1 Inter-regional project Strategy for the Promotion of Competitiveness and Creativity in the Cultural Industries ( 3C: Culture Competitiveness Creativity) FIRST HYPOTHESIS FOR A LOCAL CULTURAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PLAN SIENA edited by Maurizio Serafin
2 Contents 1. Introduction General strategic outline Working on the image: expansion of the concept of city of culture The planning axis: towards the coordination of the Sienese culture system Synthesis of lines of action Regional indications for cultural planning and the Sienese development plan Integration with existing territorial plans Transversal actions of the plan Activation of the monitoring network Development and governance Integrated educational plan Specific actions: pilot project hypothesis Axes of sectorial intervention Sienese cultural sector development agency Financial resources Hypothesis for Sigma 3C pilot project in Siena... 31
3 1. Introduction The area of Siena partially meets the characteristics of a cultural district or a local high-cultural-density (HC) system, characterized by the presence in the territory of a high number of artistic, natural and cultural resources that identify it, and a network of economic, non-economic and institutional actors that carry out activities of conservation, enhancement and economic management of said resources and which, as a whole, make up the city s HC cluster. (Lazzaretti, 2001, p. 62). Although the Sienese territory s concentration of activities in the knowledge economy sector and its adjuncts is easily identifiable, there is still a lack of an adequate level of full awareness on the part of various institutional subjects. Such awareness is indispensable for the creation of a district, which exists only when it is reciprocally recognized by all of the institutional, political, economic and social actors. In fact, it is only though their coordinated action and the development of a shared vision supported by statistic data and indicators and by the identification of targeted projects that the idea of a district as a collective economic and social actor can be brought about. Cultural awareness as a driver of development De facto existence of evolved cultural district logics Need for an original model of cultural governance Opportunity for development of an evolved cultural district Within the sphere of the Inter-regional project Strategy for the Promotion of Competitiveness and Creativity in the Cultural Industries ( 3C: Culture Competitiveness Creativity), an analysis (diagnosis) of the Sienese cultural system has already been conducted using the SWOT model, identifying strengths and weaknesses (SW) and opportunities and risks/threats (OT). Here below is a general diagram of 5 axes of opportunities and threats for the sector, linked to general factors. The purpose of the synthesis is to present these factors in relationship to the possible development of an evolved cultural system.
4 Opportunities and threats for the future of the Sienese cultural system Financial resources Opportunities Threat 1. Financial resources bestowed by Monte 1. Little fund-raising activity geared dei Paschi di Siena Bank and Foundation towards other sources (private sponsors and community funds) Human and entrepreneurial resources Opportunities 1. High quality of local training system 2. Diffusion of free activities and vivacity of the sector (associations, agencies, cooperatives) Threats 1. Lack of employment and talent flight 2. Fragmentation of productive fabric and cultural system agents Physical and infrastructural resources Opportunities 1. Great attention to recuperation of artistic heritage in residential and productive functions 2. Broad-band cabling of city zone Threats 1. Deterioration of artistic heritage and high cost of real estate for residential and productive use 2. Underutilization of network and lack of development of connected activities collerate Cultural identity resources Opportunities 1. Strong aggregative tendency of the social fabric 2. Strong cultural identity and strong image as a city of art Threats 1. Strong tendency towards traditional sector cultural production 2. Limiting image of the city as a city of art tied to the past Political-organizational resources Opportunities 1. Presence of local structural plans 2. Effective possibility of integration of plans with production-oriented cultural strategies 3. Presence of provincial plans that favor a territorial approach to the cultural system Threats 1. Presence of personalized cultural market management mechanism 2. Tourism-based and consumptionoriented cultural system 3. Competition between city and province and reduction of competitiveness towards other culture cities
5 The analysis highlighted the fact that we have before us a significant occasion to evaluate and gain consensus on the hypothesis of development of an evolved cultural district in Siena, and to develop an integrated group of policies that will allow us to pass from an art territory to a culture territory. The present effort thus aims to develop the suggestions regarding the axis of opportunities that emerged from the local diagnosis study. The goal is to initiate, in a significant way, the integrated Sienese cultural system territorial planning process, focusing on cultural production process and not only or primarily on cultural consumption. 2. General strategic guidelines Subsequent to the analyses of the Sienese system dealt with in the diagnosis document (SWOT analysis and conclusions), we have identified 2 fundamental axes of intervention that represent the general guidelines of the proposals to be presented. 2.1 Working on the image: expansion of the concept of city of culture SWOT analysis suggested the need to preliminary carry out significant action to sensitize local actors regarding the opportunities presented to the Sienese territory by following the path of development of an evolved cultural district. At the level of cultural identity and political strategies, Siena boasts noteworthy recognizability as a city and territory rich in cultural offerings (branding of the city as an art city ), accompanied by a high level of awareness among residents, a continuity in the planning of important cultural events, a strong sensitivity towards the cultural sector on the part of major territorial institutions (in primis the Municipality and the Province) and the diffusion of cooperative practices at the political-institutional level. But there are particularly critical aspects regarding the perception of image factor: a detrimental culture of insularity; a limited attention to new forms of cultural expression; difficulties in relating to other cultures; the tendency on the part of the city to obfuscate rather than promote and enhance the cultural assets of the provincial territory. The first point to deal with is thus the problem of the image of the city and its territory, both internally and externally. Internally, the fundamental issue is the need to overcome the gap that impedes perception of the possibility of realizing an evolved cultural district in Siena. Externally, we find a general need to re-establish the bases of attraction with the implementation of an image that must no longer be perceived only as an art city, bound to the past and with a cultural system based solely on traditional cultural consumption by residents (cinema and events) or tourists (museums, events, city tours). The general goal is thus to promote and enhance the cultural production of the city and its territory, and to develop it further with a diversification of activities, moving towards innovative forms or forms already present by little known/perceived. Thus, the first steps in working on the image will initially be made at the internal level through: activities promoting the idea of the evolved cultural district (through participatory interventions and dynamics) at the political-institutional level;
6 consensus-seeking on the idea of autonomy of the cultural sector; activation and mobilization of actors and interests beginning with the Monte dei Paschi of Siena Foundation, the Università degli Studi di Siena, and Institutions and Foundations operating in the cultural sector The planning axis: towards the coordination of the Sienese culture system The other fundamental axis to move on is, as one may easily intuit, that of integration of subjects and actions. The main strong points of such a plan must be integration and coordination: the system requires concerted planning at the management and financing level, while maintaining a certain flexibility of proposals and contents of individual initiatives, which will update and inform territorial planning documents (Strategic Development Plan, Territorial Marketing Plan and Local Development Pact for the Province of Siena, Structural Plan of the Municipality of Siena) to reflect the new role of culture, based on the work of a coordination group involving institutions and current driving forces of the cultural system. The work group, the precise structure and functions of which are to be determined, will initially have to aim to draw up a cultural district strategic development plan and to identify a model of sector governance which: improves coordination of strategies and interventions enacted and in the process of being enacted by institutional actors; favors better management of relationships between institutions and private agents; introduces better management and assignment of spaces for activities; provides for more efficient allocation of financial resources on the basis of project selection mechanisms and evaluation of results. A key factor is the identification of an entity capable of offering itself to all actors as a neutral interlocutor of all subjects that have an interest in the sector, with the goal of providing technical assistance and support for the planning and realization of actions to promote a local cultural district Synthesis of lines of action The following schema provides an initial comprehensive visualization of modes of intervention for the creation of an integrated local culture system, illustrating the thought process that underlies this development plan.
