguity of the Sardinia-Corsica microplate with the European continent during the Paleogene. A phase of very widespread tensional tectonics of Late Oligocene age, seems to be the origin of the rift system affecting the Western Mediterranean area. The Sardinian Oligo-Miocene basin s.l. represents one of the easternmost branches of this tensile system. These movements began in a continental environment, before the marine transgression. Thick, clastic, syn-rift sediments (the Ussana formation) emphasize the role of the faults, active in the Sardinian rift. The heterochronous transgression occurred during the Aquitanian-Burdigalian and was controlled by both tensional tectonic and the pre-trangressive volcanic morphology. Horsts, grabens and tilted blocks show the intensity of the extensional mechanisms. The first post-rift sediments are represented by a few meters of azoic sandstones (Lower Burdigalian?). In Middle Burdigalian time, a clear post-rift sedimentation is characterized by a hemipelagic succession associated with frequent turbidite deposition. Extensive marine transgression affected previously emerged areas (Anglona, Bosano, Tirso valley and Logudoro areas), where sediments of the Middle Burdigalian, with planktonic foraminifers, covered the Lacustre Auct. formation, peaking during the Late Burdigalian. This marine sedimentation continued in the basin into the Late Miocene. The Messinian regression, with lagoonal and continental facies, was accompanied by the formation of paleosoils. Upper Miocene deposits are very limited due to intensive erosion during the Messinian regression and the later Middle-Late Pliocene continental phase. The angular unconformity of the Lower Pliocene marine transgressive deposits on the Messinian substratum (Sinis area) is related to the compressive movements of Late Miocene age, also evidenced by microtectonic features. Messinian erosion is furthermore particularly evident in the seismic profiles. The superimposed Pliocene-Quaternary Campidano Graben, related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Basin, contains more than 600 m of syntectonic continental deposits (the Samassi formation). It consists of redeposited Miocene and Lower Pliocene sediments, eroded from the eastern flank of the trough, thus emphasizing the importance of deep Middle-Late Pliocene erosion. The continental phase, which started during the Middle Pliocene, ends with the first marine deposits of the Upper Pleistocene. 11 di 36

15 4.4. Neogene volcanic cycles The island of Sardinia records two distinct volcanic cycles during Oligocene-Miocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene times. These phases produced magmas with completely different petrographic, volcanological and geochemical characteristics. The Oligocene-Miocene volcanic products (32-15 Ma) are subalkaline, with serial affinity going from tholeiitic to calcalkaline, and subduction related signatures. On the other hand, the Pliocene Pleistocene volcanic rocks (~5-0.1 Ma) are mildly to strongly alkaline (mostly sodic) to subalkaline (with tholeiitic affinity), with peculiar within-plate geochemical signatures. As just pointed out, up to Oligocene times, the Sardinia-Corsica microplate was in crustal continuity with the southern European continental margin (Provence, France). This block first started to move eastwards and rotated counterclockwise in consequence of the opening of the Ligurian-Provençal as a back-arc basin. The formation of this basin is considered to be related to the subduction of the African oceanic crust (the Ionian Sea oceanic crust) under the European continental margin toward NNW. The Eocene-early Oligocene Alpine compression was followed by transtensive and extensional regimes that caused, during the Oligocene, faulting and rifting processes in the Southern European continental crust, including in Sardinia. These extensional stresses led to: 1. the counterclockwise rotation and, afterwards, the eastward translation of the Sardinia-Corsica continental microplate, together with the coeval opening of the Ligurian-Provençal and Balearic back-arc basins; 2. the formation of the Oligo-Miocene rift system (the so-called Fossa Sarda Auct.; Sardinian Trough) that crosses the whole island from N to S with a length of about 220 km. The Fossa Sarda can be interpreted as an aborted rift system. Orogenic magmatic activity associated with the opening of these back-arc basins went from the Valencia Trough to