H e r c u l a n e u m C o n s e r v a t i o n P r o j e c t

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1 SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Progress Reports & Future Proposals For the meeting of the Scientific Committee which will take place on the 15 July 2010 at Ercolano Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei : The Packard Humanities Institute : The British School at Rome c/o Scavi di Ercolano, Via Mare 44, Ercolano (NA), Italia Fax:

2 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 2 of 74 Index progress reports Part A. Herculaneum Conservation Project: the conservation programme Introduction: how far have we got? Infrastructure Reducing the impact of decay caused by water Ancient shoreline Protective shelters Continuous care: a rolling programme of site maintenance Extraordinary maintenance: Decumanus Maximus, Casa del Bicentenario, other areas Programmed maintenance Studies, conservation science research and model interventions Archaeological and geological research New site plan and other surveys Scientific research and trials to improve conservation approaches Pilot projects and model solutions Sustainable site management HCP Joint Programming and the Exit Strategy Information management for future planning, implementation and monitoring Communicating HCP results: participation and access Herculaneum Centre Part B. Edges of site Basilica Noniana Introduction Via Mare and the area around the archaeological site The feasibility study for excavating the Basilica Noniana and adjacent areas Conclusions of the feasibility study Surveys and documentation Part C. Museum facilities Introduction Existing museum facilities The existing situation which SANP are facing The feasibility study and preliminary proposals for the existing museum buildings... 31

3 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 3 of Evaluating issues raised by the creation of a new museum complex Opening discussions with the authorities involved Initial design ideas Part D. The HCP Team Appendices to the progress report N.B. Texts only available in Italian Appendix I: Panoramica delle scoperte archeologiche nel Appendix II: Panoramica dei lavori conservativi nel Appendix III: Lo sviluppo del programma di ricerca scientifica nel Appendix IV: Il contributo del Centro Herculaneum alla sostenibilità HCP Appendix V: La Programmazione Congiunta HCP per il biennio Future proposals A strategy for the final phases of HCP conservation work at Herculaneum... 67

4 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 4 of progress reports Part A. Herculaneum Conservation Project: the conservation programme 1.0 Introduction: how far have we got? During , conservation works and studies brought the site to a more stable and manageable state, consolidating the emergency campaign. This entailed work on infrastructure (water management) and on the establishment of a rolling campaign of site care (routine maintenance and more substantial repairs all over the site, particularly to roofing). In addition, research and conservation trials began to establish solutions to some of the more pressing conservation problems. Activities in have continued these themes with planning and works on site aimed at: simplifying site management (Section 2.0); identifying effective approaches to programmed maintenance (Section 3.0); improving approaches, setting examples and delivering a wealth of knowledge for improvements in conservation practice in terms of the quality, durability and simplicity (Section 4.0); and, last but not least, ensuring the positive impact of HCP endures and is as broad as possible (Section 5.0). With HCP work on site infrastructure approaching its conclusion and with the rolling campaign of site care and more ambitious conservation initiatives to be shortly taken over by SANP, the focus of the HCP team has already begun to shift. This shift is from intensive operations to planning for a future to be taken forward by SANP and other partners (an intermediate stage where HCP and SANP work together is referred to throughout this document as HCP Joint Programming). Within this, the development of knowledge translated into documentation, tools and guidelines, regarding the site and its conservation and management and its communication are proving vital. As section 5.1 confirms (see also Future Proposals, page 66), for HCP s impact to be widespread and enduring, this new chapter of the project needs a similar timeframe as that of the project to date: another decade with enhancement and participatory activities being taken forward thereafter by the Herculaneum Centre. N.B. Please note that the appendices offer readers more detailed information on some areas of the project. This allows the main document to be read as an account of the year s progress towards identified objectives, while those who want to know more about specialist areas can select the appropriate appendix. 2.0 Infrastructure 2.1 Reducing the impact of decay caused by water The last year has delivered the very last planning stages for the reinstatement of a site-wide water collection and disposal system in order to address one of the most serious causes of decay at Herculaneum. This has been carried out both in terms of the primary (below-street network) and secondary (house-to-street connections) drainage network and also the completion of most outstanding critical connections under HCP/BSR contracts (see Appendix II), including those collecting substantial areas of Insula III (along the north edge of the Casa dell Albergo) and Insula VI (along the back corridor of the Central Baths). In addition, investigations to assess the existence and potential reuse of an original drain under the Cardo IV confirmed expectations (no hope!) and mean the properties adjacent to the Cardo IV will either be managed via secondary network connections to the reinstated sewers under Cardo III or Cardo V or by surface collection on the Cardo IV itself.

