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1 Electronic Thesis and Dissertations UCLA Peer Reviewed Title: The Unseen Beloved: Love by Hearsay in Medieval and Early Modern Italian Literature Author: Asaro, Brittany Kay Acceptance Date: 2013 Series: UCLA Electronic Theses and Dissertations Degree: Ph.D., Italian 0477UCLA Advisor(s): Ciavolella, Massimo Committee: Ballerini, Luigi, Betti, Franco, Stacey, Peter Permalink: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/67m5x9cj Abstract: Copyright Information: All rights reserved unless otherwise indicated. Contact the author or original publisher for any necessary permissions. escholarship is not the copyright owner for deposited works. Learn more at escholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide.

2 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles The Unseen Beloved: Love by Hearsay in Medieval and Early Modern Italian Literature A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Italian by Brittany Kay Asaro 2013

3 Copyright by Brittany Kay Asaro 2013

4 ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION The Unseen Beloved: Love by Hearsay in Medieval and Early Modern Italian Literature by Brittany Kay Asaro Doctor of Philosophy in Italian University of California, Los Angeles, 2013 Professor Massimo Ciavolella, Chair In this dissertation, I trace the development of love by hearsay both as a topos in narrative and as a point of polemic from the origins of Italian literature to the middle of the sixteenth century. I propose that the idea of love by hearsay occupies a highly significant position in Italian medieval and early modern thought, both fascinating and perplexing writers for hundreds of years. I highlight the transition of this theme from a courtly poetic motif, popularized by the Provençal troubadours, qualified by medieval Italian poets, and satirized by Giovanni Boccaccio; to a questione d amore debated in sixteenth-century dialogues, treatises, and lectures. Italian writers were deeply divided on the subject, torn between, on one hand, cases of love by hearsay in some of the most influential works in their canon, and, on the other hand, the conflict between the notion of an unseen beloved and the dominant understanding of love as a reaction to a ii

5 visual stimulus, supported by a long philosophical and medical tradition. This controversy culminates in a dialogue devoted exclusively to the subject of love by hearsay, Luc Antonio Ridolfi s Aretefila (1562). Ridolfi pits courtly ideals and scientific theories against each other through the ideologies of his two interlocutors. The outcome of the debate in this dialogue symbolizes the general victory of an academic, humanistic understanding of love over courtly erotic ideals in Italy by the mid-sixteenth century. At this point in Italian intellectual history, a kind of love that existed in great love stories but that could not be sustained scientifically could not be considered a realistic possibility. Ridolfi reinforces the division between what is poetically and realistically possible, effectively banishing love by hearsay to the literary realm, and concluding that its occurrence in the natural world would require nothing short of a miracle. The principal objective of this dissertation is to demonstrate that by tracing the development of the topos of love by hearsay throughout Italian literary history, we may analyze the displacement of courtly values by academic and humanistic scholarship as the supreme authority on eros. iii

6 The dissertation of Brittany Kay Asaro is approved. Luigi Ballerini Franco Betti Peter Stacey Massimo Ciavolella, Committee Chair University of California, Los Angeles 2013 iv

7 To the Unseen Beloved Though you have not seen him, you love him, and even though you do not see him now, you believe in him and are filled with an inexpressible and glorious joy. 1 Peter 1:8 (NIV) v

8 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS VITA viii xi INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE: LOVE BY HEARSAY IN MEDIEVAL ITALIAN POETRY 11 The Exception That Proves the Rule: Love by Hearsay According to Giacomo da Lentini, Rustico Filippi, and Cecco d Ascoli Love By Hearsay Between Virtuous Men According to Dante, Petrarch, and Their Sources CHAPTER TWO: LOVE BY HEARSAY IN THE DECAMERON 43 Love by Hearsay in the Early Italian Short Story The King of France and The Marchioness of Montferrat (Dec. I.5): A Parody of the Vida of Jaufré Rudel Gerbino and the Princess Of Tunis (Dec. IV.4): Boccaccio s Confrontation with a Literary Polemic Lodovico-Anichino And Beatrice (Dec. VII.7): A New Love for a New Society CHAPTER THREE: LOVE BY HEARSAY AS A QUESTIONE D AMORE IN THE 88 SIXTEENTH CENTURY Baldassarre Castiglione s Libro del cortegiano (1528): Love By Hearsay in Action at the Court of Urbino Giuseppe Betussi s Raverta (1544): A Hybrid Dialogue Ortensio Lando s Questiti Amorosi (1552): Literary Authority in a Collection of Dubbi d Amore Benedetto Varchi s Sopra Alcune Quistioni d Amore (1554): The Triumph of Logic in the Academy Flaminio Nobili s Trattato dell Amor Humano (1556): The Question of Love by Hearsay in a Neoplatonic Love Treatise Lodovico Domenichi s Dialogo d Amore (1562): Tension in the Drawing Room CHAPTER FOUR: LUC ANTONIO RIDOLFI S ARETEFILA (1562) 140 From the Florentine Academy to Aretefila s Drawing Room Federigo s Argument for Love by Hearsay Lucio s Argument Against Love by Hearsay Aretefila s Judgment and the Miracle of Love by Hearsay vi

