1 Smart Tourism 2014 First Forum on SMART CITY and DIGITAL TOURISM Modelli di Turismo e tecnologie SMART CITIES per la valorizzazione di borghi, giardini, itinerari e territori "intorno" alle città intelligenti A cura di Michele Angelaccio Berta Buttarazzi Manuel Onorati UniversItalia
3 INDICE Introduzione al Convegno SMARTOURISM2014 M. Angelaccio, B. Buttarazzi... 5 Smart Villa Tour System M. Angelaccio, B. Buttarazzi Introduzione Descrizione del Sistema Caratteristiche di Progettazione WEB... 9 Smart Web Image Galleries: an example of MVC-based versatile system for context-aware mobile tours Michele Angelaccio, Berta Buttarazzi, Alessandra Basili Introduction Smart villa tour scenario Cultural Wireless Location System and NFC technology Ambient Intelligence and NFC technology Cultural Ambient Intelligence through Smart Mobile Technologies Conclusions REFERENCES NFC Smart Tourist Card Combining Mobile and Contactless Technologies towards a Smart Tourist Experience Alessandra Basili, Sara Della Luna Federica Palumbo, Pierfranco Rodi Introduction The nfc technology and services in tourism scenario nfc smart tourist card application Case Study Case 1: Airport Case 2: Museum Conclusion Startours: l itinerario a portata di touch Eleonora Ferrara, Fabio Massimo Zanzotto Introduzione Soluzione proposta Casi Studio: Città della Pieve e Montepulciano... 36
4 4 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM WebGIS per la ricostruzione storica dei paesaggi urbani Paolo Buonora, Susanna Le Pera, Paolo Micalizzi Premessa Descriptio Romae - un webgis sul centro storico di Roma Itinerario della ricerca Utilizzazione del Catasto Gregoriano come base cartografica Georeferenziazione e vettorializzazione delle basi cartografiche Creazione di una base di dati dai brogliardi Ridefinizione dei criteri di schedatura per tipologie di documenti eterogenei Perfezionamento dei sistemi di interrogazione La messa in rete in open source del Sistema (Descriptio Romae webgis) Conclusioni La Rete Locale del Turismo Sostenibile Jessica Proietti Evoluzione dei sistemi di pagamento mobile A. Adorini Smart Security for Cultural Heritage: Tecnologie di tagging basate sul DNA Sintetico Berta Buttarazzi, M. Angelaccio, B. Emili (Raton) Introduzione Il DNA SINTETICO APPLICAZIONI DNA-SINTETICO per SICUREZZA e Beni CULTURALI Smart tourism: la nuova sfida per le città turisiche Rocco Papa, Rosa Anna La Rocca... 59
5 INTRODUZIONE AL CONVEGNO SMARTOURISM2014 M. Angelaccio 1, B. Buttarazzi 2, M. Onorati 3 Il convegno si propone di creare un forum di discussione che partendo da Ingegneria si estende ad altri settori accademici e istituzionali impegnati nel settore delle discipline del Turismo Digitale e delle Smart Cities. L iniziativa è stata lanciata nel corso di precedenti eventi come il Forum PA 2014 e il convegno Technology For All a Roma del Inoltre l evento è stata inserito nell ambito delle iniziative per EXPO 2015 dell Università di Roma Tor Vergata coordinata dal Prof. Michele Angelaccio di Ingegneria Gestionale e sostenuta direttamente dal Rettore Prof. Novelli. La conferenza è stata patrocinata dall Agenzia Digitale Italiana con cui si sono avuti i primi contatti per la sua realizzazione durante il Forum PA. I temi del Convegno sono i seguenti: -Smart City and Digital Tourism applications - 3D Multimedia and Virtual Immersive for Tourism - Smart Cities technological and business models - On line Tourism Systems and e-commerce - Mobile Payment and Commerce for Tourism - Smart City and Internet of Things - Historical Urban and Gardens Valorization - Digitalization of Tourism Resources - Geo-Social Networks and Tourism - Slow Tourism - New form of Digital Tourism development 1-2 Univ. Di Roma Tor Vergata, Dip. di Ingegneria dell Impresa, Centro Ricerche Mobile Web e Turismo Digitale-www.turismopoli.it, 3 Giornalista e Direttore UniversItalia editrice
6 6 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM Location Sala del Teatro-Villa Mondragone Ringraziamenti: Prof. Giuseppe Novelli (Rettore Univ. Di Tor Vergata) Dott.ssa Alessandra Poggiani (Dir. Generale AgID) Ing. Agostino Ragosa (ex-dir. Generale AgID) Dott.ssa Eleonora Barrese (AgID) On. Silvia Costa (europarlamentare PD-Commissione Cultura) Prof. Franco Giannini (Univ. Di Roma Tor Vergata) Prof. Michele Luglio (Univ. Di Roma Tor Vergata)