5 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 5 of 74 Hereafter, most works will be carried out primarily in SANP contracts with HCP/BSR specialist planning and support as part of the two years of HCP Joint Programming (see Section 1.0). Indeed, the HCP team has been working on proposals for two specific major contracts to address the outstanding works on the primary network: a broader programme of works for the ancient shoreline (see 2.3) will establishing the connection between Cardo V and III sewers to the main outlet seawards and addressing problems of the east escarpment and water collection from the Insula Orientalis II. In addition, plans have been developed to reinstate and complete the secondary network (house by house) and the maintenance of the entire city drainage network which will be implemented within the maintenance scheme to be launched under HCP Joint Programming in With the site more stable and the emphasis finally off emergency measures, increased emphasis is being placed on understanding and managing water movement within the archaeological structures and decorative features in the form of studies and conservation trials. In the last year, this has taken place both at a site-wide level e. g. mapping humidity in the wall fabric supporting decorative features (Fig. 4), mapping surface areas where water collects and experiments to test floor surfaces to overcome the problem, especially in areas open to visitors (see Figs 1-3) and in areas of particular significance or with particular problems - e.g. proposals to reduce humidity problems in the nymphaeum of the Casa di Nettuno e Anfitrite (Fig. 5)and adjacent areas, and the launch of thermohygrometric monitoring in the Suburban Baths, both of the microclimate and of seasonal variations in the water table levels. Figs 1-3: trials to test new floor layers to be used in the unsheltered areas of site that are currently without paving. This will improve water drainage and avoid pooling near buildings and decorative features. (Trials carried out by S. Volta and planned by G. Rizzi and I. Massari)

6 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 6 of 74 Fig. 4: thermohygrometric survey of structures with particular attention to walls with decorated surfaces - in this example, part of Insula IV (Studio Massari)

7 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 7 of 74 Fig. 5: proposals to reduce humidity in the nymphaeum of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite (Studio Massari)

8 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 8 of Ancient shoreline The last year has witnessed an important development for the long-term resolution of the challenging problems of the ancient shoreline, which collects water from the whole site as it is the lowest point at Herculaneum, as well as being home to a natural spring. Indeed, the most ambitious initiative that has been agreed by the project partners within HCP Joint Programming (see Appendix V) is a major works campaign to resolve water management issues and numerous enhancement initiatives to establish public access to this area, allowing visitors to view the proposed skeleton display within the arches and reach the Villa of the Papyri from the ancient seafront in the longterm. The HCP team of specialists have been working up these proposals for SANP to contract out in late 2010 (Fig. 8) at the same time as completing excavation where the collapsed roof of the House of the Relief of Telephus was found in early 2009 (see HCP Annual Reports and Section 4.3 for conservation plans for the roof) and finishing off other critical measures (see Appendix II) pending the major campaign of works. Ongoing works have thrown up the usual array of archaeological and geological richness that we have come to expect on the seafront, including more evidence of structural reinforcements along the base of the Casa del Rilievo di Telefo in response to the bradyseism phenomena (Figs 6-7). New archaeological discoveries are explored more exhaustively in Appendix I. Figs 6-7: left excavation under way of the Roman reinforcement constructed against the bottom of the southern wing of the House of the Telephus Relief to protect it from the encroaching sea; right the structural reinforcement after excavation, with signs of marine erosion (archeaologists Sosandra with works contractor Forte)

9 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 9 of 74 Fig. 8: new stairway to the Terrace of Nonius Balbus, extract from the proposals for enhancing the ancient shoreline (Studio Pesaresi)

10 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 10 of 74 Fig. 9: the HCP roofing campaign, the next phases of works on shelters will be contracted out by SANP with HCP planning support (Studio Pesaresi)