9 APPENDIX A: INDEX OF INSTANCES OF LOVE BY HEARSAY IN MEDIEVAL AND 193 EARLY MODERN ITALIAN LITERATURE AND ITS SOURCES APPENDIX B: DIPLOMATIC TRANSCRIPTION OF LUC ANTONIO RIDOLFI S ARETEFILA 195 BIBLIOGRAPHY 311 vii

10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In order to manage the great mental (not to mention emotional and even physical, considering those long hours slumping at my desk!) challenge of a long-term research project, I approached my dissertation as a knight would approach the battlefield. Perhaps I had been reading too much Orlando furioso at the time, but looking at the dissertation as something to vanquish or be vanquished by helped me to stay committed to it, and to keep plugging along, even when it became difficult. I would like to now thank my fellow men and women of arms, without whom I would not have emerged victorious. First, I give my sincerest thanks to my dissertation adviser and committee chair, Professor Massimo Ciavolella, who met with me countless times over the two years it took to complete this project. Although I benefited enormously from Professor Ciavolella s expertise on notions of love in medieval and early modern Italy, it is his encouragement and support that I value above all. Writing this dissertation was much less daunting because I had an adviser that believed in me and my scholarship. Even when, at the end of our meetings, I left his office with a to-do list a mile long, I felt empowered to complete every task. I am grateful to have had the opportunity to work closely with such a knowledgeable and kind person. I thank Professor Luigi Ballerini, in whose class on early Italian poetry I first became fascinated by the idea of love senza vedere, after reading Giacomo da Lentini s Amor è un desio che ven da core. Considering the dynamic way in which Professor Ballerini teaches poetry, it is no wonder that this sonnet caught my attention. I thank the other distinguished members of my dissertation committee, Professor Peter Stacey, for his thoughtful feedback, and Professor Franco Betti. I also thank Professor Remo viii

11 Bodei, the so-called guest of honor at my prospectus defense who, although he is not officially a part of my committee, has nonetheless contributed significantly to this project. I would also like to thank Professor Theodore J. Cachey of Notre Dame, who assisted me when he was a Visiting Professor at UCLA in Spring Professor Cachey perceived my struggle with having a topic but not a thesis, and thus kindly but insistently forced me to state my argument. The final structure of my dissertation was heavily influenced by Professor Cachey s suggestions. For that I am truly grateful. I express my sincere gratitude to Paola Novaria and the staff at the Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria di Torino for scanning and ing me a copy of Rosanna Traversa s unpublished dissertation, L attività lionese di Luc Antonio Ridolfi, which was a valuable critical source as I wrote my fourth chapter on Ridolfi s Aretefila. I also thank Dottoressa Traversa herself, who gave me permission to consult it for my research. I would like to acknowledge my esteemed colleagues, the graduate students of the Department of Italian at UCLA, for their continuous support throughout the many stages of this project. My warmest thanks to my cohort Erika Nadir and Cindy Stanphill for their heartfelt encouragement. A very special thanks, as well, to my colleague and our resident native Italian speaker Camilla Zamboni, for her frequent assistance in making sense of the double negative constructions so favored by sixteenth-century trattatisti. The completion of this project was made possible not only by intellectual and moral support, but by financial support, as well. For this I am genuinely grateful for the assistance of UCLA s Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies and for their Lynn and Maude White Fellowship, which provided my stipend during this last year of writing. The CMRS also generously funded my travel expenses to present my research at various conferences. I am also ix

