1 MATERIALE AGGIUNTIVO SUI BALCANI OCCIDENTALI La Penisola Balcanica, conosciuta anche semplicemente come i Balcani, è una penisola dell'europa orientale che è delimitata - secondo il geografo Vittorio Vialli - a nord dalla linea geografica Trieste-Odessa, a sud-ovest dal mare Adriatico e dal mar Ionio, a sud-est dal mare Egeo e ad est dal Mar Nero. Balkans From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Balkan) Learn more about using Wikipedia for research This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2007) "Balkan" redirects here. For the Turkmen province, see Balkan Province. Balkan peninsula with northwest border Soča-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and an approximate population of 55 million people. The archaic Greek name for the Balkan Peninsula is the Peninsula of Haemus (Χερσόνησος του Αίµου, Chersónisos tou Aímou). The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia.
2 Contents [hide] 1 Definitions and boundaries 1.1 Balkan Peninsula 1.2 The Balkans 1.3 Etymology and evolving meaning 1.4 Southeastern Europe 1.5 Ambiguities and controversies 1.6 Current common definition 1.7 Related countries 2 Regional organizations 3 Nature and natural resources 4 History and geopolitical significance 5 Population composition by nationality and religion 6 References 7 See also 8 External links  Definitions and boundaries  Balkan Peninsula Line stretching from the northernmost point of the Adriatic to the northernmost point of the Black Sea The Balkans are adjoined by water on three sides: the Black Sea to the east and branches of the Mediterranean Sea to the south and west (including the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean and Marmara seas).
3 The Balkans The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geographical position; historically the area was known as a crossroads of various cultures. It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire, the destination of a massive influx of pagan Slavs, an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity. It was also a destination for Jewish refugees of Inquisition. The Balkans today is a very diverse ethno-linguistic region, being home to multiple Slavic, Romance, and Turkic languages, as well as Greek, Albanian, and others. Through its history many other ethnic groups with own their languages lived in the area, among them Celts, Illyrians, Romans, Avars, Vlachs, Germans and various Germanic tribes. Possibly the historical event that left the biggest mark on the collective memories of the peoples of the Balkans was the expansion and later fall of the Ottoman Empire. There is not a people in the Balkans that doesn't place its greatest folk heroes in the era of either the onslaught or the retreat of the Ottoman Empire. For Croats it is Nikola Zrinski, for Serbs Miloš Obilić, for Albanians Skanderbeg, for Bulgarians Vasil Levski, and for ethnic Macedonians - Gotse Delchev. In the 20th century, the Balkan nations except Greece and Yugoslavia were made part of the Warsaw pact (as a result of Soviet hegemony after the ending of World War II). Following the pact's collapse and the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Balkan states have acceded to the European Union, or are in the process of doing so. Etymology and evolving meaning The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from the Turkish balkan meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").  The name is still preserved in Central Asia where there exist the Balkhan Mountains  and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan. On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey. On the west coast, an offshoot of the Dinaric Alps follows the coast south through Dalmatia and Albania, crosses Greece and continues into the sea in the form of various islands. The word was based on Turkish balakan 'stone, cliff', which confirms the pure 'technical' meaning of the term. The mountain range that runs across Bulgaria from west to east (Stara Planina) is still commonly known as the Balkan Mountains. The first time the name "Balkan" was used in the West for the mountain range in Bulgaria was in a letter by Buonaccorsi Callimarco, an Italian humanist, writer and diplomat in An English traveler, John Morritt, introduced this term into the English literature at the end of the 18th century, and other authors started applying the name to the wider area between the Adriatic and the Black Sea. The concept of the