11 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 11 of Protective shelters The campaign to protect Herculaneum s archaeological structures and decorative features from rain, wind and sun has pushed forward over the last year with the completion of the first site-wide campaign of works to repair and substitute 27 existing shelters. This work was carried out under two HCP/BSR works contracts (see HCP Annual Reports) and with the planning of two new phases of the same campaign to be contracted out by SANP within HCP Joint Programming shortly (see Appendix V). The recently completed campaign has allowed technical and organizational approaches and financial aspects, to be refined, something which is crucial for effective transfer to SANP. This recent planning for future campaigns foresees the inclusion of some new shelters (i.e. areas that Maiuri had not roofed) where there are features of particular significance and fragility, applying the lessons learnt within the campaign to date and within the experiments carried out in Insula Orientalis I in planning of the future campaigns has also benefitted from the trials made under the roofing campaign in terms of site access (use of crane and small motorized vehicles for relocation of materials within the site) and concentrating works geographically. As illustrated in the site plan below extracted from the HCP GIS database (Fig. 9), this phased campaign that has been planned in the last year will ensure that roofing in nearly all areas of the site at risk will have been addressed in the next two years. 3.0 Continuous care: a rolling programme of site maintenance 3.1 Extraordinary maintenance: Decumanus Maximus, Casa del Bicentenario and other areas The conservation programme sought to translate the project team s consolidated experience in planning and managing emergency works ( ) into a structured approach to periodic campaigns of substantial repairs, known as extraordinary maintenance in Italian. The nature of the interventions are similar in terms of needing to act swiftly before decay worsens but when the need for substantial repairs occurs under programmed maintenance (and not a campaign of emergency works) they constitute the last step before complete conservation measures and their planning and works management has to reduce the factor of unforeseen works as far as possible: this is vital for good cost and quality control when such works are carried out within the public works system. The partially excavated urban blocks on the north side of the Decumanus Maximus were chosen for the trial campaign as they brought together a mix of problems both for structures and decorative features which demanded interventions a step beyond routine maintenance but that did not constitute a complete conservation intervention (see Appendix II and Fig. 10). Thanks to this campaign it has been possible to experiment approaches to a much more comprehensive and systematic method of intervention that comes close to final conservation measures, type of works not previously undertaken by HCP that require detailed planning but also excellent coordination, organization and timetabling. The campaign was also an opportunity to test the pros and cons of two contractors (for general works and decorative features) and their respective directors of Fig. 10: work in progress at Domus N-3 on the Decumanus Maximus (Studio Pesaresi with works contractor Forte)

12 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 12 of 74 works (architect and conservator-restorer), working in parallel 1. With the closure of works in July 2010 it will be possible to reopen the entire Decumanus Maximus to the public for the first time in over a decade. These parallel works contracts (coming to a close in July 2010) also addressed pressing needs in other areas of the site (see Appendix II and Figs 11-12) and provided assistance to other HCP and SANP initiatives. In addition, the general works contract included an important first campaign of works to make the atrium of the Casa del Bicentenario safe, accessible and protected through the dismantling of the secondary roof structure and the erection of a new temporary roof (see Appendix II and Figs 13-14). This work is crucial to allowing the phased implementation (with HCP support) of the SANP conservation proposals for the house (see Appendix III). It is hoped the phased and lean approach will prove applicable to the other important houses of Herculaneum for which SANP proposals exist and can be reworked. Figs 11-12: repairs and maintenance work on decorative features in the Casa a Graticcio (left) and on the facade of the Casa del Mobilio Carbonizzato (right) (works contractor Consorzio L Officina) Figs 13-14: reinforced concrete beams forming the impluviate roof of the Casa del Bicentenario, before (left) and during (right) works. Note the temporary shelter that is protecting the houses during works (works contractor Forte) 1 Unlike the old approach with priority given to structural works which strongly penalized the already fragile decorative surfaces (that of having a single director of works and single company managing the entire tender but subcontracting at times to specialist companies), this contract was separated into two works categories in accordance with the 2002 Merloni ter laws (D.lgs 30/04 and D.lgs 163/06).

