1 JUG Ancona Italy Open source, Licensing e Java Marco Stronati Jug Marche
2 Panoramica Scopo (ambizioso): chiarire le idee! Pubblico Dominio Copyright/Diritto d'autore Patent/Brevetto Trademark Licenses: Apache, BSD, CPL, EPL, GPL, LGPL,FDL, MIT, MPL, PYTHON, QPL, SPL, X11 (si, gli anglosassoni amano le sigle) Trade Secret Free software & FSF Open source Software & OSI Permissive software Dual licensing Java goes GPL Red Hat & IcedTea Sun, patents & Open Source Dibattito!!!
3 Pubblico Dominio vs Diritto D'Autore Pubblico Dominio: nessun tipo di diritto è riservato. e.g. canzoni popolari non si può risalire all'autore composizione di rutti ad un addio al celibato l'autore è disinteressato a tutelare l'opera Diritto D'Autore Copyright: protegge la libertà di: 1 copiare; 2 modificare; 3 distribuire; Siae: La Sezione OLAF (Opere Letterarie ed Arti Figurative) già dice tutto :D La legge prevede espressamente che il software sia tutelato in base alla legge sul diritto d autore a seguito della modifica introdotta con il Decreto Legislativo 29 Dicembre 1992 n [copyright] La legge sul diritto di autore protegge i "programmi sorgente", intesi come il linguaggio in cui sono scritti i programmi, praticamente il listato ed i "programmi oggetto" intesi come la traduzione del linguaggio del programma in bit o linguaggio macchina. La tutela viene estesa ai lavori preparatori, includendosi in essi le carte di flusso, che rappresentano "le idee ed i principi che stanno alla loro base". La tutela si estende altresì alla "forma espressiva" che praticamente riguarda l'interfaccia considerata dal punto di vista dell'utilità e della tecnica informatica. Se nell'interfaccia sono inserite immagini in movimento o altre creazioni, esse dovranno essere protette autonomamente in base alle norme generali della L.d.A.
4 Brevetto / Patent Il brevetto protegge: l'applicazione dell'idea o l'invenzione. In particolare riguarda: 1 la costruzione 2 l'uso 3 la vendita e.g. Meucci e Bell Ha un costo considerevole e una durata limitata nel tempo (rinnovabile). Mia personalisssima opinione: Nonostante sembri il metodo mogliore per tutelare il software, non essendo nato e cresciuto in questo modo il mercato it ora ne sarebbe solo danneggiato. e.g. paragone con meccanica
5 Brevetto / Patent In Europa, al contrario che in America, il brevetto non può essere applicato al software che è considerato un prodotto dell'ingegno di carattere creativo. [Diversi enti] esercitano forti pressioni affinché il software venga invece considerato alla pari delle invenzioni in quanto procedura o tecnica con carattere di originalità. La differenza tra i due approcci comporta enormi differenze ai fini pratici: * Il diritto d'autore è riconosciuto automaticamente all'autore, che non deve fare alcune azione né spendere alcuna cifra per vedere riconosciuto questo diritto. * L'attribuzione di un brevetto deve essere invece richiesta esplicitamente ad un ufficio brevetti, effettuando preventivamente una ricerca per verificate l'originalità della propria creazione, il che può comportare un esborso economico considerevole. [Un'associazione di due milioni di aziende] europee ritiene che l'eventualità di ammettere la brevettabilità del software rappresenti un grave rischio per l'innovazione, la produttività e l'occupazione in Europa.
6 Brevetto / Patent reazioni Development For instance, the PNG format was introduced to avoid the GIF patent problems, and the Ogg Vorbis format was introduced to avoid the MP3 patent problems. Coldwar These companies do file and receive patents: since their competitors get patents, they must get patents as well for defensive purposes. In the event that they get sued for patent infringement by a competitor they can counter sue using their own patents. The net result is that both companies often cross license each others' patents at little or no out of pocket expense for either party. However, the cost of developing a suitable portfolio of patents may be out of reach of many small software companies. FSF Draft versions of the GNU GPL version 3 may also conflict with patents on software by preventing any patent holder from enforcing their patents against a user if said patent holder also distributes software covered by those patents under the GPL.
7 Brevetto / Patent I buoni? In 2005 Sun Microsystems announced that they were making a portfolio of 1,600 patents available through a free software/open source type patent license called Common Development and Distribution License. RedHat: Building the patent commons. Promise on software patents. IBM opened 500 patents to the community of open source developers, closely following the example of the Red Hat patent promise.