Southern Sardinia in a time span ranging from ~32 to~15 Ma. The Sardinian volcanism occurred along and within the Fossa Sarda and reached its climax of activity between 21 and 18 Ma. The volcanic activity of Sardinia can be outlined considering an early sequences (~32-24 Ma) consisting of small lava-domes and subvolcanic intrusions, generally of andesitic composition. From ~ 24 Ma, at the beginning of the Sardinian Rift system, the volcanic products were essentially dacitie to rhyolite ignimbrites and subordinate lavas. The climax of effusive activity (21-18 Ma), during the maximum tectonic extension, was characterized by the effusion of more mafic magmas, some of which with primitive character (Arcuentu and Montresta) and andesite and dacite to rhyolite great ignimbrites and, subordinately, of basalt. The explosive and the effusive products are interlayered and partially contemporaneous. In summary, dacite to rhyolite ignimbrites are the prevailing products of the Oligocene-Miocene volcanic activity, followed by andesite, basaltic andesite and, finally, basalt lavas. These rocks crop out in Northern (the Anglona, Logudoro and Bosano areas), Central (Marghine) and Southern Sardinia (the Arcuentu, Marmilla, Sarroch and Sulcis areas). All these volcanic products have subalkaline affinity (both tholeiitic and calcalkaline). The rocks show mainly medium-k serial character; the more evolved rocks (SiO2 > 55 wt%) tend to have high-k affinity, in particular those from Logudoro-Bosano (Northern Sardinia) and Sulcis; a few basaltic samples from the Arcuentu and Sarroch districts (Southern Sardinia) fall within the low-k field. During the Langhian the eastward translation of the Sardinia-Corsica microplate stopped. As a consequence, also the opening of the Ligurian-Provençal and Balearic basins on the Western side of Sardinia stopped. The oceanization processes continued on the Eastern side of Sardinia with the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. At ~ 15 Ma, the last activity was concentrated in the Sulcis area (Southwestern Sardinia) where also peralkaline rhyolitic magmas were erupted. Worth reminding is that in the Sulcis area (S. Pietro Island) is the comendite type-locality (mildly-peralkaline rhyolite). The Sardinia-Corsica microplate can be thus considered a continental lithospheric portion isolated during the extensional movements that produced a lithospheric boudinage. The igneous activity in the embrional Western Mediterranean Sea did not Stop: the youngest igneous rocks of the Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle of Sardinia (~15 Ma, SW Sardinia) are contemporaneous with the Sisco lamproite in NW Corsica (~15 Ma) that marks the first evidence of the Tyrrhenian Sea s opening. In the westernmost sector of the extending Tyrrhenian area, extensional movements resulted in the development of a rift system (Campidano graben in SW Sardinia, N-S oriented fault system in the Sarrabus area in the SW sector) as well as in within-plate magmatism. This magmatic activity developed in Sardinia about 10 Ma after the end of the orogenic Oligo-Miocene cycle, from ~ Ma (Isola il Toro, SW Sardinia) to ~ 0.1 Ma (Logudoro, N Sardinia), thus roughly contemporaneously with the potassic to ultrapotassic magmatic activity of the so-called Roman Comagmatic Province in centralsouthern Italy. Unlike the Oligo-Miocene orogenic volcanic rocks, which outcrop only along the Western side of the island, the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic activity occurs both in the Eastern and Western sectors of Sardinia. The activity is 12 di 36

16 mainly located along normal faults related to the coeval opening of the back-arc Tyrrhenian Sea, interpreted as the Middle-Miocene to recent-version of the Oligocene Provençal Basin. In some cases, the vents reactivated Oligo-Miocene magmatic conduits (e.g., at Mt. Arci). The Campidano Graben, which crosscuts the island in its southwestern part and which partially overlaps the Oligo-Miocene Fossa Sarda, is the clearest structural evidence of such tensile stresses during the geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean Sea. The development of magmatic activity only after the rifting processes, and the lithospheric thickness of about 70 km, indicate a strong crustal control on the genesis of this magmatism, being unlikely a mantle plume involvement in the genesis of Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks of Sardinia (i.e., passive