1 Workshop A WIRELESS WORLD Friday, the 4th December 2009 Tekniska Museet, Stockholm Organizzata da: The Italian Way to radar : Guglielmo Marconi and Ugo Tiberio Gaspare Galati full professor of Radar Tor Vergata University - Roma Content 1. The nature and origin of radar Principle of operation The first patent (1904) The 20 s and the Marconi speech at IRE/IEE 2. The 30 s and the first Italian developments (Guglielmo Marconi and, mainly, Ugo Tiberio) 3. The developments after the WW II and some personal remind ( amarcord)
2 Radar Operation Continuos wave vs. Pulse radar Radar Operation ( Cont)
3 Radar Operation ( Cont) Radar Operation ( Cont) Bistatic vs Monostatic.
4 Bistatic (b) vs Monostatic (a) Radar Monostatic Bistatic Radar Operation ( Cont)
5 METEOR 200 radar ( Tor Vergata) The first patent (1904) Christian Hülsmeyer from Düsseldorf, on 30 April 1904 presented the patent DE Telemobiloskop. First demonstration on 18 May 1904, in Cologne, with detection of a ship at max. distance of one or two km, Technique: a bistatic, CW radar at wavelength of about half metre Not applied for the lack of strong requirements
6 primo brevetto sui radar(10 giugno 1904) The First Patent on Radar The first patent (1904) Christian Hülsmeyer from Düsseldorf, on 30 April 1904 presented the patent DE Telemobiloskop. First demonstration on 18 May 1904, in Cologne, with detection of a ship at max. distance of one or two km. Technique: a bistatic, CW radar at wavelength of about half metre Not applied for the lack of strong requirements
7 The 20 s s and the Marconi speech at IRE/IEE Guglielmo Marconi and the radar-speech at IEE-IRE, IRE, New York, June 1922 On 20th June, 1922 in New York, Guglielmo Marconi addressed the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers (*) He (*) Ref. : Guglielmo Marconi, Radio Telegraphy, Proc. Inst. Radio Engrs., 1922, Vol.10, pp Content 1. The nature and origin of radar Principle of operation The first patent (1904) The 20 s and the Marconi speech at IRE/IEE 2. The 30 s and the first Italian developments (Guglielmo Marconi and, mainly, Ugo Tiberio) 3. The developments after the WW II and some personal remind ( amarcord)
8 The 30 s s : Early detection Warning of Hostile Aircraft The requirement During 30es it was clear that the threat due to Enemy Aircraft was very hard to fight without a long-range detection and localization system. This was particularly true for the United Kingdom and for bombing attacks. In a Winston Churchill s speech at the Chamber of Commons 14 Marzo 1933 the need of an Air Defence system was clearly evidentiated : 1936: Auricles Auricle Acoustic Listening devices (136 produced in the Netherlands) (from a nice book of 2004)
9 Passive Acoustic Early Warning System (end of 20 s) The 30 s s : Marconi and the High Frequency From 1924 to 1930, Marconi worked in propagation of HF waves (3 to 30 MHz) and beyond, with radio-telephony between Sardinia and Roma (over 300 Km, 30 MHz) and experiments at 600MHz (1931) using Barkhausen-Kurz oscillators, with power up to 200 W. First microwave (330 MHz) link : between Castel Gandolfo and Vatican (Pope Pius XI, 1933, telephone and tele-printer service ). Modulation of the monitor signal was observed when vehicles, and even persons, were moving in front of the antennae. Results shown to Italian Military Authorities ( Gen. Luigi Sacco) Marconi suggested to begin radar trials with a bistatic CW system in view of a pulse monostatic one when difficulties with pulsed valves had been overcome.
10 The 30 s s : Marconi, Sacco, Tiberio Early radar demonstrations by Marconi (detection of cars and pedestrians): Cornegliano (Genova), 1934 Acquafredda ( near Roma), 14 th of May, 1935, present : Gen. Arturo Giuliano, Gen. Prof. Luigi Sacco ( the prime instigator of the Italian radar) and the head of the Government, cav. Benito Mussolini. Experiments repeated on 17 th of May, 1935 on Roma Ostia highway and on 20 th of May, 1935 on Via Boccea -Roma Legend of Ray of death negated by Marconi itself Radiotelemetri by Marconi transferred to Centro Radio Sperimentale of CNR in Torre Chiaruccia ( Santa Marinella, Roma) and robbed - destroyed during the war Destroyed on 1st February 1944 From Marconi to Tiberio After Marconi s demonstration, Luigi Sacco (Direttore del Reparto Studi) choose a young and very promising scientist, prof. Ugo Tiberio from the Istituto Radio dell Esercito, to develop the radar technique. Tiberio made, first, a theoretical study on the detection of objects by HF radio waves (report, 1936; partial publication in Alta Frequenza, 1939: the Radar Equation paper)
11 Il Prof. Ugo TIBERIO all epoca in cui fu promosso al grado di Capitano A.N. per meriti eccezionali. Successivamente Maggiore e Tenete Colonnello Convegno IIN-CNR:La sicurezza nella mobilità - 13 marzo 2008 Equazione
12 The 30 s - Tiberio and Sacco, some References The beginning of the Italian Radar implementation Navy was the best technically equipped of all three Italian Services. Therefore pp. -
13 Results of RIEC Tiberio activity and follow-on Improvements The absence of radar : consequencies for the Italian Navy Taranto (nov. 1940). The naval battle of Capo Matapan (28 March 1941) with loss of 3 cruisers of tons 2 destroyers about 2300 men December 1941
14 A fundamental book S.S. Sword : too little, too late Between 1936 and 1941, prof. Tiberio carried his work practically alone except from some help in 1937 by Dr. Ricamo. The yearly financial allotment was a mere Italian Lire Turning Point for the Italian policy on radar was Naval Battle of Capo Matapan ( 28 March 1941) : on 20 April 1941 an EC 3 radar was installed on the ship Carini : detection of m.t.ship up to 12 Km and of aircraft between 32 and 80 Km. Installation on battleship Littorio
15 The Gufo radar on the Battleship Littorio La corazzata Littorio ITALIAN SHIP with EC3 (Tiberio) RADAR Radar GUFO R.T. Carini EC3 bis maggio 41 R.N. Littorio EC3 bis agosto 41 R.N. Littorio EC3 ter settembre 42 R.Ct Carabiniere EC3 ter gennaio 43 R.Ct Pancaldo EC3 ter gennaio 43 R.Ct Fuciliere EC3 ter gennaio 43 Rim. Urania EC3 ter gennaio 43 R.I. Scipione EC3 ter aprile 43 R.I. Attilio Regolo EC3 ter aprile 43 R.N. Vittorio Veneto EC3 ter aprile 43 R.N. Roma EC3 ter agosto 43 R.I. Eugenio di Savoia EC3 ter agosto 43 R.I. Montecuccoli EC3 ter agosto 43 R.Ct Velite EC3 ter agosto 43 R.Ct Dardo EC3 ter agosto 43
16 Alcune foto Incrociatori Raimondo Montecuccoli e Eugenio di Savoia Quantities ( by Castioni) ) and results At Armistice of 8 September, 1943: About 100 Gufo (EC-3 ter) in service More 40 ready for installation with
17 Workshop on the Italian Radar, Campobasso,, 24 Oct.1998 Alcune foto Livorno 4 dicembre Il prof. Paolo Tiberio consegna il manoscritto originale del padre, prof. Ugo, inerente lo studio del radar datato 27 aprile 1936 al Capo di Stato Maggiore della Marina Amm. Sq. Guarnieri perché venga custodito nel museo storico dell'accademia Navale. (Notiziario della Marina - giugno 2000)
18 Another nice book Content 1. The nature and origin of radar Principle of operation The first patent (1904) The 20 s and the Marconi speech at IRE/IEE 2. The 30 s and the first Italian developments (Guglielmo Marconi and, mainly, Ugo Tiberio) 3. The developments after the WW II and some personal remind ( amarcord)
19 Giornata di Studio AICT "Lo sviluppo del Radar in Italia" Organizzata dalla AICT (presidente: prof. Michele Morganti) tramite il Gruppo Tematico Sistemi di Rilevamento, Monitoraggio e Navigazione presieduto dal prof G. Galati - Università di Roma Tor Vergata Giovedì 18 giugno Sala Tirreno della Regione Lazio - ROMA A case study : Microlambda, Sindel, Selenia Silurificio Italiano (1922) Torpedoes Factory plan, in 1935 owned by I.R.I. and trasferred in Fusaro,, Flegrea area near Naples; managed by Carlo Calosi
20 IL SILURIFICIO NEGLI ANNI 30 Alla fine della seconda guerra mondiale, i tedeschi rasero al suolo lo stabilimento.
21 LA RICOSTRUZIONE Le maestranze del silurificio ricostruiscono lo stabilimento di Fusaro A case study : Microlambda, Sindel, Selenia Silurificio Italiano (1922) Torpedoes Factory plan, in 1935 owned by I.R.I. and trasferred in Fusaro,, Flegrea area near Naples; managed by Carlo Calosi Destroyed during the WW II 1951: Microlambda JV between Raytheon e Finmeccanica, thanks to Calosi
22 Produzione di 300 Radar AN/TPS-1D per la Marina Americana AFFRANCAMENTO DALLA LEADERSHIP AMERICANA 1958 :antenna G-7 7 sull affusto di un carro,residuato bellico, in collaudo sul test range di Arco Felice
23 Nel 1960 dalla fusione tra la Microlambda (80%) e la romana SINDEL (20%) nacque che diventerà leader sui mercati nazionale ed estero producendo Radar e Sistemi per più di 120 Paesi. Selenia Amarcord : 11 May February 1986
24 more info on Thanks for your attention