8 Trademarks Trademarks: proteggono la sorgente, indicano da dove proviene qualcosa. Si applicano tanto all'open source quanto ai programmi proprietari. Vengono registrati per un tempo limitato ma possono essere rinnovati. Tuttavia se il marchio non viene protetto può essere perso. e.g. Linus Torvald possiede e regola l'uso dell'immagine di tux e del trademark Linux
9 Trade secrets / Segreto commerciale Trade secret per mantenere qualcosa segreto : ) e.g. customer list source code (usando come formato il binario) Possono durare fintanto si riesca a mantenere il segreto, ad esempio usando NDA.
10 Royalty Non è una licenza, è il motivo per cui si usano le licenze!!! Royalty: pagamento di un compenso al titolare di un brevetto o una proprietà intellettuale, con lo scopo di poter sfruttare quel bene per fini commerciali (e non solo). E' un concetto strettamente legato all'uso del brevetto. A titolo indicativo nella maggior parte dei paesi della CEE le royalties applicate sul fatturato annuo relativo al bene di cui si è ceduta la licenza varia dal 2 al 15%.
11 Freedom Line < FULL RIGHT TO THIRD PARTIES NO RIGHT > Public Domain?? Proprietary Trade secret
12 L'anello mancante Free Software definito dalla Free Software Foundation Garantisce la libertà di: 1 copiare 2 modificare (comprese opere derivate) 3 distribuire Open source definito dalla Open Source Initiative Aggiunge inoltre la libertà di: 4 essere usato da chiunque, per qualunque scopo Entrambe inoltre includono che il software debba essere licenziato senza alcuna royalties: è possibile usare il software anche per fini commerciali senza pagare alcun compenso al detentore del copyright. Da non confondere con il pagamento del programma: il programma può essere liberamente venduto da chiunque. Inoltre in entrambi i casi all'autore è riconosciuto il copyright della propria opera.
13 Il virus e il vaccino Protettività riguarda la libertà 3. Il software deve essere ridistribuito sotto la stessa licenza. Questo meccanismo di passaggio della licenza viene detto virale. e.g. protettiva = Gnu GPL e.g. non protettiva = BSD licence L'unica differenza tra la BDS e il dominio pubblico è nel possesso del copyright da parte dell'autore che ha inoltre il diritto di cambiare la licenza del suo lavoro. La principale caratteristica dei programmi con licenza BSD è che possono essere incorporati in progetti proprietari. e.g. networking in windows
14 Freedom Line < FULL RIGHT TO THIRD PARTIES NO RIGHT > Public Domain BDS GPL Proprietary Trade secret
15 Apache APACHE Licence La licenza Apache (versions 1.0, 1.1, and 2.0) requires preservation of the copyright notice and disclaimer, but it is not a copyleft license it allows use of the source code for the development of both free/open source and proprietary/closed source software. The Free Software Foundation considers all versions of the Apache License incompatible with the version 2 of the GNU General Public License. version 3 of the GPL is compatible with Apache License 2.0, according to the Free Software Foundation.
16 BSD Licence copycenter BSD Berkeley software distribution The licenses have few restrictions compared to other free software licenses such as the GNU General Public License or even the default restrictions provided by copyright, putting it relatively closer to the public domain. The BSD licenses have been referred to as copycenter, as a comparison to standard copyright and copyleft free software: "Take it down to the copy center and make as many copies as you want." The BSD License allows proprietary commercial use, and for the software released under the license to be incorporated into proprietary commercial products. Works based on the material may even be released under a proprietary license (but still must maintain the license requirements). Some notable examples of this are the use of BSD networking code in Microsoft products, and the use of numerous FreeBSD components in Mac OS X.
17 CPL & EPL CPL The CPL (Common Public License) is a free software / open source software license published by IBM. EPL The Eclipse Public License is an open source software license used by the Eclipse Foundation for its software. It replaces the Common Public License (CPL)... The significant difference between the GPL and EPL is that EPL allows the developers to make their own license for the portions of their improvements. In other words, the developers can keep the improvements or additions as proprietary.
18 GPL & co. GPL The GNU General Public License is a widely used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman in 1989 for the GNU project (GCC GDB Emacs). The GPL is the most popular and well known example of the type of strong copyleft license that requires derived works to be available under the same copyleft. Version 2 released in Version 3 released in 2007 and included: prevent of patent cross licenses like the controversial Microsoft Novell patent agreement prevention of tivoization. Introduction of Apache Software License compatibility. Requirement of Microsoft to extend the patent licenses it grants to Novell customers for the use of GPLv3 software to all users of that GPLv3 software; this is possible only if Microsoft is legally a "conveyor" of the GPLv3 software.
19 LGPL LGPL The GNU Lesser General Public License more permissive version of the GPL, intended for some software libraries. It was designed as a compromise between the strong copyleft GNU General Public License and permissive licenses such as the BSD licenses and the MIT License. It was written in 1991 by Richard Stallman, with legal advice from Eben Moglen, and released as Library GPL contemporary to GPLv2; later was renamed Lesser GPL. The LGPL places copyleft restrictions on the program itself but does not apply these restrictions to other software that merely links with the program. The LGPL is primarily used for software libraries, although it is also used by some standalone applications, most notably Mozilla and OpenOffice.org.