rifting processes) as, instead, has been proposed for many products of the CEVP. In summary, the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks of Sardinia have mainly mafic to intermediate composition; differentiated products (both SiO 2 -oversaturated and undersaturated) occur as well. Both alkaline (basanite, alkali basalt, basanite, hawaiite, mugearite, benmoreite, trachyte and phonolite) and subalkaline types (tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite) are present. The alkaline rocks are mildly-to-strongly alkaline, mainly with sodic affinity, although some slightly potassic types are also found. The subalkaline rocks are less primitive than their alkaline counterparts and show a tholeiitic character. The Cenozoic-Quaternary magmatic evolution of Sardinia (the Oligo-Miocene orogenic volcanic cycle followed by Pliocene-Quaternary anorogenic volcanism) is a common feature throughout the entire circum-mediterranean area and has its counterparts in many other circum-mediterranean igneous provinces. The Oligo-Miocene and the Pliocene-Pleistocene Sardinian volcanic rocks belong to the well-studied Cenozoic European Volcanic Province (hereafter CEVP) for which a large set of chemical data is currently available Metallogeny in Sardinia The extraordinary diversity of the geological events which have followed one upon the other in the past 500 million years has given rise in Sardinia to an amazing variety of types, size and grade of ore deposits which have been exploited for thousands of years. The concept of mining deposit has economic implications. This is why today in Sardinia we realistically only speak of mineralisations, as, though some of the old mines still have substantial amounts of minerals, they are not currently competitive on the metal market. Almost all the concentrations of useful minerals marking the geology of Sardinia, especially the earliest ones, are the result of complex and long ore genesis which transformed the structure and composition of the original mineralisations, forming substantial new ore bodies. In Sardinia, known mineralisations developed in seven main ore genesis periods, starting from the Lower Cambrian. Of these, the first five are the most important, and developed during the Paleozoic era and the Permian-Triassic transition; the sixth developed during the Mesozoic (Middle Cretaceous) and the seventh during the Cenozoic era. In addition to these main metallogenic periods we report the Permian anthracite coal deposits and the Lower Eocene bituminous coal deposits ( Lignitifero Auct.) Scientific studies carried out to date have shown that there is a direct relationship between geological evolu- tion and ore genesis, and have identified the factors which led to the deposition of metals in the Sardinian lithosphere in a well-defined manner, following a time progression. Ore genesis occurred in relation to geo-tectonic evolution and was markedly influenced by the various cycles of magmatic activity over the different geological periods. TABLE OF METALLOGENIC P ERIODS IN SARDINIA AGE GEOTECTONIC ENVIRONMENT METALS SOURCE TYPE OF DEPOSITS CAMBRIAN- LOWER ORDOVICIAN Platform Fe-Pb-Zn-Ba-Ag- Cu-Sb-As-Hg-Ge Leaching from a probable Precambrian basement, chemical precipitation, probable exhalative-hydrothermal activity (?) Syngenetic stratabound Fe-Pb-Zn sulfide deposits and evaporitic baryte in the upper part of the Punta Manna member. Mississippi Valley or MBS stratabound massive sulfide deposits, pyrite and sphalerite with sub- ordinate galena in the Dolomia Rigata member, scattered sphalerite and pyrite with subordinate galena (Calcari blendosi), galena and sphalerite with subordinate pyrite and accessory amounts of Cu-Sb-As-Hg-Ge in the Calcare ceroide member MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN Platform Fe-Pb-Zn-Ba Mobilization and karst reconcentration, clastic deposits etc Hematite and/or baryte deposits at the bottom of the Monte Argentu formation (Puddinga Auct. p.p.). Karst deposits of pure hematite, with baryte and subordinate galena, cerussite and sphalerite in the Calcare ceroide member UPPER ORDOVICIAN- LOWER SILURIAN- DEVONIAN Plate convergence (Fase Sarda) plus distension (beginning of the Hercynian Domain) Ag-Pb-Zn-As-Cu-Fe- Ni-Co-Sb-W-Au-Bi- F-Ba Main effusive calc- alkaline (Porfiroidi Auct.), alkaline and/or transitional (Diabasi Auct.) magmatism Stratabound and timebound syngenetic mixed sulfide deposits with polymetallic ore paragene- sis (Ag-Pb-Zn-As-Cu with Fe-Ni-Co-Sb plus W e Au), iron oxides and Pb-Zn-Cu-Fe sulfides with accessory Ag-As-Ni-Co-Bi-Au (Filone oroargentifero del Sarrabus), stibnite and scheelite with Au-As-Fe-Cu-Zn (Scisti neri Auct. del Gerrei), Ferro oolitico (Nurra) and variscite (Sarrabus) 13 di 36