7 3. Regional indications for cultural planning and the Sienese development plan An integrated plan for culture in Siena must obviously also take into account planning guidelines and models conceived and implemented at other levels, beyond the territorial level. In this paragraph we will attempt to outline a synthetic picture of the cultural programming lines carried forward by the Region of Tuscany and placing them in relationship with those proposed in this study on the same aspects. The Region of Tuscany finds itself at a turning point with regard to planning for the cultural sector. In June of 2006, a new law was approved that regulates regional cultural planning procedures and access to funding for such projects, which practically re-absorbs and unifies all the procedures utilized in the past: L.R. 29 June 2006, n. 27, Regulation of planning acts and procedures and regional financial interventions regarding cultural and landscape assets, cultural activities and entertainment. Furthermore, the law is not an isolated provision aimed solely at reorganizing funding requests/competitions, but it part of a broader project to restructure all cultural planning involving the Region, and is the first document necessary, at the juridical level, to develop an entire new plan. We will briefly review the key points of this brief but extremely precise legislative text, which is indicative of the regional legislature s future intentions. The main objective of the provision of law, and of all regional activity aimed at revising culture management systems, is immediately clear, both in the intentions
8 expressed by the Region and in the text of the law itself, which opens with the following point (Art. 01 Aim, comma 1): "1. The Region of Tuscany favors the development of integrated planning at the territorial level, the coordination of subjects operating in cultural sectors, the cooperation and participation of public and private subjects, the enhancement and promotion of research activities, in observance of the principles of article 2 of the regional law of 31 January 2005, n. 19 (Regulations of the regional cultural assets system)." With comma 2 of art. 1 and comma of art. 13, the law establishes that, as we have said, the planning and funding procedures of a few prior laws be unified, for the purpose of favoring the integration at the territorial level of interventions by various public and private subjects, as well as promoting the integration of activities regarding cultural assets, cultural activities and entertainment (in reference to laws: l.r. 4 December 1980, n. 89; l.r. 18 November 1994, n. 88; l.r. 1 July 1999, n. 35; l.r. 28 March 2000, n. 45; l. r. 18 February 2005, n. 33) and that many other laws partially or entirely regarding the sector be definitively abrogated (for the complete list of abrogated laws or articles or law, see article 13 comma 2 of the law in question). According to the new law (art. 2), the Region performs two main types of functions: on the one hand, it handles direction, planning, support, including through financial contributions, and evaluation of interventions ; and on the other deals with the direct realization of interventions inherent to the functions assigned to it by regional and state laws as well as of projects which, on the basis of principles of subsidiarity, differentiation and pertinence, require management at the regional level. Thus, the new plan has created within itself the PIC, or Integrated Culture Plan. The linearity of the term itself leaves no doubts. The PIC, in substance, will be the working instrument, for each council, for the management of the Tuscan culture system (art. 5) and will have to contain extremely detailed documents on planning for the period: lines of direction for the plan; a cognitive picture of Regional and territorial interventions, with the individuation of projects and anticipated levels of funding; criteria and standards for the development of territorial networks and systems, for the assignment of funding, for the organization of the informational and monitoring system and, finally, forms of coordination with other strategic plans (at horizontal and vertical levels). Prospects for the territories: the functions of the new law The law fundamentally opens two new prospects for the territories of the Region of Tuscany, two prospects that can be transformed into excellent opportunities or a serious threat to continuity in cultural activities: integrated territorial culture networks; and the creation of shared plans and projects. In substance, articles 3 (Functions of the province) and 4 (Functions of municipalities) identify as a primary function of both the province and the municipalities participation in the definition, realization, monitoring and verification of the integrated culture plan. Secondly, with regard to coordination, provinces are called upon to promote the formation of local projects with coordination activities, and municipalities to effectively coordinate the projects in
9 their own territories. Finally, all subjects must organize and directly manage projects of their own jurisdiction. For municipalities, the law indicates (with extreme coherence) the possibility to do so singly or in association. An analysis of these new regional prospects entitled Towards an Integrated Plan for Culture. First hypothesis of a work in progress" 1, illustrates very well the fundamental points of work for the PIC. The interesting thing to note is that these fundamental points are the same on which the hypotheses and proposals of the present study on the Sienese cultural system and its needs are based. The above-mentioned study begins with an analysis of the current general characteristics of the regional system, which we directly cite here below: On the monitoring of the cultural system: "However, there is no structured monitoring activity capable of rapidly and accurately providing information about the conditions of evolution of the processes and possible disconnects with regard to planned objectives; there are only targeted sector surveys, often conducted in highly specialized ways, but as such disconnected from one another at the level of analysis. In its second phase, the PIC will provide the description of the forms and contents for the setting up of a monitoring instrument: it will proceed at the conceptual level to define homogeneous and shared criteria and indicators intended to connote the essential characteristics of the phenomena individuated as the objects of analysis and to then construct a clear system of relationships and correspondences between objectives and lines of intervention, between interventions and beneficiaries; and it will also, in addition to defining technical aspects, will also detail the no-less-problematic organizational aspects in order to favor the convergence of information from all the subjects enacting policies, and will hypothesize mechanisms from reward systems to possible coercive elements that will foster direct involvement on the part of the actors in maintaining the efficiency of the monitoring system itself." 2 On the production of culture and public and private cooperation therein: It is in coherence with this line of development that the Region of Tuscany intended, though Regional Law 19/2005, to associate its intervention in the cultural field to the principles of enhancement of relations between cultural assets and territorial contexts, cooperation and participation of public and private subjects and the enhancement of research activities, as well as efficiency, efficacy, transparency and coordination. 3 With regard to the socio-economic situation, investments and network strategies: "Mid- and long-range prospects, however, make it more likely that there will be a 1 "Verso un Piano Integrato della Cultura. Prima ipotesi di un lavoro in corso", Direzione Generale delle Politiche Formative, Attività e Beni Culturali, Area di coordinamento Cultura e Sport, edited by Lucia Brestolini and Sergio Nacinovich, Florene, 26 May 2006, (Project Work for Masters in Planning and Evaluation) 2 idem, pag. 7 3 idem, pag. 8