20 FDL FDL There is also a GNU Free Documentation License, which was originally intended for use with documentation for GNU software, but has also been adopted for other uses, such as the Wikipedia project.
21 MIT The MIT License is a free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It is a permissive license, meaning that it permits reuse within proprietary software on the condition that the license is distributed with that software, and GPL compatible, meaning that the GPL permits combination and redistribution with software that uses the MIT License.
22 MPL MPL The Mozilla Public License is an open source and free software license. Version 1.0 was developed by Mitchell Baker when she worked as a lawyer at Netscape Communications Corporation and version 1.1 at the Mozilla Foundation. The MPL is characterized as a hybridization of the modified BSD license and GNU General Public License. Adobe has announced it will use MPL to licence its Flex product line by the end of The MPL has been adapted by others as a license for their software, most notably Sun Microsystems, as the Common Development and Distribution License for OpenSolaris, the open source version of the Solaris 10 operating system. Impose complicated restrictions that make it incompatible with GPL. Coma mai firefox si trova nelle distro linux?
23 PYTHON The Python Software Foundation License is a permissive free software license which is compatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL) and allows modifications to the source code, as well as the construction of derivative works, without making the code open source. The PSFL is approved by both FSF and OSI. Early versions of this license were incompatible with the GPL. The year that Python's creator Guido van Rossum changed the license to fix this incompatibility he was awarded the Free Software Foundation Award for the Advancement of Free Software.
24 QPL The Q Public License (QPL) is a non copyleft free software license created by Trolltech for its free edition of the Qt toolkit. It captures the general meaning of the GNU General Public Licence (GPL), but is incompatible with it, meaning that you cannot legally distribute products derived from both GPL'ed and QPL'ed code. It was used until Qt 3.0, as Trolltech toolkit version 4.0 was released under GPL version 2.
25 SPL The Sun Public License is a software license that applies to some open source software released by Sun Microsystems (such as NetBeans before the 5.5 version). It has been approved by the FSF as a free software license, and by the OSI as an open source license. It is derived from the Mozilla Public License. This license seems now to have been "dropped" by Sun in favor of the new CDDL license, which is also derived from the MPL.
26 CDDL Common Development and Distribution License is a free software license, produced by Sun Microsystems, based on the Mozilla Public License (MPL), version 1.1. Files licensed under the CDDL can be combined with files licensed under other licenses, whether open source or proprietary. The Free Software Foundation considers it a free license incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL). CDDL is one of nine preferred licenses listed as popular, widely used or with strong communities. Example products released under CDDL: * OpenSolaris (including DTrace, initially released alone, and ZFS) * NetBeans IDE and RCP * GlassFish * JWSDP * Project DReaM
27 X11 (=MIT) According to the Free Software Foundation, the MIT License is more accurately called the X11 license, since MIT has used many licenses for software and the license was first drafted for the X Window System.
28 MSL Marco Stronati's licence is a one sentence license, it is considered the only licence that satisfy everyone's needs, thus is seeing slow adoption: You can use my code as long as I am happy with your usage, even if my happiness is variable with temperature, humidity, hunger or amount of sex per month.
29 N.B. Scopo (ambizioso): chiarire le idee!
30 Doppia licenza :P Business models n.b. difference from BDS is ca$h This is commonly done to support free software business models. In this model, one option is a proprietary software license, which allows the possibility of creating proprietary applications derived from it, while the other license is a copyleft free software/open source license, thus requiring any derived work to be released under the same license. The copyright holder of the software then typically gives away the free/open source version of the software at no cost, and profits by selling licenses to commercial operations looking to incorporate the software into their own business. Copyright holders are exercising the monopoly they're provided under copyright in this scenario, but also use dual licensing to discriminate the rights and freedoms different recipients receive. Examples include MySQL AB's database, Gaia Ajax Widgets, and Trolltech's Qt development toolkit. Anche Netbeans 6 sarà dual licensed!!!
31 Doppia licenza :P License compatibility A second use of dual licensing with free software is for license compatibility, allowing code from differently licensed free software projects to be combined. Examples include the source code of Mozilla Application Suite, Mozilla Thunderbird and Mozilla Firefox, which is tri licensed under the Mozilla Public License, GNU General Public License and GNU Lesser General Public License; and Perl, which is dual licensed under the GPL and Artistic License.
32 Doppia licenza :P Market segregation in proprietary software Dual licensing is also used by some distributors of non free software. Sometimes this is done to proprietary software to segregate a market. By splitting people into multiple categories such as home users, professional users, and academic users, copyright holders can set different prices for each group. However, among proprietary software, it is more common "home edition" and "professional edition" be also differentiated by the software included, not just the license.
