Il Building Information Modelling (BIM)

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1 Sede dell'ordine degli Ingegneri di Lecco Lecco,16 aprile 2015 Il Building Information Modelling (BIM) Progettazione computazionale: nuovi scenari e opportunità MEng PhD, BIM consultant

2 Argomenti La digitalizzazione del settore costruzioni(aec) Computational design Digital fabrication Building information modeling Mix reality



5 Trasferimento tecnologico Settore Informatico Digitalizzazione Settore AEC

6 Fonte: Autodesk

7 Fonte: Autodesk

8 Computa -tional Design Innovazione Di processo BIM Di prodotto Digital Fabrica tion Mix Reality


10 Progettazione: Processo Tradizionale: si attua attraverso segno grafico Processo Digitale: si attua attraverso definizioni numeriche

11 La definizione delle relazioni tra unità nella progettazione digitale dà origine alla progettazione parametrica

12 Nella progettazione parametrica gli strumenti informatici hanno influenzato i criteri alla base della progettazione. Seguendo due principi di applicazione.

13 Approccio top-down Trasformazioni topologiche La forma deriva da manipolazioni di masse

14 La tecnologia segue la geometria

15 Esempio: Kunsthaus Graz Peter Cook e Colin Fournier

16 Approccio bottom-up Trasformazioni geometriche La forma è derivata da meccanismi logici

17 La trasformazione geometrica segue la logica costruttiva

18 Esempio: Syctom bridge Eric Dubosc e Marc Landowski

19 The computational approach moves beyond the representation of finished designs, to support the designer to develop his own geometric and logical framework within which many different alternative design solutions can be easily generated and evaluated. Fonte: Robert Aish

20 Indeed if the new design is in any sense revolutionary, it is so not due to its forms, but to its ability to propose meaningful alternatives Fonte: Robert Aish

21 Static modelling Imperative manipulation No change possibility Parametric associative modelling Parametric manipulation Designed modification Scripting modelling Code manipulation Complete modification


23 Static modelling The designer immediately obtains models but to change or refine or increase the complexity of the model require an exhaustive amount of additional effort

24 Design process

25 Design process



28 Parametric associative modelling The designer have to initially make some effort to think and create parameters and association between them, after he can investigates different solutions according to the parameters he thought and designed

29 Point A Line Point B Point A Plan Sketch Extrusion Design process Point A Line Point B Plan Sketch Extrusion

30 Modelling process is a logical mathematic process. Associativity means that, if the designer modifies a part of the model, every part generated by it, will be consequently modified

31 Esempio: Bridge of Aspiration Wilkinson Eyre Architects



34 The designer have to initially make a considerable effort to write the code and programming the model but then the complexity of the model and the ability to re-generate the model appears powerful than what can be achieved with associatice modelling Fonte: Robert Aish

35 In imperative programming statements are executed in order. A subsequent change to a variable has no impact on its previous use. In this example, changing the value of A does not effect the value of B

36 In associative programming the statements create an execution graph, A subsequent change to a variable forces the reevaluation of the graph. In this example, changing the value of A will effect the value of B

37 Chidori in KKAA Fonte: KKAA

38 Fonte: KKAA

39 Fonte: KKAA

40 Fonte: KKAA

41 Fonte: KKAA

42 Spunti di riflessione Avete mai provato a descrivere delle geometrie mediante loro descrizione alfa-numerica?


44 Complexity Il Building Information Modelling (BIM) 1 Industrial revolution follows introduction of water and steam powered mechanical manufacturig facilities 2 Industrial revolution follows introduction of electrically powered mass production based on the division of labour 3 Industrial revolution uses electronics and IT to achieve further automation of manufacturing 4 Industrial revolution based on Cyber Physical Systems End of 18h century Start of 20h century Start of 1970 Today Time

45 "Soon it will be possible to have completely unique parts in a built structure for a price that before would only be possible through huge amounts of repetition - a variable prefab, or as it is called in production terms, mass customization. Lars Spuybroek



48 Mass production and taylorization (1911) First edition of G-Code (CNC programming language) was released in MIT during 195Os, for military applications

49 Since 196Os, automated technologies allow to mass produce a range of products, almost with no human intervention Since 197Os, the incorporation of processing hardware opened the scope of applications of manufacturing technologies

50 Computer-numerical controlled (CNC) technologies allows the differentiation of product with minimum additional effort, in comparison with mass production

51 Gropius (1956) estimated in 25 years the time lapse for technology transfer in the housing industry. In 2OO1 (Larson, 2OO1) it was estimated in 17 years Reference Journal: Automation in Construction, Elsevier Publ.