7 SMART VILLA TOUR SYSTEM M. Angelaccio, B. Buttarazzi 1 1. INTRODUZIONE Il sistema SMART VILLA TOUR fornisce il supporto mobile web per la documentazione dei punti d interesse di Villa Mondragone secondo la metodologia QR-TAGS. L utente che intende visitare la villa in modo autonomo, può fare uso di lettore QR disponibile sui smartphones per accedere alle pagine web descrittive dei punti del tour. Ogni punto è individuabile con un pannello grafico contenente una sintesi descrittiva del punto e il tag QR corrispondente alla URL della pagina web associata. Il sistema nella sua versione QR rappresenta il supporto mobile web di base a costo minimo per la realizzazione di smart tours ovvero visite guidate autonome. Esso può essere esteso con versione NFC per smartphones NFC enabled in cui vengono aggiunti NFC radio tags in grado di trasmettere oltre a informazioni supplementari, richieste di acquisto (mobile payments) per materiale vario (stampe antiche, libri, oggettistica). 2. DESCRIZIONE DEL SISTEMA Il sistema SMART VILLA TOUR funziona secondo il modello seguente. Il sistema è composto da: una parte fisica di schede di riferimento disposte lungo un percorso all interno della villa (TAG CARD PATHWAY) e una applicazione web di riferimento (SMART TOUR WEB APP). Ad ogni punto di interesse all interno della vila (PID) viene associato una scheda con TAG QR (TAG CARD). L utente che intende eseguire in modo autonomo con smartphone il tour nella villa mostrato in Figura 1, può eseguire il percorso puntando il suo smartphone ogni volta sulla scheda associata al PID in cui può trovare una breve descrizione del PID oltre ad una mappa del percorso e il TAG QR della pagina associata. Una volta caricata la pagina mediante il puntamento sul TAG viene attivata sul browser del telefono la funzione descrittiva del PID con 1 Univ. Di Roma Tor Vergata, Dip. di Ingegneria dell Impresa. Centro Ricerche Mobile Web e Turismo Digitale-www.turismopoli.it,
8 8 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM eventuali servizi web come ad esempio nel caso di PID 2, la ricerca dei volumi della biblioteca (vedi Figura 2). Figura 1 Pianta con tour composto da 8 PID L applicazione prevede un interfaccia HOME che contiene un elemento per ciascuna posizione. Tali elementi sono organizzati in un image gallery scorrevole WEB APP TOUR GALLERY. Figura 2 Schema di Funzionamento SMART VILLA TOUR
9 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 9 Si noti che la WEB APP è indipendente nel senso che ciascun elemento associato a ciascun PID costituisce uno degli elementi navigabili indipendentemente dalla posizione nel tour e iniziando dalla pagina HOME. 3. CARATTERISTICHE DI PROGETTAZIONE WEB Il progetto delle applicazioni web in contesti mobili sta imponendo scelte di progetto che devono tenere conto di fattori di user experience e gestione dinamica dei dati in funzione della posizione. Inoltre è importante anche svincolare il progetto dalle varie architetture di tags (QR, NFC e beacon) in modo da riusare quanto possibile la struttura di partenza dell interfaccia utente. In questo contesto è stato adottato il modello architetturale a livelli MVC. Figura 3 Esempio di QR TAG per il PID 2 -Biblioteca
12 12 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM In many case researchers and visitors looking for ancient information need a mobile access to ancient documents and historical things embedded in the area in a pseudo-virtual manner. This type of mobile access requires the implementation of interaction methods by which the user can achieve his goals, such as acquiring information just by pointing or touching smart devices. The user, when attracted by a specific item (for example a picture on the wall ) he just brings his smartphone to access different services remotely located while keeping free to be immersed in the cultural context (Figure 4) without being annoyed by tedious keyboard operations. This will help the cultural understanding on the field thus improving learning capability level and allowing a better usage of cultural resources. The system proposed is a kind of smart pseudo virtual tour especially tuned for cultural areas such a renaissance villa, with possibility, through NFC technology, to obtain further information with links and multimedia references. In the Section 2 we outline the virtual tour scenario (smart villa tour scenario) composed by a cultural location system (indoor and outdoor) and a smart image gallery web application. The system architecture and the web application software design is then described in Section 3 by discussing the role of MVC architectural pattern to adapt mobile user view to cultural location system. 2. SMART VILLA TOUR SCENARIO SMART VILLA is an experimental integrated mobile information system based on a mobile web application developed to interface user with a dynamic image gallery enriched with touch based operations that will contribute to access historical documents while visiting ancient villas. We have realized an implementation of the system "SMART VILLA" for "Villa Mondragone" (Figure 2), that is the representative office (International Conference Center) of University of Rome Tor Vergata. Villa Mondragone is one of the twelve Tusculum villas built in the sixteenth century by papal nobility, located in the south-east of Rome near the ancient city of Tusculum in the Castelli Romani area. Villa Mondragone is a building of over cubic meters for which the use of this technology allows easy access for such a wide dislocation of cultural and historical resources. The area considered for this case study, is related to the congress and cultural activities and includes:
13 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 13 the Swiss Hall, used as a large conference room for about 150 seats; the Hall of the Theatre, with 120 seats; four meeting rooms for parallel sessions with 50 seats each (Hall Garden, Green Room, the Terrace Room, Room SS. Peter and Paul); the Belvedere Room on the second floor; the Internet Point Secretariat, equipped for congresses; the Hall of the Caryatids, the Red Room and the Hall Borghese, halls of high representation; the Library; the Gallery for exhibition stands; the Portico of the Accoglienza. Figure 1: Villa Mondragone Villa Mondragone, externally, has the Inner Court, the Portico of Vasanzio, the Secret Garden and the Garden of the Windmill Theatre of the Waters. A Smart Villa Tour hence is designed in the following way. 1. A Cultural Wireless Location System (CWLS) typical implemented by indoor location system devices tuned for smart phones and tablet with a wireless connection to radio tags, that could be easily inserted over ancient things without changing the original historical environment. 2. A Mobile Web Smart Image Gallery Application visualizing Cultural Multimedia Information and dynamically dependent from CWLS through user position. Figure 2 shows an example of screen from the Smart Image gallery Web Application with the villa tour map in which the cultural location system is displayed by wireless location points over the map (stars).
14 wireless location sensor current position 14 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM Villa Map cariatidi room point portico center point gallery starting point Tour Image gallery Villa Image Gallery with Dynamic slide-show/pop-up court starting point Villa CourtYard Description Figure 2: SMART-VILLA: Example of smart Image Gallery GUI Cultural Wireless Location System and NFC technology This requires a new software and wireless mobile system based on radio tags communication protocols available on existing smart phones and tablet (WIFI TAG protocols). In such a way, visitors equipped with standard smart phone (iphone, Android, etc.) could easily navigate through web library interface. In addition, when they are close to ancient paintings, books or other masterpieces a notification system could alert by means of suitable multimedia messages. The artistic works (eg. smart poster) are equipped with NFC tags, in particular, tag type 4 is defined to be compatible with ISO 14443A and B standards. These NFC tags are pre-configured at manufacture and they can be either read / re-writable, or read-only. The memory capacity can be up to 32 kbytes and between the communication speed is 106 kbit/s and 424 kbit/s ; Regarding the choice of the type of tag, the state of the art provides for a classification of tags, and we have identified the fourth class, both for the reader compatible with the mode-only required for our system, both for the capacity of data storage, equivalent to a maximum theoretical of 32 kbytes, suitable for saving the URL. As local web server is used a laptop with linux distribution and XAMPP; for each opera of art was created a html page containing the following information content: o Author;
15 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 15 o Size of the artist object; o Title and Description; o Thumbnails with captions and links to high resolution images; o Information, when present, containing references to the historical period and cultural object; o Potential stores; o Location of the opera inside Villa Mondragone. install WIFI network for the sharing of content available on the XAMPP server; use an Android device (eg, model Samsung Galaxy S II) with a NFC interface for displaying the properly URL. 3. AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE AND NFC TECHNOLOGY The Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new research field, related to environments sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. AmI deals with the creation of intelligent environments where devices work according to the users' expectations in carrying out their tasks in easy and natural way using information and intelligence hidden in the network connecting these devices (Internet of Things). The ambient intelligence paradigm builds upon pervasive computing, ubiquitous computing, profiling practices, context awareness, and humancentric computer interaction design and is characterized by systems and technologies that are: embedded: many networked devices are integrated into the environment; context aware: these devices can recognize you and your situational context; personalized: they can be tailored to your needs; adaptive: they can change in response to you; In AmI the technologies are able to automate a platform embedding the required devices for powering context aware, personalized and adaptive services. The users, surrounded by ubiquitous resources embedded in augmented objects, interact in a natural and intuitive way with computational services like knowledge, work, home, ehealt, ecare, transport, mobility.