13 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 13 of Programmed maintenance As the end of HCP s site operations comes closer, it is increasingly important to focus on ways of maintaining the site in the long-term with approaches that SANP can and will apply. Another priority of the conservation programme was that of using the flexibility of the HCP/BSR contracting route to test approaches to more routine and recurrent forms of maintenance intervention for both structures and decorative features in order to plan the annual SANP maintenance programme effectively, a rolling programme of works that is to be launched in 2011 according to agreements made within HCP Joint Programming. This is of particular importance for ensuring that the conservation of the site is guaranteed in the long-term and the mistakes of the past are not repeated. As a result, some routine maintenance works were tested within ongoing works contracts and proposals for two modest test campaigns have been developed and their implementation is envisaged for late Indeed, the limited routine maintenance carried out in proved essential to evaluating the effective annual needs of the site. It became evident that, thanks to the major investment made in recent years in stabilizing archaeological structures and reinstating site infrastructure, a series of straightforward and relatively unskilled tasks could already be identified and divided between: - A services rather than a works contract, thereby reducing the complexity of contracting and management procedures and increasing the probability of them being systematically programmed in the future (maybe even under an extension of an annual SANP global service contract). - A rolling campaign of simple and repetitive conservation works which do not entail elaborate site facilities or onerous health and safety implications and perhaps use this continuous operational presence to introduce the possibility of integrating additional interventions on a request basis to meet those less foreseeable needs of the archaeological site and those who operate there. In the case of decorative features, the situation has proved more elaborate for a number of reasons: their fragility and importance always requires specialist contractors, much work still needs to be done to increase the lifespan of conservation interventions (see Section 4.0); for obvious reasons, project resources to date have been directed primarily at eliminating the causes of decay of decorative features (with roofing, drainage measures, etc.) in recent years and it is only now we are addressing the decay of the wall paintings and floor decorations properly; furthermore, the campaign to stabilize and better protect the site and reinstate drainage infrastructure is inevitably leading to a critical period of drying out for the delicate decorative features and this means we are a long way off being able to think in terms of routine, highly repetitive maintenance interventions. As a result, the HCP/BSR trial works for surfaces will focus on perfecting and standardizing the approach for carrying out and maintaining a series preliminary interventions (such as consolidation, structural pins, filling of cracks and lacunae for outdoor surfaces etc.) on wall paintings. For this reason the research programme is currently focusing on delivering more clarity on more elaborate interventions that can later inform the creation of standardized approaches. In parallel, proposals have been developed by the HCP team for SANP to implement within HCP Joint Programming an extensive campaign of conservation interventions on mosaic flooring in all areas accessed by visitors (see Appendix II and Figs 15-16). This, along with similar campaigns for other features, will constitute the capital investment that allows us to reach a status quo where routine repetitive interventions are sustainable.

14 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 14 of 74 Figs 15-16: before and after work to fill lacunae in mosaics in areas open to the public 4.0 Studies, conservation science research & model interventions 4.1 Archaeological and geological research Advances in the archaeological and geological understanding of Herculaneum have once again proved a predominant feature of the last year of conservation activity, allowing us to extend our knowledge of Herculaneum and its values but also informing conservation decision-making. Appendix I offers a systematic overview of these discoveries but highlights include: the completion of the ancient shoreline excavation of the roof of the Salone dei Marmi of the Casa del Rilievo di Telefo; excavations carried out in various areas of the Insula Orientalis II in conjunction with the establishment of water outlets for new roofing; the excavation of the east side of the peristyle of the Casa dell Albergo for the laying of a branch of the Cardo III sewer (see Appendix I).The new knowledge being thrown up archaeological and geological investigation driven by conservation work can be broadly divided into three types: urban layout and how the city was formed, the daily lives of those who inhabited it and the dynamic processes that continued to take place during the two millennia of burial. The recent shift in the project from planning works for implementation by HCP/BSR to planning works for a different client to take forward, i.e. SANP implementation, has further underlined the important role of the archaeologist in all stages of archaeological conservation activity and a series of recommendations and guidelines will emerge from the experience of the HCP Joint Programming to clarify what the public system needs to set as the minimum requirement to guarantee a sufficiently interdisciplinary approach in all project stages. 4.2 New site plan and other surveys The creation of the new site plan for Herculaneum has reached its final chapter with the completion in of the survey and cadaster of the Nuovi Scavi, that is the Villa of the Papyri and the western insulae of the city excavated in the 1990s. This phase of work is vital for relating the various parts of Herculaneum s heritage which lie in different archaeological areas. The new plan is already being integrated into the project GIS database as the last minor updates take place (such as changes due to recent Regionally-funded POR projects to the north escarpment), and is now being widely used as the basis for all planning. Publication and promoting access to the new site plan and cadaster for academics will be a priority in As in previous years, the survey teams have offered precious input into ongoing activities by offering periodic survey support on a request basis. The results of this work are coming together to form in themselves an interesting body of different and subsidiary documentation from that one recorded by the site plan for many contexts of the site that merit dissemination together with other project results. In areas surveyed in more detail on this basis included, amongst others: the partially excavated urban blocks on the north side of the Decumanus Maximus, the eastern end of the ancient shoreline, the mosaic in room 23 in the Casa dell Albergo.