33 Doppia licenza :P prob Developer It can also interfere with the normal dynamics of open source projects. The problem is that any volunteer who makes a code contribution is now contributing to two distinct entities: the free version of the code and the proprietary version. Company The awkwardness is exacerbated by the fact that in dual licensing, the copyright owner really needs to gather formal, signed copyright assignments from all contributors, in order to protect itself from a disgruntled contributor later claiming a percentage of royalties from the proprietary stream. Community (this is an hypothesis) You can fork the GNU GPL code, certainly; but you can't "fork" the commercial model. That is, you can't really set up another company to do what the copyright holders are doing. So, in a sense, you have lost the power to offer users a choice, generally one of the key features of the free software world, of which these businesses are now a part.
34 Pettegolezzi sulla GPL I would like to release a program I wrote under the GNU GPL, but I would like to use the same code in non free programs. To release a non free program is always ethically tainted, but legally there is no obstacle to your doing this. If you are the copyright holder for the code, you can release it under various different non exclusive licenses at various times. Does the GPL require that source code of modified versions be posted to the public? The GPL does not require you to release your modified version. You are free to make modifications and use them privately, without ever releasing them. This applies to organizations (including companies), too; an organization can make a modified version and use it internally without ever releasing it outside the organization. But if you release the modified version to the public in some way, the GPL requires you to make the modified source code available to the program's users, under the GPL. Thus, the GPL gives permission to release the modified program in certain ways, and not in other ways; but the decision of whether to release it is up to you.
35 Pettegolezzi sulla GPL Am I required to claim a copyright on my modifications to a GPL covered program? You are not required to claim a copyright on your changes. In most countries, however, that happens automatically by default, so you need to place your changes explicitly in the public domain if you do not want them to be copyrighted. Whether you claim a copyright on your changes or not, either way you must release the modified version, as a whole, under the GPL. (if you release your modified version at all)
36 Pettegolezzi sulla GPL Does the GPL allow me to charge a fee for downloading the program from my site? Yes. You can charge any fee you wish for distributing a copy of the program. If you distribute binaries by download, you must provide "equivalent access" to download the source therefore, the fee to download source may not be greater than the fee to download the binary. Does the GPL allow me to require that anyone who receives the software must pay me a fee and/or notify me? No. In fact, a requirement like that would make the program non free. If people have to pay when they get a copy of a program, or if they have to notify anyone in particular, then the program is not free. See the definition of free software. The GPL is a free software license, and therefore it permits people to use and even redistribute the software without being required to pay anyone a fee for doing so.
37 Pettegolezzi sulla GPL Is GPLv3 compatible with GPLv2? No. Some of the requirements in GPLv3, such as the requirement to provide Installation Information, do not exist in GPLv2. As a result, the licenses are not compatible: if you tried to combine code released under both these licenses, you would violate section 6 of GPLv2. However, if code is released under GPL version 2 or later, that is compatible with GPLv3 because GPLv3 is one of the options it permits. Anche alla FSF hanno il senso dell'umorismo
38 Non eravamo in un Java_User_Group? Sun released the Java HotSpot virtual machine and compiler as free software under the GNU General Public License (v2) on 13 November 2006 Sun released the complete source code of the Class library under GPL on May 8, 2007, except some limited parts that were licensed by Sun from 3rd parties. Some of the encumbered parts turned out to be fairly key parts of the platform such as font rendering and 2D rasterisation.
39 Sun, would you like a iced tea? To be able to bundle OpenJDK in Fedora and other free Linux distributions, a project called IcedTea has been started by Red Hat in June It is basically a OpenJDK/GNU Classpath. Put together Fedora and JBoss technologies in a Linux environment. The team could not call their software product "OpenJDK" because it is a trademark owned by Sun Microsystems. They have instead decided to use the temporary name "IcedTea". The IcedTea project started with two aims: One is to make it possible for the GNU Compiler for Java to compile the OpenJDK code. The second task, which is only beginning, is to fill the gaps that exist in OpenJDK which exist because Sun couldn t release some parts of the code.
40 Sun, would you like a iced tea? News flash: Red Hat joins OpenJDK Red Hat has signed both the Sun Contributor Agreement and the OpenJDK Community TCK License. More details can be found in the press release, Simon Phipps's blog, Mark Reinhold's blog, and elsewhere in the blogosphere as well as the online press. Personalissima ipotesi: sta nascendo un colosso linux+java in contrapposizione al prodotto microscopico soffice. Chi la spunterà? (Si accettano scommesse : )
41 References howto.html faq.html
42 JUG Ancona Italy Grazie dell'attenzione xkcd.com