17 CARBONIFEROUS- PERMIAN Plate convergence (Hercynian Orogeny) and next distensions (beginning of the Alpine Domain) Mo-Fe-Zn-Cu-W-Sn- Bi-Pb-Sb-As-Ag-Cd- Au-Ni-Co-F-Ba Calc-alkaline, peraluminous and alkaline granitic plutonism; calc-alkaline and alkaline volcano-sedimentary complexes Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide hydrothermal (mesothermal) lode deposits with Cu-Fe-Sb-As- Sn-Bi-Cd-Au-Ni-Co ore paragenensis, Ni-Co sulfides with As-Sb-Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn-Bi ore paragenensis, Pb-Zn-Ag sulfides with Sb-Cu-As-Fe ore paragenesis (Monte Linas; Montevecchio-Ingurtosu), fluorite with baryte, marcasite, galena and sphalerite deposits (Silius). Skarn type deposits with iron oxide, Pb-Zn(Cu) sulfide and silicate (wollastonite, talc) ore mineral paragenesis (San Leone, Sa Marchesa, Arenas-Tiny). Greisen vein type deposits with oxide, sulfide and silicate ore minerals (Quirra, Monte Linas). Porphyry-Mo type deposits with Fe±Zn±Cu±W±Sn ore paragenesis (Su Seinargiu). Feldspar and mica bearing pegmatites (San Marco), W-Mo bearing pneumatolytic deposits with Bi-Fe-Cu-Zn-Pb-Sn-Sb-As ore paragenesis (Perda Majori) Antracite deoposits (Seui, Perdas de Fogu) TRIASSIC Platform, posthercynian peneplanation Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-Fe- Kaolin Mobilization and supergenic reconcentration, residual soils, karsts Supergenic re-concentration of pre-existing ore bodies and karst deposits in the Calcare ceroide member with main galena and silver mineral phases, sphalerite, baryte and mixed sulfides and main baryte (Barega) with sulfides. Residual iron oxide minerals and kaolin deposits (Ferro dei Tacchi, Sarcidano) MIDDLE CRETACEOUS Platform Bauxite Residual soils during emersion of the carbonatic platform Bauxite deposits (Nurra) LOWER EOCENE Platform Biuminous coal (lignite coal) paralic facies characterized by thick coal seams Bituminous coal (Lignitifero Auct.) deposits (Sulcis) OLIGOCENE- MIOCENE Plate convergence and drift of Sardinia during Alpine Orogeny Mn-Fe-Pb-Zn-Ag-Sb- As-Cu-Au-Mo-Wkaolin-bentonite Main effusive calc-alkaline basicintermediate- acid magmatism (Oligomiocene Volcanic Cycle) Porphyry-Cu type deposits (Calabona, Cixerri). Hydrothermal and supergenic oxide-mn deposits(san Pietro Island, Bosano). High sulfidation-low sulfidation epithermal Au-bearing sulfide and sulfosalt volcanic deposits (Furtei, Osilo). Kaolin and bentonite hydrothermal and supergenic deposits 5. GEOSITES As part of the geological heritage of a given area the geological sites are important elements in the same spatial planning and in the environmental protection. All this requires an estimate to be made of their value, according to objective criteria through the use of appropriate parameters, and contextualizing it to their own purposes. Specific places or parts of the territory, characterized by peculiarities of palaeontology, mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, ore deposits, volcanology, structural geology, geomorphology, or climate order, for which it is decreed an opportunity for conservation, are the only witnesses of the history of our Earth and the evolution of life. In this category are included also the main testimonial elements of the past mining activity, strongly characterizing, that possess particular qualities, corresponding to significant stretches of genetic or otherwise unique characteristics, with a clear scientific value, cultural or aesthetic, and able to activate their fruition through a cultural tourist attraction. The increasing anthropogenic influence on the landscape exposes the important geosites and with them the landscape itself and our environment, to increasingly large hazards, so much so that modern man must be considered as an important "geological" factor and it is therefore able to damage or destroy the geological sites formed naturally, but also able to bring to light the others. The destruction and damage of these witnesses should be considered irreversible and irreparable: therefore they have an absolute need to be protected against tampering and destruction, in a manner dependent on their characteristics. For this reason, the Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA) has already started, since 2002 the project "Il Censimento Nazionale dei Geositi" with the aim of achieving national census of geological sites in the whole Italian territory so that it can become a useful tool in addition to the geological knowledge of the Italian territory especially for land-use planning and the protection of landscape and environment. In the Sardinia case it was signed between the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia and the Regional Government, a program agreement in order to complete the already started collaboration with ISPRA and complete the inventory and cataloging of geological sites in Sardinia aimed at protecting (for which there are already specific laws), conservation and enhancement of natural and anthropogenic-cultural landscape, which together give life to the "Mining Landscape that in a unique and characteristic manner distinguishes most of the territories of Sardinia. 14 di 36

18 6. THE PROJECT As part of the geological heritage of a given area, geosites are important elements in the territorial planning and environmental protection. All this requires an estimate to be made of their value according to objective criteria, using appropriate parameters, and contextualizing it to their own purposes. With the aim of helping to create the conditions for sustainable development in the context of tourism, environment and industrial archaeology, starts the proposed project of taking a census, cataloging and enhancement of geological sites in Sardinia, with particular reference to those within the territorial boundaries of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia. This is a project about recovery and protection of environmental values, history and culture, with particular reference to the natural heritage values referred to as geo-sites and/or geomorphosites. It will be developed through a timetable of work in the following phases : a) Census. This is considered as preliminary and priority activity, and consists in the acquisition of all the existing basic information on the subject, thanks to which you can then pass to the field work of identification and surveying of geological heritage. It, therefore, has as its main objective the detection of the geological site in the region of Sardinia. b) Cataloging and study. At this stage we will provide all the information and geological mapping, which emphasize the characteristics, valences, as well as all the information on the main natural aspects that characterize the territory of Sardinia. All this information will be critical for completing the survey of each geological site, an operation that will cover the next phase of work. c) Database. The compilation of the schedules consider the systematic and organized inclusion of all the data collected and the creation of a special database. d) Works. To allow the public the accessibility of geosites it will be necessary to plan and realize appropriate structures for their protection and enhancement and use, like for example, trails, signage, parking areas etc... e) Final Results. All the information obtained from this work program will serve not only to improve their knowledge, but also to define the arrangements for safeguarding and protection of the property token into a census. The hope is to reach the final realization in the region of a tissue organized, connected and managed in a rational manner that ensures local communities, tourists and the general public, the most advantageous use of geological sites. 7. AMBITIONS The network of paths and trails is already active and used in various parts of Sardinia for tourism and hiking. In fact, for many years the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia has like partnership the largest regional office that manages all the Sardinia forests: thanks to this partnership have been already made several trails already used for hiking. In addition, many local associations, which are part of the Geological, Mining, Historical and Environmental Park of Sardinia, are working to continue to improving the existing routes. 8. WORKING GROUP Commissioner, Director, Technical and Development Sectors of the Consortium of Historical and Environmental Geo-mining Park of Sardinia. 15 di 36

19 16 di 36

20 9. The Geosites of the Geopark - those highlighted in yellow are already active 17 di 36

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