16 16 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM AmI requires the use of miniaturized communication infrastructures (including hardware unobtrusive like sensors, nanotechnology, etc..) and intelligent interfaces with which users can interact in a natural way. In addition, to ensure an adequate level of security it is necessary to use suitable software for the confidentiality of the information circulating within the AmI. In this context the model of user interaction and information visualization play a very important role that has been studied by different authors where several models and paradigms have been proposed. Near-Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging technology that provides a natural way of interaction between the users and their environment. This characteristic makes it the preferred candidate for the development of intelligent environments. NFC technology is a combination of the contactless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology and interconnection technologies that allows short-range wireless communication among mobile devices, personal computers, and intelligent objects. NFC is a wireless bi-directional short-range technology (up to a maximum of 10 cm), it operates at the operative frequency of 13,56 MHz, it has a maximum transmission bitrate of 424 kbit/s, this technology allows communication between two devices called Initiator and Target, which are combined within a operation radius of 4 cm to create a peer-to-peer network for sending and receiving information between the two devices. As regards the safety aspect, this is guaranteed, in the first place, by an environmental characteristic, the NCF technology provided, in fact, a very short communication distance between the two devices, this makes difficult the interception of the information exchanged; secondly, also, by the fact that these devices incorporate cryptographic functions through the use of Smart Card. Near Field Communication technology overcomes the rigid distinctions between reader and tag and between active and passive devices, characteristics of technology RFID, incorporating safety features and convenience of the cards without contact. An NFC device can be interrogated and interrogate and can operate in either active or passive mode that depends on how the devices they operate, if mode active or passive.
17 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 17 Figure 2: internal structure of an NFC device The standards for the NFC s communication protocols are defined in the same way in ISO and ECMA and also in ETSI. The main standard are: Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1): describes the radio interface, initialization, collision avoidance, a frame format and protocol for the exchange of blocks of data with error handling. Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2): it specifies a selection mechanism between various communication modes. Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) : this standard governs the exchange of data across the elements enabling the NFC technology and the "front end" of the device which are integrated. Other standards specify test methods for NFCIP-1: ECMA-356 and ISO/IEC 22536, ECMA-362 and ISO/IEC The view of the possible applications of NFC technology is widespread and is difficult to provide an accurate list. The most important classes of applications of NFC technology are : Information about objects (Reader mode); Ticketing/Mobile Payments (Contactless Card); Coupling devices (Device Pairing);
18 18 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM The object of this paper refers specifically to the first class of applications. This particular category covers all applications involving the use of NFC devices to obtain information from devices with passive behaviour, so called "passive token", without the need for physical contact. Approaching the NFC device in a passive token, you can read the information contained therein. NFC offers a simple solution based on the touching paradigm that makes possible the information exchange and access to content and services in an intuitive way. Besides, it simplifies people s interaction with the environment, resulting in the Touch Computing paradigm, where users get their mobile device close to everyday life objects, provided with visual marks and RFID Tags or other NFC devices, with the aim of triggering the intelligent services offered by those objects. Therefore, this combination of RFID and visual tagging of physical objects and NFC devices available, have contributed to the development of the Internet-of-Things , where all the resources, that surround us and their associated services, are available through any connection (GPRS/UMTS, Bluetooth, etc.). A possible application area of the Ambient Intelligence and the development of pervasive systems is the tourism, which is always growing. Nowadays, different investigations are studying the use of NFC in a wide spectrum of problems, including commerce, ticketing and payment, transportation, tourism, identification and security. In the next section we focus on its applicability to reach smart accessibility for cultural areas in which there are strong requirements together the need to increase user participation. 4. CULTURAL AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE THROUGH SMART MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES Cultural Heritage knowledge requires advanced information services often carried in a mobile scenario. Cultural and natural heritage applications have proved to be an attractive vehicle for researchers. Several projects have developed data collection tools, museum or city visitor guides as a means of demonstrating various concepts including location and context awareness and smart building environments. Together, these represent two ends of the production process of bringing cultural and natural heritage from the research environment to its consumers.