4 Balkan peninsula was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808 . As time passed, the term gradually obtained political connotations far from its initial geographic meaning, arising from political changes from the late 1800s to the creation of post-world War I Yugoslavia (initially the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes). Zeune's goal was to have a geographical parallel term to the Italic and Iberian Peninsula, and seemingly nothing more. The gradually acquired political connotations are newer, and, to a large extent, due to oscillating political circumstances. The term Balkans includes areas that remained under Turkish rule after 1699., namely: Bulgaria, Serbia (except for Vojvodina), Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro (except for the Boka Bay and Budva), Kosovo, and continental Greece. Croatia, Vojvodina and Transylvania (in Romania) do not belong to Balkans. After the split of Yugoslavia beginning in June 1991, the term 'Balkans' again received a negative meaning, even in casual usage. Over the last decade, in the wake of the former Yugoslav split, Croatians and especially Slovenians have rejected their former label as 'Balkan nations'. This is in part due to the pejorative connotation of the term 'Balkans' in the 1990s, and continuation of this meaning until now. Today, the term 'Southeast Europe' is preferred or, in the case of Slovenia and sometimes Croatia, 'Central Europe'. Southeastern Europe Due to the aforementioned connotations of the term 'Balkan', many people prefer the term Southeastern Europe instead. The use of this term is slowly growing; a European Union initiative of 1999 is called the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, and the online newspaper Balkan Times renamed itself Southeast European Times in The use of this term to mean the Balkan peninsula (and only that) technically ignores the geographical presence of northern Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, and Ciscaucasus, which are also located in the southeastern part of the European continent. Ambiguities and controversies The northern border of the Balkan peninsula is usually considered to be the line formed by the Danube, Sava and Kupa rivers and a segment connecting the spring of the Kupa with the Kvarner Bay. Some other definitions of the northern border of the Balkans have been proposed: the line Danube - Sava - Krka River - Postojnska Vrata - Vipava River - Soča) the line Danube - Sava - Ljubljansko polje - Idrijca - Soča the line Dniester - Timişoara - Zagreb - Triglav the line Trieste - Odessa (Trieste-Odessa line)  the line Bay of Trieste - Ljubljana - Sava - Danube ()
5 Balkan peninsula (as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line) The most commonly used Danube-Sava-Kupa northern boundary is arbitrarily set as to the physiographical characteristics, however it can be easily recognized on the map. It has a historical and cultural substantiation. The region so defined (excluding Montenegro, Dalmatia, and the Ionian Islands) constituted most of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire from the late 15th to the 19th century. Kupa forms a natural boundary between south-eastern Slovenia and Croatia and has been a political frontier since the 12th century, separating Carniola (belonging to Austria) from Croatia (belonging to Hungary). The Danube-Sava-Krka-Postojnska Vrata-Vipava-Isonzo line ignores some historical and cultural characteristics, but can be seen as a rational delimitation of the Balkan peninsula from a geographical point of view. It assigns all the Karstic and Dinaric area to the Balkan region. The Sava bisects Croatia and Serbia and the Danube, which is the second largest European river (after Volga), forms a natural boundary between both Bulgaria and Serbia and Romania. North of that line lies the Pannonian plain and (in the case of Romania) the Carpathian mountains. Although Romania (with the exception of Dobrudja) is not geographically a part of the Balkans, it is often included in the Balkans in public discourse. According to the most commonly used border, Slovenia lies to the north of the Balkans and is considered a part of Central Europe. Historically and culturally, it is also more related to Central Europe, although the Slovenian culture also incorporates some elements of Balkan culture. However, as already stated, the northern boundary of the Balkan peninsula can also be drawn otherwise, in which case at least a part of Slovenia and a small part of Italy (Province of Trieste) may be included in the Balkans. Slovenia is also sometimes regarded as a Balkan country due to its association with the former Yugoslavia. When the Balkans are described as a twentieth-century geopolitical region, the whole Yugoslavia is included (so, Slovenia, Istria, islands of Dalmatia, northern Croatia and Vojvodina too).
6 The aforementioned historical justification for the Sava-Kupa northern boundary would exclude a big part of Croatia (whose territories were by and large part of the Habsburg Monarchy and Venetian Republic during the Ottoman conquest). Other factors such as prior history and culture also bind Croatia to Central Europe and the Mediterranean region more than they bind it to the Balkans. Nevertheless, its peculiar geographic shape (as well as its recent history with Yugoslavia) inherently associates it with the region Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of. Current common definition Current political map of the Balkans. Countries firmly considered part of the region are in green; countries sometimes considered part of the region are in turquoise. In most of the English-speaking, western world, the countries commonly included in the Balkan region are: Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Montenegro Greece Republic of Macedonia Serbia Turkey, but only the European section of it (traditionally called Rumelia or Eastern Thrace) Some other countries are sometimes included in the list as well: Moldova Romania Slovenia
7 Related countries Other countries not included in the Balkan region that are close to it and/or play or have played an important role in the region's geopolitics, culture and history: Austria (see also Austria-Hungary, Assassination in Sarajevo) Cyprus (see also Cyprus dispute) Hungary (see also Austria-Hungary) Italy (see Triest and History of the Venetian Republic) Russia (see History of Serbia)  Regional organizations Southeast European Cooperation Process (SEECP) member states Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe members observers supporting partners Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) members former members, joined the EU Central European Initiative (CEI) member states
8 Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) members observers members observers See also the Black Sea Regional organizations Nature and natural resources Southeastern Europe seen from NASA's Terra Satellite Most of the area is covered by mountain ranges running from north-west to south-east. The main ranges are the Dinaric Alps in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia, the Šar massif which spreads from Albania to Republic of Macedonia and the Pindus range, spanning from southern Albania into central Greece. In Bulgaria there are ranges running from east to west: the Balkan mountains and the Rhodope mountains at the border with Greece. The highest mountain of the region is Musala in Bulgaria at 2925 m, with Mount Olympus in Greece, the throne of Zeus, being second at 2919 m and Vihren in Bulgaria being the third at On the coasts the climate is Mediterranean, in the inland it is moderate continental. In the northern part of the peninsula and on the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry. In the southern part winters are milder. During the centuries many woods have been cut down and replaced with bush and brush. In the southern part and on the coast there is evergreen vegetation. In the inland there are woods typical of Central Europe (oak and beech, and in the
9 mountains, spruce, fir and pine). The tree line in the mountains lies at the height of m. The soils are generally poor, except on the plains where areas with natural grass, fertile soils and warm summers provide an opportunity for tillage. Elsewhere, land cultivation is mostly unsuccessful because of the mountains, hot summers and poor soils, although certain cultures such as olives and grapes flourish. Resources of energy are scarce. There are some deposits of coal, especially in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia. Lignite deposits are widespread in Greece. Petroleum is most notably present in Romania, although scarce reserves exist in Greece, Serbia, Albania and Croatia. Natural gas deposits are scarce. Hydropower stations are largely used in energetics. Metal ores are more usual than other raw materials. Iron ore is rare but in some countries there is a considerable amount of copper, zinc, tin, chromite, manganese, magnesite and bauxite. Some metals are exported. History and geopolitical significance Main article: History of the Balkans Animated history of the Balkans from 1800 to the 2006 The Balkan region was the first area of Europe to experience the arrival of farming cultures in the Neolithic era. The practices of growing grain and raising livestock arrived in the Balkans from the Fertile Crescent by way of Anatolia, and spread west and north into Pannonia and Central Europe. In pre-classical and classical antiquity, this region was home to Greek city-states, Illyrians, Paeonians, Thracians, Macedonians, Epirotes, Mollosians, Thessalians, Dacians and other ancient groups. Later the Roman Empire conquered most of the region and spread Roman culture and the Latin language but significant parts still remained under classical Greek influence. During the Middle Ages, the Balkans became the stage for a series of wars between the Byzantine, Bulgarian and Serbian Empires. By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire became the controlling force in the region, although it was centered around Anatolia. In the past 550 years,
10 because of the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe fought in and around the Balkans, and the comparative Ottoman isolation from the mainstream of economic advance (reflecting the shift of Europe's commercial and political centre of gravity towards the Atlantic), the Balkans has been the least developed part of Europe. The Balkan nations began to regain their independence in the 19th century (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro), and in a Balkan League reduced Turkey's territory to its present extent in the Balkan Wars. The First World War was sparked in 1914 by the assassination in Sarajevo (the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina) of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. After the Second World War, the Soviet Union and communism played a very important role in the Balkans. During the Cold War, most of the countries in the Balkans were ruled by Soviet-supported communist governments. However, despite being under communist governments, Yugoslavia (1948) and Albania (1961) fell out with the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, led by marshal Josip Broz Tito ( ), first propped up then rejected the idea of merging with Bulgaria, and instead sought closer relations with the West, later even joining many third world countries in the Non-Aligned Movement. Albania on the other hand gravitated toward Communist China, later adopting an isolationist position. The only non-communist countries were Greece and Turkey, which were (and still are) part of NATO. In the 1990s, the region was gravely affected by armed conflict in the former Yugoslav republics, resulting in intervention by NATO forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and the Republic of Macedonia. The status of Kosovo and ethnic Albanians in general is still mostly unresolved. Balkan countries control the direct land routes between Western Europe and South West Asia (Asia Minor and the Middle East). Since 2000, all Balkan countries are friendly towards the EU and the USA. Greece has been a member of the European Union since 1981; Slovenia and Cyprus since Bulgaria and Romania became members in In 2005 the European Union decided to start accession negotiations with candidate countries Croatia and Turkey and the Republic of Macedonia was accepted as a candidate for the European Union membership. As of 2004, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia are also members of NATO. Bosnia and Herzegovina and what was then Serbia and Montenegro started negotiations with the EU over the Stabilisation and Accession Agreements, although shortly after they started, negotiations with Serbia and Montenegro were suspended for lack of co-operation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. All other countries have expressed a desire to join the EU but at some date in the future.
11 Population composition by nationality and religion Ethnic map of the Balkans prior to the First Balkan War. The region's principal nationalities include: Romanians (22 million) Greeks (10.5 million) Turks (10 million) Serbs (8.5 million) Bulgarians (6.6 million) Albanians (6 million) Croats (4.5 million) Bosniacs (2 million) Slovenes (2 million) Macedonians (1.3 million) Montenegrins (0.3 million) others (Roma,...) The region's principal religions are (Eastern Orthodox and Catholic) Christianity and Islam. A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church. Eastern Orthodoxy is the principal religion in the following countries: Bulgaria (Bulgarian Orthodox Church) Greece (Church of Greece)
12 Republic of Macedonia (Serbian Orthodox Church and uncanonical Macedonian Orthodox Church) Montenegro (Serbian Orthodox Church and uncanonical Montenegrin Orthodox Church) Romania (Romanian Orthodox Church) Serbia (Serbian Orthodox Church) Roman Catholicism is the principal religion in the following countries: Croatia Slovenia Islam is the principal religion in the following countries: Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Turkey The following countries have many religious groups which exceed 10% of the total population: Albania: Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniacs are mostly Muslim, Serbs are mostly Serbian (Eastern) Orthodox and Croats are mostly Catholic. Bulgaria: Islam. Croatia: Serbs are Orthodox. Republic of Macedonia: Albanian population is mostly Muslim. Montenegro: Albanians and Bosniacs are Muslims. Serbia: Albanians and Bosniacs are mostly Muslim, Hungarians, Slovaks and Croats are mostly Catholic. For more detailed information and a precise ethnic breakdown see articles about particular states: Albania, Demographics of Albania Croatia, (4 million Croats, 0.2 million Serbs) Bosnia and Herzegovina (2.1 million Bosniacs, 1.7 million Serbs, 0.7 million Croats) Bulgaria, Demographics of Bulgaria Greece, Demographics of Greece Montenegro, (0.3 million Montenegrins, 0.2 million Serbs)
13 Republic of Macedonia, Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia Serbia, (6.5 million Serbs, 2 million Albanians, 0.3 million Hungarians) Turkey, Demographics of Turkey  References Banac, Ivo. Historiography of the Countries of Eastern Europe: Yugoslavia, American Historical Review, v 97 #4 (October 1992), Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, . Carter, Francis W., ed. An Historical Geography of the Balkans Academic Press, Dvornik, Francis. The Slavs in European History and Civilization Rutgers University Press, Fine, John V. A., Jr. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century ; The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, . John R. Lampe and Marvin R. Jackson; Balkan Economic History, : From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations Indiana University Press, 1982 Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press, . Jelavich, Charles, and Jelavich, Barbara, eds. The Balkans in Transition: Essays on the Development of Balkan Life and Politics since the Eighteenth Century University of California Press, Király, Béla K., ed. East Central European Society in the Era of Revolutions, Komlos, John, ed. Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Successor States: Essays Mazower, Mark, The Balkans: A Short History, 2000 Traian Stoianovich; Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe ^ Encarta Online - Balkan entry 2. ^ World Land Features Database - Balkhan Mountains  See also History of the Balkans Historical regions of the Balkan Peninsula
14 Balkan wars Balkan languages Balkan sprachbund Balkanization Orient Express Music of Southeastern Europe The Islamization of Bosnia and Herzegovina  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Balkans South-East Europe Review BalkanBaby travel writing, analysis and photos from the Balkans Balkan History by Steven W. Sowards SEEurope.net - news coverage on Southeastern Europe Southeast European Times The Centre for South East European Studies Balkans region: Oil and Gas Fact Sheet - United States Department of Energy Analysis Brief Balkans urged to curb trafficking - BBC News from Balkans
15 LA EX-JUGOSLAVIA Jugoslavia Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Jugoslavia è un termine usato per indicare tre diverse entità politiche nel corso del XX secolo sviluppatesi nella penisola Balcanica. Disintegrazione della Jugoslavia: Repubblica Socialista Federale di Jugoslavia ( ) Repubblica Federale di Jugoslavia ( ) Serbia e Montenegro ( ) Serbia (2006-) Slovenia (1991-) Croazia (1991-) Ex Repubblica jugoslava di Macedonia (1991-) Bosnia-Erzegovina (1992-) Linea di confine fra le due entità (IEBL): Federazione di Bosnia-Erzegovina Repubblica Srpska (1995-) Kosovo (sotto il controllo dell'unmik; 1999-) Montenegro (2006-)
16 Il primo fu lo Stato degli Sloveni, dei Croati e dei Serbi, nato il 29 ottobre 1918 (poco prima della fine della prima guerra mondiale) da quello che rimaneva dell'impero Austro-Ungarico, non essendo stato riconosciuto internazionalmente esso si unì dunque al Regno di Serbia e a quello del Montenegro andando a formare il Regno dei Serbi, dei Croati e degli Sloveni la cui nascita venne proclamata ufficialmente il 1 dicembre 1918, con tale nome rimase sino al 3 ottobre 1929, quando adottò la denominazione di Regno di Jugoslavia (Kraljevina Jugoslavija). In ambito locale ci si riferisce a questo periodo anche come "Prva Jugoslavija" ovvero "Prima Jugoslavia". Il secondo fu uno stato socialista costituito immediatamente a seguito della seconda guerra mondiale e successivamente chiamato Repubblica Democratica di Jugoslavia - Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija (DFJ) dal 10 agosto 1945 al 29 novembre Repubblica Federativa Popolare di Jugoslavia - Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija (NFRJ) dal 29 novembre 1945 al 7 aprile Repubblica Socialista Federale di Jugoslavia - Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija (SFRJ) dal 7 aprile 1963 al 27 aprile In ambito locale ci si riferisce a questo periodo anche come "Druga Jugoslavija" ovvero "Seconda Jugoslavia". Il terzo fu la Repubblica Federale di Jugoslavia - "Savezna Republika Jugoslavija" formatasi nel 1992 dall'unione delle repubbliche di Serbia e Montenegro (compreso le regioni autonome di Vojvodina e Kosovo). Nel 2003 cambiò ufficialmente nome in Serbia e Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora). Nel 2006, infine, la Serbia e il Montenegro si sono definitivamente separati e attualmente sono due Stati sovrani completamente indipendenti. Voci correlate Serbia e Montenegro Serbia, Vojvodina, Kosovo Montenegro Slovenia (dichiarò la propria indipendenza il 25 giugno 1991) Croazia (dichiarò la propria indipendenza il 25 giugno 1991) Bosnia-Erzegovina Repubblica di Macedonia Categoria: Jugoslavia Ultima modifica per la pagina: 09:20, 8 giu Tutti i testi sono disponibili nel rispetto dei termini della GNU Free Documentation License. Politica sulla privacy Informazioni su Wikipedia Avvertenze Inserito da <http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/jugoslavia>
17 Tu puoi aiutare Wikimedia a cambiare il mondo!» Dona adesso! [Mostra] Repubblica Socialista Federale di Jugoslavia Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Coordinate: N E , Nota disambigua - Se stai cercando altri significati di Jugoslavia, vedi Regno di Jugoslavia o Repubblica Federale di Jugoslavia. La Repubblica Socialista Federale di Jugoslavia fu lo stato principale dei Balcani dal 1943 al 1992, anno della sua dissoluzione; in ambito locale vi ci si riferisce anche come "Druga Jugoslavija" ("Seconda Jugoslavia") o anche "Bivša Jugoslavija" ("Ex-Jugoslavia"). Fondata sotto il nome di Repubblica Democratica Jugoslava (29 novembre - 4 dicembre 1943) come risultato della seconda riunione dell'avnoj (Consiglio Antifascista di Liberazione Popolare della Jugoslavia) tenutasi a Jajce (Bosnia- Erzegovina) sulle ceneri di quello che prima dello scoppio della seconda guerra mondiale era il Regno di Jugoslavia, nel 1946 cambiò il proprio nome in Repubblica Federativa Popolare di Jugoslavia mentre nel 1963 assunse il suo nome definitivo. Социјалистичка федеративна република Југославија Area Socijalistička federativna 1991 republika Jugoslavija - Socialistična Totale federativna republika 255,804 km² Jugoslavija - % acqua xx% Popolazione - Totale - Densità Fondazione - Dichiarata - Riconosciuta Dissoluzione (dettaglio) 27 aprile 1992 (dettaglio) Valuta Dinaro jugoslavo motto: Bratstvo i Jedinstvo (Fratellanza e Unità) Fuso Orario UTC +1 Inno nazionale Sigla automobilistica TLD Internet 23,300,000 (1991) 80/km² 29 novembre Hej Slaveni YU.yu La Jugoslavia confinava a nord-ovest con l'italia e l'austria, a nord con la Ungheria e Romania, a est con la Bulgaria, a sud con l'albania e la Grecia e ad ovest con il mar Adriatico. Durante la Guerra fredda la Jugoslavia fu un importante membro dei paesi non allineati. Il suo primo presidente fu Ivan Ribar mentre il Maresciallo Tito divenne Primo Ministro. Nel 1953 Tito venne eletto presidente, Lingua ufficiale Capitale serbocroato (RS Serbia, RS Montenegro, RS Croazia, RS Bosnia- Erzegovina, le forze armate e la polizia) sloveno (RS Slovenia) macedone (RS Macedonia) albanese o serbocroato (PSA Kosovo) ungherese o serbocroato (PSA Vojvodina) Belgrado
18 carica che divenne a vita nel Tito morirà il 4 maggio del Con la sua morte le tensioni interne fra le diverse nazionalità, che prima venivano soppresse anche con la forza, cominciano ad emergere. Dopo che quattro delle sei Repubbliche Socialiste dichiararono l'indipendenza tra il 1991 e il 1992, la Federazione si disciolse e nacque la Repubblica Federale di Jugoslavia, formata dalle due restanti repubbliche (Serbia e Montenegro) Nel 2003 anche questa Federazione venne trasformata: la riforma la denominò Unione di Serbia e Montenegro. Nel 2006, infine, la Serbia e il Montenegro si sono separati ed attualmente sono due Stati del tutto indipendenti. L'ultimo Primo Ministro della RSFJ fu Ante Marković (di nazionalità croata). Rimase in carica fino al dicembre 1991, giusto in tempo per vedere lo Stato jugoslavo dissolversi, nonostante egli avesse cercato di attuare, invano, una politica che frenasse le secessioni. Indice [nascondi] 1 Repubbliche Socialiste e Province Autonome 2 Storia 3 Dissoluzione 4 Bibliografia 1.1 I documenti della fondazione 5 Collegamenti esterni Repubbliche Socialiste e Province Autonome [modifica] Internamente lo stato era diviso in sei Repubbliche Socialiste e due Province Autonome Socialiste che facevano parte della Repubblica Socialista di Serbia. La Capitale Federale era Belgrado. Con la costituzione del 1974, in seguito alle tensioni interne, dovute al nazionalismo dei croati e alle tendenze liberali dei serbi si prevede il diritto per le Repubbliche di poter staccarsi dalla Federazione. Tale diritto non era previsto per le Province Autonome.
19 Mappa numerata delle Repubbliche e Province della Federazione Repubbliche e Province in ordine alfabetico: 1. Repubblica Socialista di Bosnia-Erzegovina, con capitale Sarajevo 2. Repubblica Socialista di Croazia, con capitale Zagabria 3. Repubblica Socialista di Macedonia, con capitale Skopje 4. Repubblica Socialista di Montenegro, con capitale Titograd (attuale Podgorica) 5. Repubblica Socialista di Serbia, con capitale Belgrado, che includeva anche: 5a. Provincia Socialista Autonoma del Kosovo, con capitale Priština 5b. Provincia Socialista Autonoma della Vojvodina, con capitale Novi Sad 6. Repubblica Socialista di Slovenia, con capitale Lubiana I documenti della fondazione [modifica] Storia [modifica] Nella Jugoslavia di allora si parlavano tre lingue: serbo-croato (includendo con questa denominazione la lingua parlata in Croazia, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro), sloveno e macedone (lingua istituita nel 1945), senza contare le minoranze albanesi, turche, slovacche, rumene, italiane, magiare, ecc. La storia della Croazia si legherà quindi a quella della Jugoslavia. Un'unione difficile fin dall'inizio viste le diverse realtà storiche, culturali e religiose di ogni singolo stato federale. La Slovenia e la Croazia avevano per lungo tempo subìto la dominazione austro-ungarica e con essa facevano parte della cultura occidentale cristiano-cattolica quindi usavano l'alfabeto latino. La Serbia, Montenegro e Macedonia invece avevano subìto fin dopo il 1389, a séguito della disfatta di Kosovo polje contro i turchi, la dominazione turca e appartenevano all'area orientale cristiano-ortodossa quindi usavano l'alfabeto cirillico. La Bosnia aveva ancora una situazione più complessa: aveva subìto varie dominazioni che avevano fatto sì che all'interno di questo stato si ritrovassero serbi (ortodossi), croati (cattolici), musulmani e una piccola comunità ebraica sefardita, reduce di quegli ebrei che dopo la reconquista spagnola dovettero abbandonare la Spagna e trovarono rifugio solo in Bosnia. In questa repubblica quindi trovavano posto almeno quattro religioni (cattolica, ortodossa, musulmana ed ebraica) e quattro alfabeti (latino, cirillico, arabo ed ebraico).