15 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 15 of Scientific research and trials to improve conservation approaches With the emergency phase behind us and sustainability and effective use of resources the order of the day, the project is increasing its focus on the creation of a body of knowledge regarding the conservation of the site in partnership with numerous local and international specialist organisations. This growing wealth of guidelines and technical specifications which are emerging from these alliances will facilitate the future care not only of Herculaneum but also the other Vesuvian sites. The project team has made a concerted effort in the last year to introduce more structure and clarity in research activity by creating specific strategic programmes to address certain pressing themes. Two programmes entitled Experimentation and study days bring together teams of renowned scientists and conservators from Italy and abroad in what promises to be a winning mix of research, site trials, exchange, peer review and communication: the first is dedicated to conserving Herculaneum s wall paintings and to resolving problems of failure of adhesion and cohesion of paint layers and after a prolific year of site trials is fast approaching its conclusion (Figs 17-18); the second is in the planning stage and will be dedicated to the finding solutions for the difficult technical challenges raised by the site s unique features in carbonized or waterlogged and sometimes also polychrome wood. Figs 17-18: two conservator-restorers involved in the SGS initiative Trials and study days on remedial treatments of cohesion failures in paint layers at work on the decorative features of the Casa del Salone Nero left: Werner Schmid; right: Sabino Giovannoni. Systematic campaigns of sampling and analysis continue to consolidate our understanding of the mix of original construction techniques and twentieth-century restoration and inform remedial measures we take today: the 100 Mortars Project is a good illustration of this and its importance has been recognized by the organizing committee of a Historic Mortars conference (to be held in Prague in September 2010) who are interested in the site-wide sampling approach (Fig. 19). Capacity building of the research programme is also manifest in the increase in activity within certain partnerships such as that with the Getty Conservation Institute. Thanks to the success of the first two years of collaboration (success being measured on the ability of research to not be an end in itself but feed in directly to site conservation measures and vice versa), planning is underway to extend the joint venture from a portfolio of specific scientific research initiatives (Fig. 20) to an ambitious and more structured programme of research and field projects. A comprehensive overview of the conservation research programme and the external partners involved is available in Appendix III. The richness of this network of partners becomes increasingly

16 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 16 of 74 clear as HCP seeks sustainable models which draw on new forms of support, models that SANP can take forward in the future. Figs 19-20: left detail of the facade plaster of the Casa del Genio with brick fragments and black volcanic sand particles visible, sampled during the 100 Mortars campaign; right the Getty Conservation Institute science team working in the nymphaeum of the Casa di Nettuno e Anfitrite. 4.4 Pilot projects and model solutions Two areas of activity are the critical link between the research programme and routine planning of conservation interventions for the site. Pilot projects take the conclusions of specific research initiatives and their associated localized site trials (see 4.3) and test them at a larger scale in a more comprehensive and interdisciplinary context, to further guarantee the quality and applicability of the guidelines for conservation practice developed. Two examples prevail in the last year: the completion of a conservation strategy for the nymphaeum of the Casa di Nettuno e Anfitrite (Fig. 5) and the first stages of implementation, a project aimed at testing the challenges of a truly interdisciplinary approach to planning, implementation and monitoring; the pilot project for the detachment, removal of previous backing and relaying of the mosaic in room 23 of the Casa dell Albergo (Figs 21-22) which is nearing completion and has forced the team to address the issues raised by remedying problematic past approaches to the conservation of mosaics (on panels) and ensuring the survival of a mosaic that will be exposed to the elements long into the future. Planning is underway for new pilot projects in the Casa del Salone Nero, the Taberna Vinaria, the Suburban Baths and the College of the Augustali to put into practice and improve upon new information for the care of wall paintings emerging from the research programme. Figs 21-22: mosaic pilot project detachment of the mosaic in the Casa dell Albergo, room 23 (left) and the first trials at replacing it in situ on a more suitable support (right) (Martelli Castaldi)