19 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 19 This leads to consider a new model of Mobile User Interface in which there is the integration between recent mobile internet technologies (e.g. Web 2.0 with mobile adaptation) and sensor based interfaces (RFID and NFC tag systems). The main issues are: Smart Location Services. Huge information associated to cultural areas could be accessed in a location dependent way thus avoiding to download big files but kept location or even physical particular object dependent (e.g. a particular shape in a picture). Contactless Services. Active tags could enhance particular transactions otherwise impossible while visiting cultural areas. This can improve user engagement even for novice users. For example a smart notification system could help visitor to be alerted on the cultural added value about things in a room before to start a tour. Etc. 5. CONCLUSIONS This paper addressed the impact of Ambient Intelligence (AmI), on Cultural Heritage Information Systems, showing how this evolutionary paradigm, by means of numerous sensors, is useful for the development of Smart Context-Aware System, providing more advanced services. In particular the paper has shown the design of a AmI-based Information Systems, where NFC technology is embedded into the background, suitable to access cultural areas of particular interest. The proposed system is related to mobile and safe cultural access in the context of ancient Renaissance Villas, where different sources of cultural things are interfaced in a proper virtual way without affecting the historical environment. We outlined a real system, called SMART VILLA, based on a set of mobile applets, each interfaced with a NFC based subsystem, related to particular sites (SMART BIBLIO for ancient libraries, SMART ROOM for particular rooms and SMART GARDEN for surrounding historical gardens).
20 20 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM REFERENCES  Abruzzese,D., Angelaccio,M., Buttarazzi,B., Giuliano,R., Miccoli,L., Vari, A Long life monitoring of historical monuments via wireless sensors network ; ISWCS'09, 6th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems,  M. Angelaccio, A. Basili, B Buttarazzi, and W. Liguori, Smart and Mobile Access to Cultural Heritage Resources: a Case Study on Ancient Italian Renaissance Villas, Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), 2012 IEEE 21st International Workshop on, p , 2012  NFC Forum, SmartPosters. How to use NFC tags and readers to create interactive experiences that benefits consumer and business, 2011, FC_Smart_Posters_White_Paper.pdf.  Fujii, A. Trends and Issues in Research on Context Awareness Technologies for a Ubiquitous Network Society. Science & Technology Trends (2008) Japan.  J. Riekki, M. Cortés, M. Hytönen, I. Sánchez, and R.-L. Korkeamäki, Learning to read by touching nametags with NFC phones, 4th International elearning Baltics Conference (elba '11), Rostock, Germany, May   G, Ciocca, P. Olivo Browsing a Image Collection through throigh a multi touch table interface, Information Systems, 37
21 NFC SMART TOURIST CARD COMBINING MOBILE AND CONTACTLESS TECHNOLOGIES TOWARDS A SMART TOURIST EXPERIENCE Alessandra Basili, Sara Della Luna Federica Palumbo, Pierfranco Rodi Abstract According to several digital marketing experts Near Field Communication (NFC) represents the future of Mobile Technology. One of the main strengths of this technology is the possibility to enable smartphones and other mobile devices to become Mobile Wallet, simplifying and enhancing the user experience. In this paper we describe an application for Android smartphone, called NFC Smart Tourist Card, offering a wide range of services: information supply, mobile payment, mobile ticketing, device pairing, location based services, access authorization, management of loyalty, bonus and membership cards. This study has specific value for academics working in the field of Mobile Information Systems with practical implications for telecommunication operators and/or other companies interested in developing and selling mobile services for tourism 2.0. Keywords-component: NFC (Near Field Communication), Mobile Payment, Smart Tourism, Mobile Wallets, Location Based Services. 1. INTRODUCTION The European Union (EU), in its Europe 2020 strategy, has emphasized the need to sustain a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth that might emerge stronger from the economic and financial crisis of the coming years . Since ICT alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity, it is essential to implement a new model of city, named smart where human, relational and social capital (education, culture, etc..), together with the preservation of the environmental system, are important factors of urban growth. This new model of city, based on ICT, sustainable growth, social inclusion, and the quality of life in urban areas, should not overlook the tourism industry. Cities should be considered as touristic products that need to be managed with a long-term strategy and vision. In order to develop a high-quality tourist offer, there is the need of modern and efficient infrastructures that could facilitate accessibility and mobility, and of educational, cultural and leisure institutions that could foster the spreading of the knowledge economy. Tourism is one of the sectors with the highest growth rates in the world although the prolonged economic recession. The global tourist spending