10 reduction rather than an increase in public economic resources for culture, due to the emerging fiscal competition between states and regions originating from the globalization of markets and pressure placed on public expenditures by other sectors. To contend with the negative effects that might result from the contradiction between increasing costs and probable reduction of resources, it is necessary to take action on both planes, seeking to maximize the productivity of public investments and increase the capacity to draw resources of different origins. With regard to the first aspect, Tuscan institutions are faced with a difficult organizational and planning challenge, due to the need to conciliate the development of the supply of cultural goods and services with cost containment. Some of the strategies broached in recent years, however, offer possible answers and can be further developed. Among these is the practice of subsidiarity and institutional cooperation, which allows for the coordination of Regional and Local Institution investments without wasting resources. This practice can also help to limit the tendency, manifested for decades within the region, towards a proliferation of initiatives and interventions that are not linked to broader strategies, which generally lead to less than optimal results in terms of value for economic investment. Another strategy relevant to the problem is the construction and development of systems or networks of subjects operating in the cultural sphere, capable of sharing resources and programs. The territorial organization of the region is characterized by the presence of a plurality of structures, subjects and institutions, in the field of entertainment as well as cultural assets or documentary services, which encounter significant difficulties in maintaining a high level of services offered, and whose potential could be more fully expressed in a different organizational context. (...) "A favorable orientation to organizational innovation is also important from the point of view of the capacity to find new resources, both human and material, to contribute to the maintenance and development of cultural goods and services. Decisive to this end will be the capacity of cultural institutions to enter into discourse with the territory and with all the subjects that may share the goals of Tuscan cultural development and contribute to it, from cultural associations to bank foundations. Furthermore, these types of subjects appear to be on the increase, both numerically and in terms of capacity to make proposals, in recent years. Culture in Tuscany can count on a strong tradition of territorial rooting, but an insufficient openness to change could counteract the potential that exists in this sense. " 4 In the same document is a draft of a synthetic and general regional SWOT for the sector, in which we find many convergent elements between regional and Sienese cultural sectors. 5 Regarding common strong points, we find the great diffusion of cultural activities and subjects that deal with them, and the presence of high-level institutions with strong attractive capacities. 4 idem, pag. 36 e 37
11 As for weak points, the presence of territorial imbalances in the cultural system and its institutions is common at the two levels, but the insufficiency of human and material resources indicated at the regional level, in the Sienese case, should be considered a management rather than endogenous problem, or in other words, a case of less-than-optimal allocation more than of a lack of resources. Another weak point indicated at the regional level is the meager attractive capacity of some institutions, a problem shared by the cultural system of the territory of Siena, but only in reference to decentralized situations, considerations that bring us back to the plane of internal imbalances within the territory. With regard to opportunities/risks in general, the analyses carried out in the cited study and another study regarding Siena dovetail perfectly and confirm the need for and suitability of integrated planning at the regional and territorial level. The opportunities cited refer to the enormous wealth of cultural assets and activities, the interest in culture, the migratory flows and consequently the continual presence/exchange of people for reasons of work, study or tourism, the presence of new technologies (which in Siena can already count on the broadband network, which is not present in all the Region s cities). The risks hypothesized, for the Region as well, have to do with the deterioration of cultural assets, the overcrowding of some cultural areas/towns, and the reduction of public resources for culture, a factor which is less relevant in Siena than elsewhere due to the present of the considerable funds of the MPS Bank and Foundation, which in any case should not be a motive for planning stasis, but rather a stimulus for movement and development for the consolidation of activities. Again in reference to the new law, the prospects it opens up and the considerations brought up in the cited study on the plane of long-term objectives as well, we find a general convergence between needs at the regional level and proposals for the Sienese cultural district presented in this document. 5 The convergence of goals that stands out the most, and which we would also like to emphasize, is that regarding the timing of evolution of new plans and projects themselves. In June of this past year, the Region approved the new law and has begun to prepare the working documents of the new PIC, and the Sienese territory has in recent months participated in the present project on local cultural systems and their development plans, documentation of which, as well as direct testimonials from operators at all levels, clearly reveals the perceived need to proceed with strategic planning and make fundamental choices for development. All of the objectives indicated at the regional level, by the new law, by past provisions and by working indications for the new PIC, prove to be coherent with the proposals of this study. To generalize: development of sensitization of citizens to culture and increased access to it; consolidation of cultural activities and long-term planning; implementation of area services; conservation of cultural heritage, on the one hand, and development of cultural production on the other; integration of public and 5 See SWOT analysis of the Sienese system in the "Appendix" of this document and the regional SWOT in the cited document, p.38
12 private activities; monitoring and systematic evaluation of the sector and of projects developed; innovation and development of new competencies and professional figures to manage plans and cultural systems. The key and final point of this analysis leads us to the already-cited article 13 comma 2: Plans in effect adopted in accordance with regional laws mentioned in comma 1 cease to be effective from the date of effectiveness of the integrated cultural plan. This means that the new PIC will propose a complete reformulation of territorial projects, and will integrate the three areas of planning and funding (until this year also aimed at individual organizations) utilized up until now: cultural assets, contemporary art, entertainment. The law makes this aspect clearly explicit in art. 5 Integrated culture plan comma 2, the key points of which regarding programmatic territorial (provinces and municipalities) activity are: "2. The integrated culture plan contains: a) the cognitive framework relating to interventions programmed by the plan itself, also articulated by individual province; b) lines of direction and objectives of the plan, also articulated by individual province; (...) e) the percentage, out of total funds, of resources assigned to projects based on regional initiatives and the percentage, out of total funds, of resources assigned to support for local projects in various spheres; f) objectives and requirements for local projects relating to various spheres, as well as the modes and periods of their preparation, presentation and evaluation; (...) h) the individuation of essential requirements for the creation of territorial networks and systems in various sectors of intervention;(...)