12 indebted to the exchange program between UCLA and the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, which allowed me to conduct dissertation research in Pisa in Summer Finally, I thank the Graduate Division and the Department of Italian at UCLA for providing me with the resources necessary to earn a doctorate. I extend my loving gratitude to my support network outside the university to my parents, Anthony and Cynthia Asaro, and my husband, Philip Russell, for their undying patience and support. To my parents, for their unconditional love. Every dream I have ever realized has been made possible through them, because they loved me from the start, and made me feel that I was capable of every endeavor. On a more material level, I thank them for giving me this beautiful new laptop, which made dissertation writing much more enjoyable! And to my husband for taking me on walks when I had been inside writing too long, for always putting things into perspective, for constantly reminding me that my worth as a person is not dependent upon success on the dissertation. His love has been solid dry land against the stormy sea of uncertainty and challenges inherent in this last stage of graduate school. Finally, I thank God, for always listening to my prayers, and answering them. I thank Him for the blessing that this journey has been, and that He has walked every step with me. x

13 VITA 2007 B. A., Foreign Languages (Spanish and Italian) Claremont McKenna College Best Thesis in Foreign Languages Award Claremont McKenna College Phi Beta Kappa Alumni Award 2008 Graduate Summer Research Mentorship Graduate Division University of California, Los Angeles Production Editor Carte Italiane Italian Graduate Student Journal University of California, Los Angeles 2009 M. A., Italian University of California, Los Angeles 2011 C. Phil., Italian University of California, Los Angeles Summer Research Fellowship Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Teaching Assistant / Teaching Associate University of California, Los Angeles Editorial Assistant Lorenzo da Ponte Italian Library Lynn and Maude White Dissertation Fellowship Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies University of California, Los Angeles PUBLICATIONS AND PRESENTATIONS Asaro, Brittany. Boccaccio s Francescas: Comparing Inferno V and the Tale of Nastagio degli Onesti (Dec. V.8). In Women in Hell: Francesca da Rimini & Friends Between Sin, Virtue, and Heroism / Donne all inferno: Francesca da Rimini & Co. tra peccato, virtù xi

14 ed eroismi. Giornate internazionali Francesca da Rimini. IV Edizione. Atti del convegno. (Rimini: Romagna Arte e Storia, 2013) (forthcoming).. The Question of Love by Hearsay in Luc Antonio Ridolfi s Aretefila. Paper presented at the Renaissance Society of America annual convention, San Diego, California, Love by Hearsay in Baldassarre Castiglione s Libro del Cortegiano. Paper presented at the Renaissance Conference of Southern California 56 th annual meeting, San Marino, California, Boccaccio s Francescas: Comparing Inferno V and the Tale Of Nastagio Degli Onesti (Dec. V.8). Paper presented at the conference Giornate Internazionali Francesca da Rimini: Women in Hell, Los Angeles, California, Friendship by Hearsay in Purgatorio XXII. Paper presented at the Northeastern Modern Language Association annual convention, Rochester, New York, Love by Hearsay in Giuseppe Betussi s Raverta. Paper presented at the California State University, Long Beach Medieval and Renaissance Students Association annual conference, Long Beach, California, A study of Characterization in Matteo Bandello s Félix Lope de Vega y Caprio s and William Shakespeare s Versions of the Romeo and Juliet Legend. Paper presented at the Modern Language Association annual convention, Los Angeles, California, The Confusion of a Literary Code: Love by Hearsay in the Decameron. Paper presented at the South Atlantic Modern Language Association annual convention, Atlanta, Georgia, Balancing Enlightenment, Romantic, and Christian Philosophies: Alessandro Manzoni s Use of Nocturnal Elements in the Addio ai monti Episode of I promessi sposi. Paper presented at the American Association for Italian Studies annual convention, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Personification in Dante Alighieri s Vita nuova: Experimenting by Embracing Tradition. Paper presented at the Northeastern Modern Languages Association annual convention, Montreal, Canada, The Figure of Love, His Relationship with the Beloved Woman and the Identification of the Lover-Poet in Dante s Vita nuova and Petrarca s Triumphus Cupidinis and Triumphus Pudicitie. Paper presented at the Renaissance Conference of Southern California 54 th annual meeting, San Marino, California, The English Women of the Browning Circle and their Influence on Nineteenth-century Italian Culture. Paper presented at the Northeastern Modern Language annual convention, Boston, Massachusetts, xii

15 INTRODUCTION A person falling in love with another, sight unseen was both a literary motif and a point of polemic from the origins of Italian literature through the end of the Renaissance. Writers of Italian vernacular literature inherited the topos of love by hearsay principally from the Provençal troubadours, although they may have also been aware of its appearance in classical literature. 1 Love by hearsay (also referred to as amor de lonh and amor ex auditu 2 ), however, also contradicted the dominant definition of love as a reaction to a visual stimulus, supported by a long philosophical and medical tradition. Italian writers were deeply divided on the subject, torn between, on one hand, cases of love by hearsay in some of the most influential works in their canon, and on the other hand, the conflict between the notion of an unseen beloved and classical and medieval erotic philosophy. Love by hearsay thus occupies the center of a debate among Italian writers that began in the thirteenth century and that would not be definitively resolved until midway through the Cinquecento. By tracing the various manifestations of the question of love by hearsay in Italian literature, we may follow changing cultural and literary attitudes toward the relationship between philosophy and poetry, the waning of courtly ideals and the rise of humanistic scholarship, and the increasingly popular perception of love as a psychological-physiological process, understood properly only through philosophical and scientific analysis. Love by hearsay is most often associated with Provençal poetry and, specifically, with the life and works of the twelfth-century troubadour Jaufré Rudel. While Rudel himself sings of 1 For examples of love by hearsay in classical literature, see Appendix A. 2 The expression amor de lonh is derived from the vida of the troubadour Jaufré Rudel (see n. 3 below), while the phrase amor ex auditu is found in Saint Augustine s De trinitate X.1.1 (see Chapter One). 1

16 an amor de lonh in his poem, Lanquan li jorn son lonc en mai, the emphasis remains on the distance of the beloved, and not of the act of falling in love through hearing her praises. An example of the latter, and the text that would be considered by Italian writers to be the paradigm of love by hearsay, appears instead in the troubadour s vida. 3 We can observe several elements present in Rudel s legendary biography of which later Italian writers would take special note. The first of these is the social class of both Rudel and his beloved: Rudel himself is a prince and, the anonymous biographer adds, molt gentils hom, who falls in love with the Countess of Tripoli. This establishes a precedent for the association of love by hearsay with nobility. The Prince falls in love with the Countess on account of the lauds of pilgrims returning from Antioch, and subsequently takes the cross (se crozet) and sets out to find her. Although not all lovers by hearsay in the Italian tradition are crusaders, they are always pilgrims; that is, almost without exception, lovers by hearsay are unfulfilled by contemplating the beloved from afar, and journey to see her with their own eyes. Rudel, in fact, per voluntat de liei vezer, embarks on a perilous journey across the sea, and falls mortally ill before reaching his destination. The poet is eventually united with the Countess, only to die in her arms after seeing her for the first and last time. Before he does, he thanks God for their union an indication of the importance of the lover by hearsay s first glimpse of the beloved. The Countess, per la dolor qe ella ac de la soa mort, becomes a nun on the very day of his burial. 3 Rudel s vida reads as follows: Jaufres Rudels de Blaia si fo molt gentils hom, princes de Blaia; et enamoret se de la comtessa de Tripol ses vezer, per lo ben q el n auzi dir als pelegrins que vengron d Antiocha; e fetz de lieis mains vers ab bons sons, ab paubres motz. E, per voluntat de liei vezer, el se crozet e mes se en mar; e pres lo malautia en la nau, e fo condug a Tripol, en un alberc, per mort. E fo faich asaber a la comtessa, et alla venc ad el, al sieu lieilich, e pres lo entre sos bratz; et el saup q ella era la comtessa, e recobret lo vezer e l fazar, e lauzat Dieu e l grazi qe ill avia la vida sostenguda tro q el l ages vista; et enaissi el moric entre sos bratz. Et ella lo fetz a gran honor sepeillir en la maison del Temple; e pois en aqel dia ella se rendet monga, per la dolor qe ella ac de la soa mort. 2

17 Rudel s tragic love may be understood as a symbol of courtly love s inability to survive the union between the lover and beloved. R. Howard Bloch explains: The meeting with the lady corresponds not only to the end of the song, but to the end of life itself. The lady must remain a virgin in order for singing to occur; and her own renunciation of the world as a result of his death is symptomatic of the esthetics of virginity that courtliness entails (154). In his seminal 1944 article, L amor lointain de Jaufré Rudel et le sens de la poésie des troubadours, Leo Spitzer recognizes amor de lonh as a prototypical manifestation of the paradoxical love that forms the base of all troubadour poetry. He cites several characteristics of this type of love that are also intrinsic to troubadour eroticism in general, all of which are related to the contradictory nature of a physical desire that must be denied physicality in order to exist: J avais toujours cru cet amour, entouré des brumes du rêve, la manifestation la plus émouvante de ce que j appelais le paradoxe amoureux qui est à la base de toute la poésie troubadouresque: amour qui ne veut posséder, mais jouir de cet état de non-possession, amour-minne contenant aussi bien le désir sensuel de toucher à la femme vraiment femme que le chaste éloignement, amour chrétien transpose sur le plan séculier, qui veut have and have not (Spitzer 1-2). While I agree with Spitzer on the point that l amor lointain is representative of the Provençal concept of eros, I must elaborate upon it. First, the symbolic function of this topos extends beyond the realm of Occitan lyric poetry, and represents instead an ideal of courtly love that is also expressed in Italian medieval and early modern literature. Second, love by hearsay embodies courtly values for reasons other than its reflection of the courtly lover s perpetual paradoxical state of having and having not. The idea that amor de lonh encapsulates the paradoxical love of the troubadours is accurate, but not comprehensive: it is, in fact, representative of the broader concept of courtly love as expressed in vernacular love literature that includes but is not limited to Provençal poetry. This topos, furthermore, cannot be severed from its courtly roots because it embodies not 3

18 only courtly love, but also the court itself. James A. Schultz defines courtly love as precisely the love of courtliness a sort of aristophilia (98) that does not just take place within the court, but expresses its very essence: The social forms of courtly life are not just the setting for courtly love but its very medium. Courtly love takes the shape of courtliness (171). Schultz also writes that a lover by hearsay is the purest aristophiliac (93). 4 My research affirms Schultz s theory which, he clarifies, is to be understood within the context of late twelfth- and early thirteenthcentury German chivalric texts but also extends it, both by applying it to Italian medieval and early modern works, and by suggesting that, if a lover by hearsay is the purest aristophiliac, love by hearsay is the purest form of aristophilia. In short, love by hearsay is the ultimate expression of courtly love and, consequently, the ultimate expression of courtliness. The courtliness of amor de lonh manifests in its reliance on the power of reputation in courtly culture. In his book on the courtly tradition, Don A. Monson defines reputation in medieval courtly culture as the external, public projection of inner worth, and analyzes the way in which this idea is reflected in vernacular love literature of the Middle Ages ( ). He recognizes reputation s association with social virtues such as nobility, good deeds, and courtesy as well as moral considerations, and concludes that reputation is most intimately linked to love. Schultz recognizes the function of reputation and courtly social dynamics in various episodes of love by hearsay in medieval German poetry. Regarding a case in the Nibelungenlied, he writes: Siegfried falls in love with the judgment of the court that Kriemhild represents the pinnacle of beauty and noble presence, a judgment that is so powerful it has begun to circulate through the world. Siegfried does not need a body to fall in love, only a reputation of courtly nobility (Schultz 93). 4 Here Schultz is referring specifically to Siegfried, a character in the Middle High German epic poem Nibelungenlied. 4

19 Schultz s summation implies several key points about love by hearsay. We must first consider his statement that Siegfried falls in love with the judgment of the court. The rationality of amor de lonh is dependent upon the importance assigned to the opinions of others and upon the perpetual goal towards achieving and maintaining the social and moral virtues held dear by the courtly system. For this reason, it is acceptable within courtly society and the literature that it reflects, but, when transplanted outside the courtly realm, is often perceived as ridiculous. This explains why Italian writers who consider it from an academic, humanistic perspective find it illogical and, in many cases, absurd. To courtly writers and readers, however, the idea of a desire for corporal beauty that does not involve corporeality that is, falling in love with a beautiful woman without actually seeing her is perfectly sensible. This is why, to borrow from Schultz, Siegfried does not need a body to fall in love. Schultz draws a similar conclusion regarding two other cases one in a song by Walther von der Vogelweide and another in a song of Reinmar von Hagenau which may be applied to a wide variety of literary instances in which the court s regard for the courtly paragon [ ] provoke[s] an erotic love (93): In these cases the high opinion of the best people, that is, those whose opinion counts at court, is itself an aphrodisiac. The lover does not need to verify that her beloved lives admirably. She only needs the court s judgment that he does, and this causes her to fall in love (93). The lover by hearsay is, thus, the quintessential courtly lover. He relies on the admiration of his beloved by those who are, in turn, the most admirable, even to the extent that his own opinion of her becomes irrelevant. In other words, the opinion of the lover by hearsay is conflated with the opinion of the court. Reputation replaces the visual stimulus as the origin of love. The definition of love by hearsay as emblematic (Cherchi, Tradition 291) of courtly love thus extends beyond the context of Provençal troubadour poetry. This study reveals that Italian medieval and early modern writers also perceived a fundamental connection between this 5

20 amor de lonh and the concept of courtly love. For them, love by hearsay would come to embody the fantastical and idealized perception of the world that was synonymous with courtly culture, and that, ultimately, would have no place within a world dominated by humanistic scholarship. Italian medieval and early modern writers approached the question of love by hearsay practically; that is, they debated its existence within the natural world rather than, that is, within a literary context. Love by hearsay emerged as a topic of debate in the Middle Ages, which, as Alessandro Carrera explains, is due to the medieval preoccupation with theories of vision and their relationship to the generation of love: Solo nel Medioevo, ancora più ossessionato dai gradi della visibilità di quanto non lo fossero i greci, l amore «senza vedere» viene tematizzato esplicitamente, al punto da costituire un problema ( ). I agree with Carrera that love by hearsay erupts as the center of a polemic in the Italian Middle Ages, and that the connection of love with vision, established since Antiquity, is at the heart of it. Classical philosophers, especially Plato and Aristotle, represent the beginning of a long tradition that identified a visual stimulus and the contemplation of the image it created as the cause of erotic love. 5 In the approximately fifteen hundred years that separate these ancient Greek writings and those that mark the beginning of Italian literature, an abundance of theories on the generation of love would emerge. Among them, the importance of seeing the beloved and 5 Plato describes the origin of love as the passage of the beauty of the beloved through the eyes of the lover, and even equates erōs with ophthalmía a disease of the eyes in Phaedrus 255c-d. Similarly, Aristotle states in Nic. Ethics 1167a that the pleasure at seeing a person is the beginning of love (238). Both Plato and Aristotle s understanding of the nature of love are based upon a complex epistemological philosophy that may be traced throughout their works. Massimo Ciavolella provides a comprehensive and concise summary of visual themes in Platonic and Aristotelian erotic theory (15-31), as does Giorgio Agamben (84-104). In addition, Plotinus s etymological study of the word erōs in the Ennead III.5.3 reveals love s conceptual as well as lexical connection with vision: Thus; there is a strenuous activity of contemplation in the Soul; there is an emanation towards it from the object contemplated; and Eros is born, the Love which is an eye filled with its vision, a seeing that bears its image with it; Eros taking its name, probably, from the fact that its essential being is due to this (h)orasis, this seeing (MacKenna). 6

21 contemplating her image in the mind s eye is extraordinarily consistent. 6 The first writers in the vernacular the thirteenth-century poets of the so-called Scuola siciliana thus inherited a rich and eclectic phenomenological understanding of love, which rendered amor de lonh an essentially epistemological problem. Carrera explains: La variante rudelliana del fin amor è percepita come minacciosa dalla poesia che raccoglie l eredità dei trovatori. Di fatto, l amor de lonh di Jaufre pone ai poeti successivi un vero e proprio problema di epistemologia amorosa. Come ci si può innamorare di una donna che non si è mai vista in una cultura essenzialmente contemplativa come quella medioevale, dove filosofi, fisiologi e teologi dibattono incessantemente intorno alla natura della luce e della vista, e dove la conoscenza è un processo garantito da una corretta gnoseologia della visione? (127). Love by hearsay contradicts the prevalent medieval epistemological understanding of love, which would be upheld, as well, throughout the Renaissance. Because of this, Italian writers almost always found amor ex auditu to be improbable often impossible and inferior to amor ex visione. 7 In the Italian literature, amor de lonh is much more than a topos it is a notion that embodies the conflict between the Italian tradition s two great inheritances concerning love the poetic and the philosophical. Medieval and early modern Italian writers are unique in their treatment of love by hearsay in that they are unwilling to ignore the logical fallacies inherent within it. Even the immediate heirs of troubadour poetry, the early medieval poets, while they easily adopted other Provençal motifs, are notably uncomfortable with amor de lonh. After them, Italian writers for centuries would wrestle with the topos, always demonstrating an awareness of its philosophical implications, and struggling to respect their poetic predecessors without contradicting their sophisticated understanding of the psychological and physiological processes 6 For an overview of visual themes in Italian medieval erotic theory and its precedents see Dana E. Stewart (13-32). 7 This phrase is found in Andreas Capellanus s definition of love in De amore I.1.1 (see Chapter One). 7

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