22 22 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM for international travels has doubled in the last years and, according to the forecasts of World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), it will increase of 50 percent in the next ten years. According to the World Tourism Organization  Italy, with more than 46.4 million tourist arrivals, is the fifth most visited tourist destinations in the world, behind France (83 million), United States (67 million), China (57.7) and Spain (57.7 million) and sixth for the revenues (41.2 billion dollars). The spreading of smart technologies has a great potential for the tourism industry. In particular, with the widespread adoption of smart phones and tablets, mobile services and applications have gained mainstream popularity. A new model of Smart Tourism should emerge as an innovative view of tourism supported by the new digital (and in particular, mobile) technologies, and oriented towards improving and simplifying the tourist experience. Mobile technologies enable a new way of travelling as digital tourists for whom the travelling experience is empowered by the information and entertainment coming also (but of course not exclusively) from their new travel buddy : the mobile technology device . Tourism industry must not lose the chance to attract this new kind of tourists. Mobile apps have the potential to personalize the tourist experience by augmenting reality and integrating tourist offerings into a much broader range of use-case scenarios . The main objective of this conceptual article is to propose a new service, called NFC Smart Tourist Card (SMTC), which is specifically designed for a digital technology enhanced tourist experience thanks to the integration of mobile and contactless technologies. NFC SMTC is a mobile travel assistant that integrates the functionalities of a traditional city card with peculiarities of mobile devices (touch screen, Internet, Cellular, Bluetooth, Wireless, mobile navigation, location based services, QR code scanner, music player, camera, video camera and contactless and proximity technology as NFC). It should provide a wide range of customized, interactive and geo located services to tourists. The paper is organized as follows. In the second section of this study we give a theoretical framework outlining the current state-of-the-art of research in the field of NFC technology and its main functionalities, with particular attention paid to its impact on the tourism industry. In the third section we introduce a new service, based on the integration between mobile and contactless technology, designed for tourists. We outline the most im-
23 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 23 portant features of the new service development process as service concept, target, use cases and service workflows. We conclude by pointing out the relevance and the limitation of our research, and the possibilities of further research. 2. THE NFC TECHNOLOGY AND SERVICES IN TOURISM SCENARIO Near Field Communication (NFC)  is an emerging technology that provides a natural way of interaction between the users and their environment. This characteristic makes it the preferred candidate for the development of intelligent environments. NFC technology is a combination of the contactless radio frequency identification technology (RFID)  and interconnection technologies that allows short-range wireless communication among mobile devices, PCs, and intelligent objects . NFC is a wireless bi-directional short-range technology (up to a maximum of 10 cm), it operates at the operative frequency of MHz, it has a maximum transmission bitrate of 424 kbit/s, this technology allows communication between two devices (Initiator and Target), which are combined within a operation radius of 4 cm to create a peer-to-peer network for sending and receiving information between the two devices. As regards the safety aspect, this is guaranteed, in the first place, by an environmental characteristic, the NCF technology provided, in fact, a very short communication distance between the two devices, this makes difficult the interception of the information exchanged; secondly, also, by the fact that these devices incorporate cryptographic functions through the use of Smart Card. NFC technology overcomes the rigid RFID technology distinctions between reader and tag and between active and passive devices, incorporating safety features and convenience of the cards without contact. The standards for the NFC s communication protocols are defined in the same way in ISO and ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association) and also in ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). The main standard are: Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1) ; Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2) ; Near Field Communication Wired Interface (NFC-WI) ;
24 24 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM Other standards specify test methods for NFCIP-1: ECMA-356 and ISO/IEC 22536, ECMA-362 and ISO/IEC The most important classes of applications of NFC technology are : