1 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo
2 Il riso rappresenta dopo il frumento la coltura più diffusa al mondo. L Italia è il principale Paese produttore ed esportatore di riso dell Unione Europea, con oltre metà della superficie investita a tale cereale ed un peso sul totale dell export europeo di settore di circa il 40%. Il nostro Paese riveste quindi un ruolo di primo piano all interno del mercato europeo del riso, di cui soddisfa la domanda non solo grazie alla propria produzione ma anche importando prodotto semigreggio che viene poi trasformato ed esportato come prodotto lavorato. Alla luce di questo scenario, il presente studio analizza innanzitutto la risicoltura e gli scambi commerciali di riso del nostro Paese, evidenziandone peculiarità e dinamiche dell ultimo decennio. L analisi viene quindi estesa all intero panorama europeo dell import-export di riso, sia intra-ue che con i Paesi terzi, consentendo di comprendere le tipologie di prodotto oggetto di scambio, i partner commerciali ed il ruolo giocato dall Italia e dagli altri principali Paesi europei esportatori di tale derrata. Lo studio pone poi l accento sui principali mercati europei di sbocco dell export italiano, al fine di evidenziare il posizionamento del prodotto Made in Italy e i principali competitor del nostro Paese. Completa il lavoro un accenno alla produzione e ai consumi di riso a livello mondiale, nonché alle peculiarità che contraddistinguono il commercio internazionale di tale cereale.
5 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo Rice imports and exports: Italy s role in the European context
6 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo Rice imports and exports: Italy s role in the European context Copyright 2013 Nomisma Spa Edito da A.G.R.A. srl via Nomentana Roma tel Lo studio è stato realizzato per Dow Agrosciences/ This study was conducted for Dow AgroSciences Italy Il Gruppo di Ricerca di Nomisma/ Working Group of Nomisma Ersilia Di Tullio, Emanuele Di Faustino Si ringrazia il dottor Salvador Loring Lasarte, Direttore Relazioni Istituzionali di Ebro Foods, per il contributo fornito all analisi dell import-export di riso dell Italia e dell Unione Europea tramite le sue considerazioni tecniche su produzione e commercializzazione del riso a livello europeo e mondiale. Acknowledgments: we thank Dr. Salvador Loring Lasarte, Director of Institutional Relations of Ebro Foods, for his contribution to the analysis of rice imports and exports in Italy and the European Union through his technical comment of rice production and marketing both at European and international level. Finito di stampare nel mese di luglio 2013 Realizzazione editoriale: Agra srl Progetto grafico: Blu omelette Stampa: CSR Roma Tutti i diritti sono riservati a Dow Agrosciences. Nessuna parte di questo libro può essere riprodotta o utilizzata in alcun modo, senza l autorizzazione scritta di Dow Agrosciences, né con mezzi elettronici né meccanici, incluse fotocopie, registrazione o riproduzione attraverso qualsiasi sistema di elaborazione dati. NOMISMA Società di studi economici S.p.A. Palazzo Davia Bargellini Strada Maggiore, Bologna tel fax Nomisma è un Istituto di studi economici, fondato nel 1981 con sede a Bologna, al cui capitale sociale partecipano più di ottanta azionisti fra gruppi industriali, assicurazioni, istituti di credito italiani ed esteri. La parola nomisma indicava nel greco antico il valore reale delle cose: in questo spirito Nomisma si propone quale osservatorio sui principali fenomeni dell economia reale e della società contemporanea. Nomisma compie ricerche a livello internazionale, nazionale e locale sui fattori di produzione, sull economia dei settori e delle imprese, sui problemi dello sviluppo e in genere sui fenomeni che influiscono sulla struttura, il comportamento ed i risultati delle economie contemporanee. Founded in 1981 and located in Bologna, Nomisma is an economic research institute with more than 80 shareholders, including industrial groups, insurance companies, and Italian and foreign banks. Nomisma is an ancient Greek word that signifies the real value of things : it is in this spirit that Nomisma operates as an observatory on the main trends in the real economy and contemporary society. Nomisma engages in research at international, national and local levels focused on production factors, on the economics of sectors and businesses, on development problems and - in general - on the trends that affect the structure, the behaviour and outcomes of contemporary economics.
7 Indice 1. Summary and final considerations Rice production in Italy Italy s imports and exports Italy s exports Italy s imports Rice production in the European Union European Union imports and exports: intra-eu and extra-eu trends Extra-EU imports and exports The main extra-eu trading partners Exports from the main EU rice-producing and exporting countries Spain Greece France Focus on the major Italian rice EU importers France Germany The United Kingdom Rice production and consumption worldwide Final considerations Sintesi e considerazioni finali Produzione di riso in Italia Import-export dell Italia Le esportazioni dell Italia Le importazioni dell Italia Produzione di riso nell Unione Europea Import-export dell Unione Europea: i trend intra-ue ed extra-ue Import-export extra-ue I principali partner commerciali extra-ue 22
8 1.5 Le esportazioni di riso dai principali Paesi europei La Spagna La Grecia La Francia Focus sui principali mercati europei di sbocco del prodotto italiano La Francia La Germania Il Regno Unito Produzione e consumi di riso nel mondo Considerazioni finali La coltura del riso in Italia Le recenti dinamiche produttive Principali varietà coltivate e sensibilità al brusone La bilancia commerciale del riso in Italia Il bilancio di collocamento del riso in Italia e la dinamica dell export Struttura dell import-export Le dinamiche dell ultimo decennio I principali partner commerciali dell Italia La concentrazione dei partner commerciali dell import-export di riso I partner dell import Il trend dell import negli ultimi dieci anni I partner dell export Il trend dell export negli ultimi dieci anni La coltura del riso nell Unione Europea La bilancia commerciale del riso nell Unione Europea (intra ed extra-ue) La struttura dell import-export di riso e le dinamiche dell ultimo decennio Gli scambi commerciali di riso dei singoli Paesi europei Focus sui principali Paesi esportatori di riso dell Unione Europea Le esportazioni di riso della Spagna Le esportazioni di riso della Grecia Le esportazioni di riso della Francia 65
9 7. La bilancia commerciale Le dinamiche dell ultimo decennio I principali partner commerciali Focus sui principali mercati europei di sbocco dell export italiano Le importazioni di riso in Francia Le importazioni di riso in Germania Le importazioni di riso nel Regno Unito La coltura del riso nel Mondo Le recenti dinamiche produttive I consumi Il riso nei mercati internazionali 88
11 9 1. Summary and final considerations 1.1 RICE PRODUCTION IN ITALY In 2011 the Italian area under rice cultivation was 246,500 hectares (accounting for 7% of the total area used for cereal production in Italy) with over 1.5 million tons of raw rice produced and an average yield of 6.31 tons per hectare. These areas were steadily increasing over the last decade but stabilized in 2012/2013. Production is mostly located in the north of the country. In fact, the Piedmont and Lombardy regions account for 92% of Italy s rice production. In Italy, varieties from all groups are cultivated. Around half of the surface area is used for the long-grain type A rice varieties production (this is the group with most commercial value), while long-grain type B and short-grain account for the rest. The medium-grain group is only marginally cultivated. The two largest groups, long-grain type A and long-grain type B, include some varieties that are sensitive to rice blast while the short-grain varieties are only moderately sensitive to it. Although Italy has a wide range of rice varieties, the surface area is mainly taken up by a limited number of varieties: in 2011, the leading 20 varieties were cultivated in 85% of the country s rice paddies with the first five taking up about 47% of these areas. Most of the rice produced in Italy is destined for export market: Italy s rice selfsufficiency rate is, in fact, very high, standing at 253% in ITALY S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS In 2012 the Italian balance of trade for rice showed a surplus of 418 million euros and 640 thousand tons. This surplus applies to all commercial categories with the single exception of paddy rice (excluding rice seed). Over the last decade, the Italy s rice trade surplus has consolidated with exports being the determinant driver.
12 10 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo Italy s exports Italy is a net rice exporter: in 2012 the value of exported product was 489 million euros for 750 thousand tons of rice. It is mostly the wholly milled product that is exported, accounting for 83% of the total value of Italian rice exports. Among the various varietal groups, long-grain type B rice represents the largest group (45% in value terms of total Italian rice exports) followed by short-grain (27%) and long-grain type A (25%). From 2002 to 2012 exports grew both in quantity (+24%) - almost exclusively within the European Union - and in terms of price (+30%), determining at the same time a significant increase in value (+62%). Exports of Italian rice are mainly directed to the EU market (84%) and only a small amount is sold outside of the EU-27, being directed in any case towards other countries on the European continent (8%) or, to a lesser extent, to the Middle East (4%). 85% of Italy s exports in value terms and 87% in quantity are directed to the top 15 destination countries, mostly located in the European Union. The first four export destinations are France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Belgium. These countries mostly import varieties from the short-grain and long-grain type B groups, at prices significantly higher than the average export price. On the other hand, countries outside the EU mainly import varieties from the longgrain type A group and, to a lesser extent, from the short-grain and mediumgrain groups Italy s imports In 2012 Italian rice imports reached 70 million euros for 109 thousand tons of product. Both the husked (brown) rice and the wholly milled product were equally significant (41% and 42% of the total Italian rice imports, respectively), mainly consisting of rice varieties that cannot be cultivated in our climates, as the Indica variety. The composition of imports per varietal group shows, in fact, that it is the long-grain type B varieties that constitute the largest part of the values imported (i.e. 82% of the total). From 2002 to 2012 imports increased significantly in value (+73%), due to a heavy increase in price (+68%), while quantities remained substantially stable (+3%). The reduction in the gap between imports and exports price shows that Italy increasingly imports rice with superior quality. Currently imports mainly come from the European Union or Central and East Asia. In particular, paddy rice is almost exclusively imported from the EU-27 countries, 81% of the husked (brown) rice imported comes from Central Asia,
13 1. Summary and final considerations 11 while the wholly milled rice is imported from both the European Union and Central-Eastern Asia. The first 10 trade partners provide 95% of the quantity and 93% of the value of paddy and wholly milled rice imported by Italy. Rice imported from third countries (mostly paddy and wholly milled rice) records a high price, compared to the products imported from the EU partners (mostly paddy rice). Over the last decade, the rise in prices has mainly concerned the products coming from extra-eu countries, leading to a consequent increase in the share value of these products compared to total imports (from 53% in 2002 to 69% in 2012). 1.3 RICE PRODUCTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION In 2011 the area devoted to rice in the European Union was 484 thousand hectares, with a production of over 3 million tons and an average yield of 6.45 tons per hectare. European rice production has increased over the last decade, mostly thanks to the extension of surface area devoted to this cereal (in particular in ). Nevertheless, production within the EU cannot satisfy the European demand for rice (self-sufficiency ratio is at 74%). The largest rice-producing countries are those in southern Europe: Italy, Spain, Greece and Portugal represent 89% of the European area under rice cultivation and 92% of the total production volumes. Italy is the leading producer (accounting for 48% of the EU production quantities), followed by Spain (30%) and, with smaller shares, by Greece, Portugal and France (8%, 6% and 4% respectively). 1.4 EUROPEAN UNION IMPORTS AND EXPORTS: INTRA-EU and EXTRA-EU TRENDS European rice-growing is characterized by a structural deficit of the balance of trade. In 2012 the EU-27 countries imported 3 million tons of rice for a value of over 1.9 billion euros, while exports were almost 1.9 tons for a value of around 1.3 billion euros. These trade flows are distinguished by destination within the EU (intra-eu) and outside the EU (extra-eu or third countries): imports are divided between 54% intra-eu and 46% extra-eu, while exports are mainly directed within European borders (89%), only involving extra-eu destinations for a smaller share (11%). Taking into account both the intra-eu and extra-eu trade flows, the United Kingdom is the major European importer of rice (22% of the EU rice imports in value terms in 2012), followed by France (18.4%), Germany (13.5%), Belgium (10.9%) and the Netherlands (7.2%). These five countries represented 72% of the total EU rice imports in terms of value in The European main rice exporter is Italy (representing 38.2% of the EU rice exports in 2012), followed by Belgium (14.3%), Spain (13.5%), the Netherlands
14 12 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo (9.8%) and Germany (5.1%). Altogether these countries accounted for 81% of the overall value of the European rice export flows in Extra-EU imports and exports In 2012 the rice trade balance between the EU-27 and third countries recorded a significant deficit, both in terms of quantity (around 1.2 million tons) and in terms of value (683.3 million euros). In 2012 the EU-27 countries imported almost 1.4 million tons of rice from extra-eu markets, for a value of million euros. In the same year around 207 thousand tons of rice were exported from the EU countries, for a value of just over 148 million euros. Imports of husked (brown) rice represent half of the total quantities of rice imported by the EU-27 from third countries, followed by imports of wholly milled and broken rice. On the other hand, European rice exports towards third countries mainly consist in wholly milled rice. Over 90% of rice volumes imported from extra-eu countries concerns the longgrain type B rice variety. On the contrary, almost half of the quantities exported by the EU-27 to extra-eu markets refers to the long-grain type A rice variety, followed by the medium-grain, long-grain type B and short-grain varieties. Between 2002 and 2012 the EU rice deficit in its trade balance with third countries showed a slight decrease in quantity, but almost doubled in value due to the increase in the average prices of imported products (+80%) The main extra-eu trading partners Among the most important rice trading partners outside the EU, India is the leading importer (accounting for 37% of the total value of rice imported into the EU-27 from third countries in 2012), followed by Thailand, Cambodia, Pakistan and Uruguay. Altogether these countries represented over 80% of the value of rice imported by the EU from extra-eu countries in India and Uruguay mostly provide husked (brown) rice, Thailand and Cambodia supply wholly milled rice while Pakistan provides both types. With reference to the varietal groups, rice purchased by these countries is almost exclusively long-grain type B rice. With regard to the main extra-eu destination markets for the EU rice exports, Turkey is the first market of destination (15% of the EU exports in value terms in 2012), followed by Switzerland, the United States, Syria and Norway. These countries representend 60% in value terms of the rice exported from the EU-27 towards third countries in Almost all of exports to the United States, Norway and Syria concerns the wholly milled product. The Turkish market mainly buys paddy rice and wholly milled rice, while Swiss import mostly refers to husked (brown) rice and wholly milled rice. With reference to the varietal groups, exports
15 1. Summary and final considerations 13 to the Middle East countries (Turkey and Syria) consist in products of the longgrain type A, medium-grain and short-grain groups while exports to United States, Norway and Switzerland also include long-grain type B rice varieties. 1.5 EXPORTS FROM THE MAIN EU RICE-PRODUCING AND EXPORTing COUNTRIES Spain In 2012 Spain exported around 306 thousand tons of rice for a value of 172,6 million euros and an average price of 564 /ton. Compared to 2002, in 2012 Spanish exports went down in quantity terms (-15%) but increased in value (+12%) due to the rise in prices. The main Spain s trading partners are Belgium, the United Kingdom and Germany (accounting for 60% of the total quantity of rice exported in 2012), followed by Portugal, France and the Netherlands. In % of Spanish exports in quantity terms was directed towards the EU market while 11% went to third countries. With reference to the commercial categories, Spain mainly exports husked (brown) rice and wholly milled rice: the former is directed to the EU producer countries (Portugal and France) and the latter to consumer countries (the United Kingdom, Belgium and Germany). In terms of rice varieties, Spanish exports mainly refer to the long-grain type B ones Greece Greece s rice exports exceeded 133 thousand tons in 2012, for a value of around 59.2 million euros and an average price of 444/ton. From 2002 to 2012 Greek rice exports more than quadrupled both in value and in quantity, while the average price remained more or less stable. Around 30% of Greek exports in volume goes to Poland. The other major destinations are the Netherlands, Hungary, Romania, Spain and France. Like Spain, Greece also tends to export its own rice mainly within the EU (93% of total exports in terms of quantity in 2012). Around 60% of Greece s exports concerns wholly milled product while the rest refers almost equally to paddy rice, husked (brown) rice and broken rice. With regard to rice varieties, 70% of Greek exports concerns the long-grain type B ones (directed towards Eastern Europe), while the remaining quota consists predominantly in varieties of the medium-grain group (mainly exported to Spain and the Netherlands).
16 14 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo France In 2012 France s rice exports amounted to 42.6 million euros for over 63 thousand tons of exported product. Over the last decade French exports are decreased both in value (-26%) and in quantity (-38%). Over half of France s exports is directed to three markets: Italy, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Other important trade partners are Germany, Spain and the Netherlands. Therefore the EU is the main market of destination of French rice exports. France mostly exports paddy rice and wholly milled rice: the former goes to the EU producer countries (Italy and Spain) and the latter towards consumer countries (the United Kingdom, Belgium and Germany). In terms of varieties, France mainly exports rice of the short-grain and long-grain type B groups and, to a lesser extent, varieties of the long-grain type A group. 1.6 FOCUS ON THE MAJOR ITALIAN RICE EU IMPORTERS France In 2012 France, the main destination market of the Italian rice exports, imported over 494 thousand tons of rice for a value of around 356 million euros. Italy, with 137 thousand tons of rice exported in 2012 and a market share of 28%, is the first rice exporter in France, followed by Thailand (with a market share of 14%), India (11%), Belgium, Cambodia and Spain (all at 9%). France mostly imports wholly milled rice. The only important exceptions concern imports from India and Spain: from the former France mostly buys husked rice (70% of the total French import from India) and from the latter imports mainly broken rice (60% of the total rice import from Spain) and paddy rice (25%). Around 60% of imports from Italy consists in varieties of the long-grain type B rice group, while the rest concerns long-grain type A (17%), short-grain (14%) and medium-grain varieties (9%). With regard to long-grain type B rice export, Italy is competing with the Asian countries. Anyway Spain represents the main Italian competitor because it also exports to the French market the other varietal groups supplied by Italy. Although the Spanish product exported to France has a lesser quality than the Italian one, Spanish market share has been increasing steadily over the last ten years Germany Germany is the second main market of destination for Italian rice exports. In 2012 this country imported around 385 thousand tons of rice for a value of over 262
17 1. Summary and final considerations 15 million euros. A third of German imports in quantity terms (over 127 thousand tons in 2012) comes from Italy. The other major rice exporters to the German market are the Netherlands (with a market share of 12%), Belgium (11%), Spain (10%) and India (7%). With regard to the commercial categories, Germany imports mainly wholly milled rice from Italy, the Netherlands, Thailand, Cambodia and the United States. On the other hand, imports from Spain, India and Uruguay mostly refer to husked (brown) rice. With regard to the varietal groups, the rice imported from Asian countries (but also from Uruguay and Spain) is almost exclusively long-grain type B, while imports from Italy, France and the United States concern all four varietal groups. Over the last decade Italy has strengthened its commercial presence on the German market The United Kingdom In 2012 the United Kingdom s rice imports amounted to 426 million euros for over 666 thousand tons of imported product. India represents the main international supplier (with a market share of 32% in quantity terms in 2012), followed by Spain (17%), Italy (10%), Pakistan and the United States (both 6%). Imports from India, Pakistan, Uruguay and Belgium mainly concern husked (brown) rice while those from Italy, Thailand, the Netherlands, the United States and France mostly refer to wholly milled rice. Imports from Spain concern both husked (brown) rice and wholly milled and broken rice. Imports from the Asian countries and from Uruguay and Belgium are almost exclusively of the long-grain type B variety, while imports from the main EU riceproducing countries (Italy, Spain and France) refer to all four varietal groups. On the United Kingdom market, Spain is Italy s main competitor, particularly with regard to the short-grain varieties. 1.7 RICE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION WORLDWIDE After wheat, rice represents the most widespread crop in the world. In 2011 world production of paddy rice reached around 723 million tons, while the area under rice cultivation was over 164 million hectares (with a yield of 4.4 tons/ha). Around 40% of the area destined for rice cultivation is concentrated in only two countries, India and China, that produce half of the entire worldwide production. The other main rice-producing countries are Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. Overall, the Asian countries cover 90% of world rice production, most of which is destined for domestic consumption. At the moment 93% of the rice produced worldwide is consumed in the
18 16 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo countries where it is produced, while only a small share of it (7%) is exported to other countries. On the other hand, self-consumption ratio 1 for corn, wheat and, particularly, soy is much lower representing 89%, 81% and 65% of production respectively. The significant increase in rice prices on the international markets has only occasionally had an impact on global rice trade, for example in FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The analysis of rice imports and exports in Italy and the European Union allows certain comments to be made on rice production and marketing, both at European and international level. In particular: Worldwide rice production is concentrated in the Asian countries that are, at the same time, also the main consumers of rice. Consequently, global rice trade is more limited than the one of other cereals and the percentage of rice exports as a share of worldwide production has remained stable over the last years, at about 7%. The world rice market is thus of limited size but at the same time the availability of rice plays an important role on safeguarding food security, both in exporter and importer countries. It is therefore a particularly fragile market in times of crisis. For example, in 2007/2008, when rice prices increased rapidly and significantly (as those of other cereals), the governments of several rice-producing countries adopted policy restrictions on international trade (mainly export restrictions) in order to protect their domestic consumers, thus amplifying the rice price crisis itself. The increase in world rice prices was extremely high in 2007/2008 and still today the prices are distinctly higher than in the pre-crisis period. In such a situation, the most negative effects hit the net importer countries, as the EU-27. European domestic demand is much higher than the supply (selfsufficiency ratio is 74%) and can only be satisfied by importing rice from third countries. In particular, over 90% of European rice imports consists in varieties of the long-grain type B group (Indica). Furthermore, the possibilities of diversifying the countries providing the imported rice is also limited: in fact, over 80% of the rice, in value terms, imported by the EU from third countries comes exclusively from five countries (India, Thailand, Cambodia, Pakistan and Uruguay). Between 2002 and 2012, the EU trade deficit in rice with third countries showed a slight decrease in quantities notwithstanding the concomitant increase in European surface areas dedicated to rice growing. Moreover, over the last decade the deficit has more than doubled in value terms because of the increase 1 Self-consumption ratio is defined as the share of total crop production that is not exported but consumed domestically.
19 1. Summary and final considerations 17 in prices of imported products (+80%). Given this scenario, the necessity of safeguarding the EU s domestic production is crucial. Rice production is, in fact, concentrated in a few countries-italy, Spain, Greece and Portugal which account for 89% of the European rice-growing surface area and for 92% of the total production. Besides satisfying domestic demand, they also provide rice to the other EU countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. In the EU-27 the leading rice producer and exporter country is Italy, representing 48% of the European rice production and 38% of European rice exports. Italy therefore plays an important role in the European rice market, whose demand it satisfies not only by means of its own production but also by importing husked (brown) rice that is then milled and exported. This is true in particular with varieties of the long-grain type B group that represent a small share of Italian rice production.
20 18 Import-export di riso: il ruolo dell Italia nel contesto europeo INDICE INDEX 1 Sintesi e considerazioni finali Summary and final considerations 2 La coltura del riso in Italia Rice cultivation in Italy 2.1 Le recenti dinamiche produttive The recent dynamics of production 2.2 Principali varietà coltivate e sensibilità al brusone Main harvested rice varieties and susceptibility to the rice blast 3 La bilancia commerciale del riso in Italia The Italian rice balance of trade 3.1 Il bilancio di collocamento del riso in Italia e la dinamica dell export Italian rice balance sheet and the exports trend 3.2 Struttura dell import-export The structure of import-export 3.3 Le dinamiche dell ultimo decennio The dynamics over the last decade 4 I principali partner commerciali dell Italia The main Italian trading partners 4.1 La concentrazione dei partner commerciali dell import-export di riso The structure of the Italian rice trading partners 4.2 I partner dell import The import partners 4.3 Il trend dell import negli ultimi dieci anni Imports trend over the last decade 4.4 I partner dell export The export partners 4.5 Il trend dell export negli ultimi dieci anni Exports trend over the last decade 5 La coltura del riso nell Unione Europea Rice cultivation in the European Union 6 La bilancia commerciale del riso nell Unione Europea (intra ed extra-ue) 6.1 La struttura dell import-export di riso e le dinamiche dell ultimo decennio 6.2 Gli scambi commerciali di riso dei singoli Paesi europei 6.3 Focus sui principali Paesi esportatori di riso dell Unione Europea The rice balance of trade in the European Union (intra-eu and extra-eu) The structure of rice import-export and the dynamics over the last decade The rice trading of the European countries Focus on the major EU rice exporting countries Le esportazioni di riso della Spagna Rice exports from Spain Le esportazioni di riso della Grecia Rice exports from Greece Le esportazioni di riso dalla Francia Rice exports from France 7 La bilancia commerciale del riso in Europa con i Paesi terzi (extra-ue) The rice balance of trade between the European Union and third countries (extra-eu) 7.1 La struttura dell import-export extra-ue di riso The structure of extra-eu rice import-export 7.2 Le dinamiche dell ultimo decennio The dynamics over the last decade 7.3 I principali partner commerciali The main trading partners 8 Focus sui principali mercati europei di sbocco dell export italiano Focus on the major Italian rice EU importers 8.1 Le importazioni di riso in Francia Rice imports in France 8.2 Le importazioni di riso in Germania Rice imports in Germany 8.3 Le importazioni di riso nel Regno Unito Rice imports in the United Kingdom 9 La coltura del riso nel Mondo Rice cultivation worldwide 9.1 Le recenti dinamiche produttive The recent dynamics of production 9.2 I consumi Global rice consumption 9.3 Il riso nei mercati internazionali Rice in the international markets