52 Production Processes Design Intent Systemic Condition Materials

53 References: Advances in Architectural Geometry Design Modelling Symposium Smart Geometry


55 In Digital Fabrication process the information for production, come directly from the geometry of the element. Once the process is designed, the geometrical modification drives the production process, allowing a customized design.

56 Rules Digital model Product Information Digital Fabrication


58 Model Design Fabrication Information

59 Fonte: Robofold LTD

60 Fonte: Robofold LTD

61 Fonte: ADAPA

62 Fonte: ADAPA

63 Fonte: ADAPA

64 Fonte: NedCAM

65 Traditional node Additive manufacturing node (SLS) Design the efficiency Fonte: Arup

66 Fonte: Andrea Morgante and Enrico Dini 3D printer

67 Spunti di riflessione Quale può essere l influenza sulla progettazione delle tecnologie di produzione personalizzata o taylor made?







74 if rules are explicited in the design: fabrication can be digital, performance can be better reached, design can be customized according to the requirements

75 Design Design Design Il Building Information Modelling (BIM) Geometrie+Fabbricazione Performance Design Model A Model B Analysis Model C Model D Analysis Final Model Fonte: Expo Cluster Politecnico di Milano

76 L associazione di performance-based model al digital fabrication è una delle risposte innovative alle possibilità offerte dalla produzione tailor made.

77 Spunti di riflessione Quale è il ruolo della geometria? In un settore in cui è possibile effettuare simulazioni e produrre componenti da modelli digitali


79 Fonte: Evolute+RFR

80 The quality of a panelized surface is mainly determined by the gaps ( divergences ) and the angles ( kink angles ) between neighboring Panels. Divergence Kink angle Fonte: Evolute+RFR

81 Local fitting = adattamento locale di pannelli cilindrici alla superficie Fonte: Evolute+RFR

82 Global fitting = adattamento simultaneo di pannelli cilindrici alla superficie Fonte: Evolute+RFR

83 Double curve panel = scostamento minimo tra pennelli e superficie Fonte: Evolute+RFR

84 Spunti di riflessione Avete mai pensato di applicare i principi della mass customization ai componenti edilizi?


86 EU brings innovation into public procurement rules In 15 January 2014 EU introduce new provisions allowing for innovation. Direttiva Comunitaria, all'art. 22 c.4: For public works contracts and design contests, Member States may require the use Of specific electronic tools, such as of Building information electronic modelling tools or similar.


88 The advantages Traditional process BIM process Figure 5: Cost of modification during construction phases and benefit by improving control

89 L analisi dei dati contenuti nei modelli BIM permette di anticipare e risolvere le criticità durante le fasi di progettazione

90 BIM: Processo di associazione di database informativi a modelli tridimensionali è la base del BIM

91 The BIM/BIG data Fonte: David Philp

92 AIM SIM FIM BSIM BRIM Life cycle asset manamgement Il Building Information Modelling (BIM) Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 CAD Separate sources of information covering the basic asset information in paper documents 2D 3D Separate sources of information covering the range of asset information in semi-structured electronic documents BIMs Integrated electronic information with full automated connectivity and web-stored ibim IFD IFC Federated file-based electronic information with some automated connectivity Drawings, lines,text Models, objects, collaboration, integrated, interoperable data

93 Fonte: David Philp

94 The insurances and banks Are you reviewing the scope of insurance cover you need for projects as a result of greater adoption of BIM? Figure 4: Zurich insurance survey - Construction Risk September 2013

95 Metodologia di lavoro BIM: Approccio tradizionale vs approccio BIM-based

96 BIM workflow Figure 11: Author

97 Project Based BIM Adoption Il Building Information Modelling (BIM) 3,5 3 Norway UK Finland 2,5 2 Germany Sweden Denmark Netherlands 1,5 1 Italy France 0,5 Spain BIM Policy and Contract Documentation Bubble size = relative GDP Fonte: Autodesk

98 The current situation in UK

99 BIM education challenge in UK Figure 10:

100 The overarching aim of the UK Government's initiative (BIM application) is to reduce the cost of Government construction projects by 20%


102 BIM around the world country by country:


104 Information Model Fabrication Design Information Model Construction

105 The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector is widely recognized as one of the most promising application fields for Augmented Reality (AR). (Woodward & Hakkarainen 2O11)

106 BIM Modellazione per componenti edilizi (BIM) IFC MR CLOUD Data base di informazioni associati agli oggetti modellati (IFC) Sviluppo tecnologico (marker, markerless, GPS, laser scanner...) Ambienti di lavoro condivisi in remoto

107 Fonte: DPR

108 MarkerMultiMarker

109 MarkerLess

110 Data Visualization Dimensions and position Thermal transmittance Link to technical sheets Phase of construction

111 At some advanced construction sites, 3D/4D Building Information Models are starting to replace paper drawings as reference media for construction workers. (Woodward & Hakkarainen 2O11)

112 Potenziali applicazioni: Tecnologie di mixed reality + Database informativi

113 Augmented virtuality Laser scanner Cloud of points Real environment Mixed Reality Virtual environment AR devices Digital models Augmented reality

114 Our discussion thus addresses the complete spectrum of Mixed Reality as defined by Milgram and Kishino 1994, with real world augmented with virtual model data, and digital building models augmented with real world data. (Woodward & Hakkarainen 2O11)

115 Shin and Dunston (2OO8) evaluated 17 classified work tasks in the AEC industry.

116 They concluded that eight of them: 1.Layout 2.Excavation 3.Positioning 4.Inspection 5.Coordination 6.Supervision 7.Commenting 8.Strategizing could potentially benefit from the use of AR

117 Mixed Reality Technologies Il Building Information Modelling (BIM) Expectations Peak of Inflated Expectations Plateau of Productivity Slope of Enlightenment Technology Trigger Trough of Disillusionment Time

118 According to a new market research report of Augmented Reality & Virtual Reality Market - Global Forecast and Analysis to 2O13 2O18, published by MarketsandMarkets, is expected to grow at a CAGR of 15.18% and reach 1.O6 Billion in 2O18.


120 Spunti di riflessione Quali possano essere i limiti nell applicazione del MR al settore edilizio?


122 Data visualization on site Marker Markerless Markerless GPS tracking Digital models AR devices Digital model In office Augmented reality Construction site

123 Project visualization Construction control Clash verifications Facility management Digital model In office Augmented reality Construction site


125 Construction control Cloud of points Data Real world Scanning/pictures Construction site Augmented virtuality Digital model In office

126 Geometrical verifications Construction control 4D verifications Activity progress report Quality control Construction site Augmented virtuality Digital model In office

127 4D BIMs could facilitate onthe-spot comparisons of the actual situation at the construction site with the building s planned appearance and other properties at the given moment. (Woodward & Hakkarainen 2O11)

128 Besides augmented visualization, the related camera tracking technologies open up further application scenarios, enabling mobile location-based feedback from the construction site to the CAD & BIM systems. (Woodward & Hakkarainen 2O11)

129 Such feedback possibilities include adding elements of reality such as images, reports and other comments to the virtual building model, correctly aligned in both time and space. (Woodward & Hakkarainen 2O11)

130 Spunti di riflessione Quale pensate sia il campo nel settore AEC che può avere meggiori vantaggi nell applicazione del MR e perchè?

131 Spunti di riflessione Avete pensato ai vantaggi associati alla possibilità di visualizzare schede tecniche e localizzazione di impianti tramite realtà aumentata?

132 traveller, there is no road, you make your own path as you walk Antonio Machado ( )

133 Sede dell'ordine degli Ingegneri di Lecco Lecco,16 aprile 2015 Ing. Arch. MEng Ph.D.