." When the region convokes the territories (as it soon will) for the constitution and integration of the PIC (it cites articles 3 and 4 of the law, function of the province and of the municipalities), they will have to be ready, because in the future there will be no other way to coordinate a territorial plan for regional cooperation and gain access to funds and facilitations, as article 8 of the law clarifies beyond a shadow of a doubt: " Art. 08 Local projects 1. Local projects, developed in conformity with the guidelines and objectives of regional planning, are the expression of territorial planning regarding the spheres indicated by the integrated culture plan. 2. Local projects are organized in accordance with the principles stated in article 1, comma Competent regional structures, having verified the conformity of local projects to the plan s guidelines, approve the list of requests accepted and assign the relative funding.
13 At this point it seems clear that the Sienese cultural system, and other local regional systems, are called upon to take up the regional challenge. The Sienese territory finds itself in absolutely favorable conditions in terms of timing to proceed with this integration and participate in the drafting of the PIC not with a series of isolated projects only formally and if necessary grouped together under a single territorial emblem, but with a series of projects for which there is a desire to give continuity and solidity over time, and which are effectively part of an integrated territorial plan conceived for the long term, which in our opinion would guarantee the Sienese territory a considerable strength and thrust within the regional framework, rather than a generic accretion of resources aimed solely at maintaining the status quo of the Sienese cultural system. The integrated culture plan in Siena would thus have an additional strategic objective, like all the levels that we will describe in the following paragraphs: that of a very active participation in regional planning and insertion into the PIC in a way that is not just nominal but effectively operative. It seems obvious that integrated regional planning will bring greater advantages to the territories that are able to meet the challenge through integrated local plans already conceived outside the PIC but coherent with it in terms of objectives, but could, however, be disadvantageous for those territories that are unprepared for the challenge. At the end of the paragraph, we feel that we should also indicate an initial working proposal for the integration of the Sienese cultural system with the regional one, a proposal that can be perfectly inserted into this plan and also fits with regional objectives. Already at the regional level there is a clear need that the new PIC be horizontally integrated with other integrated plans, including the PIGI, or integrated educational/training plan. In our view, what emerges from this regional objective and the specific objectives of the Sienese cultural training system which will be developed and described later in this document is the possibility for the Sienese training system to become the regional hub for training in cultural management, within the network of territorial subjects that deal with training for cultural fields. The possible development of a series of cultural management training pathways will be dealt with in paragraph Integration with existing territorial plans Frame of reference for local planning policies The Territorial Coordination Plan of the Province of Siena, drawn up cooperatively at all institutional levels, brings together and coherently organizes a group of planning objectives and focal points that represent all the expressions of the territorial organization. The Strategic Development Plan, born with the objective of providing institutions with a base document for concrete actions and interventions, also provides the framework for a series of actions relating to: the definition of the lines along which to update the Territorial Coordination Plan of the Province of Siena; the integration of development policies brought into being by the Province; the evaluation of local development programs; the setting of priorities for interventions and organization of sector Provincial programs;
14 the integration of the territory s endogenous resources; the organization of the cooperative decision process involving the Province and Systems of local entities. The Local development pact (PASL) individuates as a general objective for every action that of consolidating sustainable development, at the same time identifying some key programs directly ascribable to those of the Strategic Development Plan. The Directorial System for Local Development of the Province of Siena (SiReS) is organized in a General Pact Group with functions of general directorship, representation of the interests of the Sienese system and agreement on activities and initiatives to be undertaken between the parties, the Districts, six District Groups and a group that represents the Capital Municipality, each of which has jurisdiction in its own territorial sphere, and a Coordination and Technical Support Nucleus which operates within the Provincial Administration to assist the Groups and their Presidents. Convergence between territorial planning and the local development plan In this frame of reference, we must reiterate the need to update territorial planning instruments by individuating conceptual junction intersections with the guidelines of the present development plan. Thus we propose the introduction of specific coordination sections, in documents resulting from planning processes, which synthetically provide fundamental guidelines to organize the strategic development plan for the cultural sector. Viceversa, in the development plan it is necessary to indicate the connections with planning instruments, and to identify in them objectives and logics of intervention to apply specifically to the cultural sector. 5. The plan s transversal actions 5.1. Activation of the monitoring network The idea of the network As illustrated in the general strategic guidelines, one of the presuppositions for the establishment of a territorial system for culture is that of bringing about the coordination of activities and subjects. In fact, it seems quite evident that none of the local cultural institutions, however valuable they may be, has the capacity to produce on its own the critical mass of users indispensable for a sustainable management that can ensure not only the survival of the cultural asset, but above all the development of significant initiatives and proposals for the territory, which involve the expenditure of resources financial, human, technological and organizational certainly beyond the capacities of the individual Institutions. The cultural and environmental assets of the province of Siena, taken individually, are very strong attractors of both local and non-local users. For a situation like the one we have delineated to which we should add the great diversity of offerings, in historic, artistic, typological and other terms a methodology of development based on the creation of a network of territorial assets is specifically suitable, in view of an integration of offerings which, while preserving the
15 specificity and distinctiveness of each element, allows both operators and users to share the benefits of a coordinated and systemic management. Coordination at the management-organizational level, however, presupposes a structure of comparison and exchange and a reciprocal awareness on the part of subjects and operators, at least within the system itself: the creation of a network of subjects operating in the cultural sphere. The network: a structure with operational aims The network of cultural operators could be initiated with a series of activities of assessment and exchange about strategic issues (an operation already in progress with the present project), which can then be developed into a stable subject of discussion and planning for the Sienese cultural system, assisted at the operational level by a technical agency that carries out the prescribed actions of the network. The network (with appropriate operational organs supporting it) could work on both the levels of governance and resource management. At the political-decisional level (governance): coordination among cultural activities and events on offer organization coordination between cultural offerings and other types of offers in the territory (touristic, scholastic, residential, etc.) access to external resources, projects and networks difficult for individual subjects to reach At the organizational-management level (resources): information management (incoming and outgoing) management of access to offers realization of integrated adjunct services systems a network of commercial points the shared realization of promotional and touristic materials coordinated calendars of events and visiting hours for cultural structures Regarding processes of governance of the cultural system and the possibility of constructing an agency for the purpose, see paragraphs dedicated to these subjects. Network start-up actions: assessment and monitoring Start-up actions for the strategic planning of the Sienese cultural district register at two levels, which on the operational level can be described in several points: first level: activities of assessment and encounter among all public and private operators second level: census of resources and monitoring system. The first level thus concerns actions to sensitize the territory and cultural operators to the themes of strategic planning for culture and cooperative planning. A few actions of this type are in the process of being realized with the present project, and others will be developed in the near future: round tables involving institutional representatives, to share analysis documents and initial project proposals round tables involving private operators and subjects in the sector, to share
16 analysis documents and initial project proposals collective seminars, with external experts discussion groups between institutions and private operators or individuals on the strategic lines to develop coordination meetings to propose and implement the strategic plan These activities will allow two fundamental objectives to be achieved: direct awareness among subjects operating in the field of culture, and the exchange of proposals with relative implementation of strategic documents. The second level, that is, implementation and inception of a stable monitoring program, has three phases: 1. current census of talents, locations, activities and training courses in the cultural sphere (static map of the quality of cultural offerings) 2. testing and consolidation of quality control and monitoring systems on the status of projects and carrying out of the strategic plan in general (towards a dynamic map of the quality of cultural offerings) 3. establishment of an integrated cultural-offerings informational system in Siena The division between census, monitoring system and informational system is operative, because in reality the operations are different temporal phases of the same process. The division into phases is useful to better describe each stage. By census (action 1) we actually intend a snapshot of what exists at the moment of the study as a means of approaching the sector and implementation of the strategic plan. The census would thus be an initial static part necessary for the sector s selforientation and for the establishment, testing and evaluation of models and instruments used. Once this phase is completed and useful instruments for the survey have been generated, the census will proceed towards the dynamic phase and will become a census in progress on two levels, qualitative (action 2) and informative (action 3), or, respectively: the Dynamic map of the quality of cultural offerings and the Integrated cultural offerings informational system. Structural needs of the census The analysis categories reflect the basic interest of a census. In this case, the census should be not so much telephone book of activities/people, but an informative study of the real situation, divided according to key elements, along with indications on the qualitative axis regarding the subjects surveyed. Informative categories: who (individual, institution, association, company), activities and locations, objectives, resources used, contacts outside the territory, etc. Qualitative categories: future development, investment, commitment, participation in networks, need to implement activities, growth achieved/timing, etc The qualitative axis present an endogenous problem in terms of analysis, which is the fact that most of the categories utilized concern information that is both objective and subjective, or rather, they concern data that is objective but require specific interpretation by both the surveyed subject and the surveyors, case by case. To give an example of the type of problem we are referring to, the level of investment must be considered on the bases of specific data, subject by subject: an investment of 100,000 euros for a small association may have a higher level on the investment scale than an
17 investment of 100,000 euros for a museum institution that has access to stable funding. Thus, the problems that are not presented in this qualitative part of the census will be resolved, in our opinion, by establishing the effective goals of requests made of those surveyed: objective indications of the work they do; the perception they have of their own work/influence within the system; the perception of the system with regard to organizations/activities/people. One more category worth investigating is the level of perception, on two levels: the subject s self-perception, and that of the system (that is, the other subjects) with regard to that individual subject (which, for the sake of simplicity, could refer only to the set of subjects considered relevant, providing a list to the surveyed subjects). With regard to the organization of data, a division would have to be made based on the principal that underlies all the work of this strategic development plan: the cultural production/diffusion axis. Therefore it is opportune to add to the categories of the qualitative axis notations of the following type, for example: individual/artist/production (80%) diffusion (20%) individual/operator/diffusion public institution/museum/diffusion association/cultural center/production (30%) diffusion (70%) Fundamentally, we consider it necessary that each surveyed subject be catalogable albeit in a generic way by the level of production and diffusion of its activities. This further, non subjective (that is, not derived from the subject s perception but from its effective activities) category will be very useful to arrive at a map of the quality of cultural offering, which will serve as an efficacious point of departure for the plan. Based on what has just been said, here below we have schematized a possible structure of the census form, with the desire to specify its areas/needs, rather than to furnish a definitive data collection form. Informational area Type of subject Purpose Primary activity Secondary activity Sector/s of intervention Site/s Basic objectives Type of financial resources Adhesion to non-territorial entities or networks Qualitative area Investment Commitment Active participation with non-territorial structures Need for development/implementation