17 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 17 of 74 In addition, wider needs highlighted by the research initiatives lead to the development and testing of prototypes for certain architectural features which, when successful, can become model solutions to be implemented widely across the site and contribute substantially to the management and conservation of the site in terms of protection, environmental control, security, access, visitor management etc. Examples this last year are the studies and development of prototypes for an array of security and safety fittings - doors, gates, fixed and flexible barriers (Figs 23-24) and for protective measures that aid environmental control such as new rooflights for the Suburban Baths and solutions to raise wall heights without compromising the integrity of the Roman/Maiuri masonry fabric below. Figs 23-24: preliminary designs for moveable barriers to temporarily control visitor access to areas of site (left) and the prototype proposed for the doors to close the arched spaces on the ancient shoreline (Studio Rizzi) 5.0 Sustainable site management 5.1 HCP Joint Programming & the Exit Strategy The site s future prospects depend on maintaining and further advancing HCP s results, and this is dependent on: - The development of sustainable strategies for a rolling programme of site conservation (sustainable both in terms of cost and technical and administrative simplicity); - A long-term commitment by SANP to this rolling conservation programme which depends on an intensive period of joint planning, implementation and review; - Recognising the changing status of Italian heritage which requires new approaches to communication and involvement of wider interest groups to support management objectives. To achieve these it has been necessary to already undergo a major operational shift in This began with the drafting of a joint 3-year conservation programme included in the July 2009 renewal of the BSR-SANP sponsorship contract and then translating this into a detailed proposal for , illustrated in the table in Appendix V (and already shared in a preliminary form with Committee members during the 2009 meeting). In this new phase of the project, SANP is already directing substantial financial resources to Herculaneum for conservation works in the following way: - A commitment to dedicate 1 million euros of their annual ticket income to the rolling maintenance programme on an annual basis hereafter, - A pledge of approximately 4.8 million euros dedicated to more substantial conservation, infrastructure and enhancement projects in the next 2-3 years as part of the Emergency

18 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 18 of 74 Commissioner s specific funding programme, of which some 2 million euros have already been committed. Instead, the experience of the HCP team is being used to plan and supervise these works and to develop long-term strategies for sustainable management approaches. A two phase approach to the close down of the HCP conservation programme has thus been proposed: - Phase 1: a handover phase in the period ; - Phase 2: a second and final consolidation phase The tables below attempt to summarizes this two phase exit strategy. BSR/PHI works in the context of HCP The past HCP Joint Programming / 1 st Phase Exit Strategy nd Phase Exit Strategy BSR/PHI planning & supervision in the context of HCP The past HCP Joint Programming / 1 st Phase Exit Strategy Infrastructure nd Phase Exit Strategy Maintenance House by house conservation Conservation practice SANP works in the context of HCP The past HCP Joint Programming / 1 st Phase Exit Strategy nd Phase Exit Strategy SANP planning & supervision in the context of HCP The past HCP Joint Programming / 1 st Phase Exit Strategy Infrastructure nd Phase Exit Strategy Maintenance House by house conservation Conservation practice In the new framework created by the exit strategy, two aspects are of great interest in terms of broader positive outcomes of HCP s 10 to 20 years of activity. In the first phase of the exit strategy, HCP is offering archaeological support to all SANP works thereby retaining the opportunity to push knowledge of the site further and greatly enrich the material to be shared via publications, archive web portals etc. Similarly, the continued investment in improving conservation practice, in this case in the first and in the second phase of the exit strategy, will produce substantial material for publication for the heritage conservation and management sector. In addition, it will help establish Herculaneum as:

19 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 19 of 74 - an open-air classroom and reference point for issues raised by the safeguarding of archaeological heritage world over and, - a model for Italy when it comes to heritage being seen as a shared responsibility and accessible to all. And this is thanks to the numerous partnerships forged with local organisations and research institutions all over the world, many of which will survive beyond the lifetime of the project. 5.2 Information management for future planning, implementation and monitoring The broad ambition of HCP is to leave lasting change in terms of how the heritage authority and its partners go about managing and conserving the site and not risk a return to the mistakes of the past. Guaranteeing rolling maintenance programmes and guaranteeing access, physical and intellectual, are perhaps the most significant areas in reaching this objective. The role of information management in achieving this end is proving ever more vital given the elaborate analytical relationship it allows between data referring to physical places, administrative aspects (cost and timeframes) and qualitative parameters. The relationship between the HCP team and the archaeological site with its conservation issues to resolve can be measured by the amount of documentation produced over the last years of activity. Information management has a role to ensure that information is accessible and that tools are provided for a critical approach to the gathered data. The current database is based on a general principle of georeferencing information of all types allowing observation and analyses to be carried both on a sufficiently detailed scale or in terms of evaluating general characteristics. The efforts of the last year of activity have focused on implementing old data into the new plan of the archaeological site, as well as creating software for the management of data emerging from works carried out on structures and decorative surfaces. The management applications created allow operations to be monitored and together make up a georeferenced digital archive of HCP activities on site. The database structure reflects the project with the gathering of existing information in order to understand the site s conservation problems, the effort to find solutions to structural issues and the creation of a shared management system which allows the planning of rolling maintenance programmes. Objectives for the coming years will be: to provide the tools necessary for wider sharing of information through the creation of digital containers with standardized and structured data (CMS web portal); to provide access to data through visual interfaces, such as WebGIS, which allows spatial interrogation of information; to provide models for archiving data ante and post operam for the conservation activities on structures and surfaces which will ensure reliability, flexibility and meet recognized standards. 5.3 Communicating HCP results: participation and access Communication has played a key role in HCP since project inception, as it was quickly recognized that dialogue with others helped improve strategic thinking and conservation approaches. However, possibilities were limited as long as the team was intensely absorbed with tackling emergency situations. More recently, however, it has been possible to develop a more structured programme for communicating project processes and results and this is particularly vital now that HCP is moving into a handover phase where long-term sustainability is the prime objective. Indeed, communication on various levels and with different media is required in order to: - share the HCP experience of creating a temporary management system to reinforce the ability of the existing management framework to tackle serious management and conservation issues and how this can be applied to other heritage management scenarios;

20 Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010 Page 20 of 74 - ensure that the accumulated data on Herculaneum (in particular the GIS) continues to be useful and useable for future practioners working on the site; - share HCP results that offer potential conservation approaches and methodologies applicable elsewhere; - gain broader support for site conservation by provoking an awareness of Herculaneum s values, the site s fragility and the need for wide commitment by many stakeholders; - give the archaeological heritage a more dynamic role in the local community and interface with the wider cultural landscape. Alongside a continuing commitment to sharing results by publishing articles in journals and presenting conference papers, this year a more structured approach was drawn up for publications, which includes: - a series of thematic studies based on HCP as a interdisciplinary conservation project (principle audience: heritage practioners) and recounting results as they emerge; - a series of monographs based on key archaeological areas/themes and conservation issues (principle audience: scholars); - website based on a series of hypertexts that communicate the work of the project so far and indicating key areas where results are/will be shared (principle audience: heritage practioners, interested general public); - web portal to evolve from the basis created by the website as copyright issues are resolved and HCP results are translated into versions that are useful/understandable by others. Finally new methods of communicating with visitors are being analysed and tested where possible, based on the latest research in the field of heritage interpretation, where the key feature of, for example, site panels and other interpretive media is to raise awareness so that visitors choose to support conservation efforts. This approach is a particularly important tool in visitor management, as there is often a negative impact of raising a site s profile as is happening in Herculaneum where increased visitor numbers cause increasing anthropic damage. These early initiatives support HCP s sustainability agenda and may be of great importance should the Basilica (see Part B) and the museum (see Part C) projects go ahead. 5.4 Herculaneum Centre While the HCP team is becoming increasingly proactive in terms of communication and the participation of a broader range of stakeholders in Herculaneum s conservation, an important ally in this work is the Herculaneum Centre. While HCP is preparing to handover to the Soprintendenza and gradually scale down operations, the Centre is envisaged as a long-term presence in Ercolano which will take forward HCP s work on several fronts: creating positive learning environments for issues relating to archaeological heritage; promoting Herculaneum as an open classroom, broadening the scope and diversity of support which archaeological heritage attracts, taking forward partnerships that HCP has created beyond the finite lifetime of HCP (Getty, Courtauld etc.). As a result it is being supported by the HCP team as an integral part of the sustainable future strategy (see Appendix IV). Indeed, not only does the Herculaneum Centre bring its institutional partner the town council to dialogues on the future of Herculaneum within Ercolano, but it has established a network of local and international partners that are bringing valuable support. These partners range from ICCROM who, since working with the Centre, has made an increased commitment to using Herculaneum as a case study to a network of local schools who have ensured that 100 school children have become young ambassadors of Herculaneum helping to spread the message of its need for protection. Other initiatives have directly contributed to HCP, such as the support given to work in Via Mare next to the Basilica are (see Part B) and the oral history project that has shed light on Maiuri-period site practices which have informed conservation approaches.

Ministero della Salute Direzione Generale della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Bando Giovani Ricercatori - 2007 FULL PROJECT FORM

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