18 Effective development planned Level of growth (past/present) Position on cultural product production/diffusion axes Perception of own work in relation to the context (internal) System s perception of the subject (where of interest) (external) The structure of the map could contain efficacious visualizations of the most important categories, to facilitate diffusion and sharing of the results. A few examples of forms: Map of production/diffusion (with percentages and names of subjects) Map of internal/external perception (with cross-analysis) Map of subjects by sub-sectors (and declinations, ex: investments by sub-sector, number of operators per sub-sector, etc.) With regard to the census of the educational offers, the system utilized must make reference to the same logics as that used for subjects/activities, pointing a finger above all at the genesis of various pathways and development programs. Here as well, in spite of the fact that empirical data on existing training pathways are available (albeit not in an integrative informative system), we maintain that direct contact between the census takers and the directors of the provider structures is of fundamental importance for the purpose of probing the categories of the qualitative axis and establishing an initial contact for the culture network with educational institutions, which will have to become a part of it. For further references to the current state of the Sienese education/training system and to proposals for the development of new pathways, see the paragraph dedicated to the subject in this document. Concerning the growth of the census form and its transformation into an in-progress tool for monitoring and information, there is a further level that should be considered: the monitoring of users of the offer. A coherent monitoring system should include a portion of actions aimed at surveying users of cultural offers, based on the following presuppositions: the same forms for all public institutions, and in time for private ones as well a stable and programmed data gathering and integration system within the monitoring system (for example, with an update every so many months) annual analysis of results. Data gathering on users should, in our opinion, proceed in accordance with two basic rules: extremely simple and non-intrusive self-reporting methods for users utilization of few but highly relevant categories. Regarding the first point, we know that any client or customer does not gladly dedicate his time to being surveyed, and it is therefore fundamental to develop forms and processes that are based on simple, quick requests and that utilize procedures that are intuitive and even, somehow, fun. We should develop survey systems that are
19 enticing in themselves and which can in some way be inserted into the process of using cultural offers themselves, rather than as moments that are separate and perceived as such. Regarding the second point, we consider it useful to compose sets of questions that are highly intuitive for the user and that avoid asking for quantities of data that would be excessive and often (in some forms utilized) useless for those conducting the survey. We feel it is opportune to focus mainly on qualitative questions, with a minimal amount of quantitative-personal data. The proportion between the two planes could be 1:4. Procedures and forms for this type of work will be studied in further analyses, which will be carried out when the project is implemented. The point we want to underline here is that, while it may seem to be a simple operation, a survey of the users of cultural structures and activities (and in general) is a procedure that makes no sense if it is not carried out with precise objectives relating to the effective development of the system, aimed at creating new ways to attract and provide access to the public, of a qualitative/content-oriented type, and not mere service-management improvements, which must be considered only a first step towards creating a system of cultural offerings that is in line with the needs of citizens/tourists. All the forms and procedures devised for the realization of the census could then become the basic instruments for two successive processes: the Dynamic map of the quality of cultural offerings and the Integrated cultural-offering information system. The two processes are in reality closely linked and can also be based on the utilization of the same informational instrument, with a data organization that allows the project operators to guide the general data gathered into various reports reports for the diffusion to the public of data regarding access to cultural offerings; those for the diffusion to operators of data relating to projects and resources; those for the constant regeneration of the map of quality with respect to its qualitative levels (perception, production/diffusion, development, etc...). From the conclusion of the census onward, we would thus have the form and the modus operandi to establish the integrated Sienese cultural offering informational system. In fact, along with monitoring, we have carried out many of the basic actions necessary for the creation of an informational system even for individual events or projects: activated and consolidated contacts individuated the most active/interested subjects, with the possibility of greater responsibilization within the network system created forms for data gathering and analysis developed the information management instrument. Regarding the development and structure of the integrated informational system, see the paragraph dedicated to this subject. The diagram here below provides a general visualization of the above-listed actions, according to their development along a timeline, indicating the phases of development of the network and the propedeutic link with the general lines of development of the Sienese culture system. The actions/activities contained in the Network creation and Network instruments squares are in substance propedeutic
20 the former to the latter, and together form the basis for the development of the entire system, Consolidation system of governance and coordination Consolidation system of governance and coordination A situation like that we have described is specifically suited to a methodology of development based on the inclusion in the network of assets and subjects, which, while preserving the specificities and vocations of each element, allows them to share in the benefits of a coordinated and systemic management. The construction of a set of relationships and an governance based on a network model can in fact support strategic development processes in the cultural sector, which will substantiate the sector coordination function: consolidation of the idea of an evolved cultural district (though participatory interventions and dynamics) at the political-institutional reinforcement of consensus on the idea of the autonomy of the cultural sector; mobilization of actors and interests, beginning with the Monte dei Paschi di Siena Foundation, the Università degli Studi di Siena, and other Institutions and Foundations operating in the cultural sector construction of a work group that includes institutions, in particular territorial bodies, and entrepreneurial subjects operating in the cultural sector verification and periodic updating of the cultural district development plan, consolidation and calibration of the model of sector governance for the linking and inclusion of strategies and interventions carried out and in the process of being carried out by institutional actors individuation and realization of pilot projects definition of territorial promotion and marketing policies for cultural district activities launching of projects and specific actions for knowledge economy and communications companies. Communication and learning (training) processes will be an essential component of the plan, beginning with the idea that the territory can be learning while the design of a district strategy is enacted. In this sense, learning processes will be generalized and will work as factors of cohesion and sustainability.
21 5.3. Integrated education/training plan With regard to the Sienese education/training system in general, here below we provide a brief diagram of the main points of strength and weakness analyzed by the work group, with the aim of introducing the vision that led to the formulation of the proposals that follow. To the strong points, we can add three aspects that regard not so much the structures of the education/training system as social aspects which are also effectively involved in delineating the existing situation: - Residents high level of education (very high if viewed in relation to domiciled inhabitants) - Presence of talents in the artistic and cultural fields, for motives of study as well as settlement in the territory due to high quality of life - Prolonged presence of non-sienese Italian and foreign students The crux of the Sienese education/training system lies in the fact that there is already a series of organized education/training structures, both multidisciplinary
22 (universities) and sector (Chigiana, Siena Jazz, Arsnova), but we have not yet produced a training program integrated among institutions, with common strategies and an eye towards the future development of various courses. Here below, the diagram shows the main risks and opportunities for the Sienese education/training system: Sienese education/training system Opportunities 1. integrated sector coordination and strategic plan 2. growth of existing courses considered valuable and creation of new highly specialized courses 3. access to mixed funds on an integrated common plan Threats 1. loss of system identity and increasing detachment from real productive and social situations 2. decrease of external competitiveness of the entire training system and impoverishment of existing activities 3. difficulty in obtaining funds for continuation of economically nonadvantageous or less externally attractive activities Here also, the primary need appears to be of a socio-cultural order, and we maintain that the first point to deal with is the perception of the education/training system, in general and for culture specifically, which up until now has been considered a parallel and resource-investment activity, from a viewpoint of consumption of training. Education/training must instead be considered from a new, productive point of view. Education/training is undoubtedly cultural heritage, and as such must be safeguarded, but now we must also take the next step and begin to think of education/training as a cultural production activity (in all sectors and specifically for the culture sector) which creates a cultural product and is itself a productive sector in the economic sense. Here also, innovation must begin from the concept of expansion towards more strategic analyses, which consider the economic factor of the production of education/training in relation to the development of an integrated plan (as the regional documents indicate, with the PIGI for the education/training system and the PIC for the cultural system, which in turn must be integrated at the regional level as well as the territorial level). Education/training has another added value, in addition to being an original cultural production and a productive factor at the economic level: it creates a sub-stratum of sensitivity towards the cultural sector for citizens of the territory as well. This aspect, less immediate as a goal and less controllable, must not be neglected because, beyond the possibility of developing a training system for the cultural sector in Siena that implements a series of pathways of excellence, of international importance as well, the purpose of an integrated plan for culture is also to support not only the growth of the sector but, in equal measure, the raising of the cultural level of the territory s citizens. The territory is an entity that must be considered holistically, and today it may value a strategic plan for the cultural sector that implements new plans and
23 projects, tomorrow there may also be a need for a citizenry capable of comprehending and clearly perceiving the goals of those plans and their possible development. In other words, the planning of a training system for the cultural sector is fundamentally based on two pilasters: excellent training courses in various spheres and with great power to attract participants; and sensitization courses or methods for citizens to weave a fabric of development and continuity in the objectives elaborated. A sector plan, like all of the projects and proposals we have discussed up to this point, obviously cannot exclude two factors: it must fit within the strategic plan for the Sienese cultural system as one of the system actions; and it must be participated in and shared by public and private subjects that already currently provide training. An aspect we wish to clarify is that the method of analysis/proposal regarding education/training is based on a model with two axes: that of the geographic level of attraction, from the local level to the international level, and that of the level of profundity of courses, from the level of basic training to the level of high specialization. It is necessary to cross these two levels in order to obtain a true picture of the state of the training system and its future development possibilities (short- and long-term). To visualize the model, we propose here below a cogent list of various types of training courses that will serve as a legend for the visual diagram. The types of training courses or pathways can be categorized as follows: Basic or introductory training: here we place basic training courses for schools and young people, brief and non-continuative laboratory activities, continuous training and basic and specialized professional training (FB, Alb, FP). In-depth study and specialization courses: her we find continuative and specialist laboratory activities, professional specialization courses (like IFTS), bachelors degrees (L and LS), university and private masters degrees at all levels and sector specialization courses (in the legend, Alc, FPs, L, M, Aps). We will give the specifics of a few activities with nomenclatures that may prove to be too generic. By laboratory activities we intend thematic laboratories, work sites, workshops and residential programs for artists with annexed training activities, from the local basic level to the international specialized level, and also short and specific training activities linked to specific events (such as festivals or conferences). Regarding courses with schools and for young people, we intend to promote the enhancement of activities with and for schools, rethinking the educational role of art and work groups in the territory through an annual Sienese school training proposal project, interdisciplinary and intergroup, with funding mainly from outside the school, youth center or youth association in which courses are held with funds gathered from coordination or from institutions through the integrated project itself. Specialization and high-level training activities also include the possible institution of specific scholarships to attend high-level training courses, also abroad (scholarships of different amounts, with strict indications of the range of courses that can be followed, targeted towards obtaining employment in the Sienese cultural system).
24 Finally, transversal to all of these pathways, it is necessary to develop a system of culture seminars both in the territory and outside the territory with local reinsertion (as for the scholarships), with a stable and precise program for various figures (transnational as well). The system of scholarships and thematic and company -planned seminars is a process already widely used in all productive sectors and often promoted precisely for the training of specific figures with pre-defined profiles to fill specific existing openings. These projects are also often promoted within existing more general macro-projects (such as Leonardo for seminars or scholarships to attend masters courses aimed at local employment, proposed by companies seeking qualified personnel). The diagram below is a visualization, based on these two aspects, of the current state of training courses in the cultural sector in Siena. The model is not intended to be exhaustive, but illustrative of the current structure of the system. Later, moving towards a real development process of the integrated plan, it will be necessary to proceed with a detailed evaluating analysis of existing courses or pathways, also involving the directors of these activities and collecting more concrete data, which is currently not available in an aggregate and homogeneous manner. Legend of courses/pathways in the diagram FB: basic training FP: professional training FPs: specialized professional training Alb: short and/or extemporaneous laboratory activity Abc: continuative and stable laboratory activity L: two types of bachelors degrees M: all types of masters degrees Aps: all types of high-level training courses by entities in the sector (e.g. high-level training schools, academies, private schools)
25 We will now try to focus on the contents of the specific existing training courses/pathways for the cultural sector and carry out a brief analysis. Obviously, the institutions that offer most of the courses in the cultural sector are the two universities. Here below, without attempting to be exhaustive, we provide a brief analysis of the courses existing at present, unifying the activities of the two university institutions with those (few) carried out by other, in some cases high-level, educational/training organizations we consider relevant (Accademia Chigiana, Siena Jazz, Arsnova). Professional training courses are not included in the analysis because we hold that the programming carried out up to the present time has generally been good, as far as this particular training model is concerned. The general purpose of the analysis is to evaluate differences (both qualitative and quantitative) in the courses/pathways among various sub-sectors and general deficits in the sector. Training courses by sector publishing/communications/new media Basic and specialized bachelors degrees with diversified curricula in terms of productive and cultural aspects (media technologies and languages, new media production and planning, marketing and promotions, social research, intercultural communications, languages) Presence of organizational regulations Presence of management-level courses within most university curricula (economics of culture and media enterprises, management of media enterprises, mass media law) Masters level I and II on theoretical-productive aspects (promotion, business and public communications, text writing and editing, communications systems, journalism, digital television, web design and planning) Doctoral programs on textual and communications aspects (media, communications, cognitive sciences and textual studies) Cultural heritage and visual/plastic arts Basic and specialized theoretical-technical bachelors degrees (cultural and archeological assets, restoration, salvage) Schools of specialization in art history Masters (levels I and II) on theoretical-historical aspects with a predominance in the archeological sphere Presence of a certain number of management teachings within nearly all L and LS curricula (legislation, museum and archeological site planning and set-up, museum sciences, economics of cultural assets, conservation, economics and management of cultural enterprises) Presence of management courses in Masters curricula (conservation, cultural asset management) in the archeological sphere Doctoral schools on historical-theoretical aspects (artistic production, archeology, anthropology) Archives and libraries Presence of a certain number of management teachings within nearly all L and LS curricula
26 Basic and specialized bachelors degrees on historical-theoretical aspects (history, philology) Performing arts Basic and specialized bachelors degrees in the performing arts sector of a theoretical-historical nature (history of theater, music, dance, etc.) (archiving, library economics, law, archive, library and documentary computer systems, multimedia planning, document cataloguing and management) and presence of some curricula dedicated to management aspects Presence of historical-management masters courses (archive management, collections management) Presence of a meager number of management teachings within academic programs Three-year jazz instrumental and voice courses with correlated courses (musical computer programs, improvisation, musical research) Short master classes in instrumental jazz and classical music, composition, orchestra direction Non-academic and non-recognized courses in dance, theater and music for all levels (at associations and dance companies) Audio-visual Absence of specific management teachings Basic and specialized bachelors degrees with teachings on theoretical-production and historical aspects (history of cinema, audio-visual languages and technologies, basic laboratories) within communications and performing arts courses and liberal arts courses with music and performing arts curricula Short and basic courses on production techniques (video, digital television) architecture Historical-theoretical teachings (history of architecture and architectural assets) within courses on historical and archeological assets Presence of a minimal number of teachings in the sphere of management within existing courses of study Masters in urban management and urban design (last offered in 2003 As one can immediately note, there is a clear disparity among the sub-sectors, in that some spheres are covered in a few cases by courses at a fairly high level (cultural and archival assets, music, new technologies for culture) while others are almost completely lacking or have insufficient activity. We can also note that there is a general lack of training on technical-management aspects for the cultural sector (good only for cultural heritage and archival assets sectors), and there are no interdepartmental or inter-institutional courses, which could be the case of courses for
27 general managerial training in the sector or for sub-sectors, which are considered absolutely necessary in this plan, at least as linked to local development. In a few courses of study/training, like those in the communications and media sector, management teaching is strictly tied either to the sector itself or to general basic aspects of economic and juridical disciplines. Below, we provide a synthetic diagram of the three possible lines of development for the creation in Siena of training courses/pathways that privilege or at least implement management and technical-organizational aspects of the cultural sector, in general or by sub-sector. Sienese cultural sector training system Opportunities 1. university courses that can be implemented or reconstructed based on existing curricula and teaching 2. development of inter-departmental or interinstitutional bachelors or masters degrees (ex. university + private organization + local entity) 3. management courses in existing institutions for extremely specific projects (Chigiana Academy, Arsnova, Business School, etc.) Threats 1. impoverishment of existing courses 2. progressive loss of level of attraction 3. meager investment in development and innovation We can now reprise the two-axis diagram used above to create a snapshot of the Sienese education/training panorama and re-propose it with an eye towards future development and implementation. The present study substantially supports the proposal to invest in and develop to a greater degree activities that are located or will be located in the lower right quadrant, that of the intersection between mid/high level of specialization and mid/high level of internationalization, with the single exception of basic training (primary level of sensitization), which we consider necessary, as we have said, to form that fertile base fabric in the territory with regard to the perception of the cultural sector and its sub-sectors, an indispensable objective to give continuity to any long-term project. The model refers to training courses/pathways in the cultural sector. As one can see, they are divided (see legend) into two macro categories: high and mid/low investment.
28 Legend of courses/pathways in the diagram FB: basic training FP: professional training FPs: specialized professional training Alb: short and/or extemporaneous laboratory activity Abc: continuative and stable laboratory activity L: two types of bachelors degrees M: all types of masters degrees Aps: all types of high-level training courses by entities in the sector (e.g. high-level training schools, academies, private schools) As for courses outside the axes, which are not included in the diagram, we obviously do not suggest that they be abandoned or marginalized, but simply that current investment of resources is adequate for their purposes. On the other hand, we perceive a strong need on one hand for a functional re-positioning of university courses and, on the other, for the creation of high-level training courses Specific actions: transversal pilot project hypothesis The following pilot project hypotheses, on the transversal axis of the territorial cultural system, already individuated in the Diagnosis document (Eurobic Toscana Sud and Elicona Società Cooperativa, June 2006), would allow the initiation of virtuous processes for organization of the cultural sector according to the logics of the evolved cultural district: testing of monitoring and benchmarking systems for local cultural offerings integrated promotion system for local cultural offerings census of talents, cultural industries and locations for creative work managerial development and financial support to consolidate cultural enterprises hypotheses of aggregation/incubation/coordination of cultural industries planning of a training system for the cultural sector (multi-disciplinary). Obviously the distribution of transversal interventions regarding the cultural sphere requires the presence of a third structure with respect to operators in the sector,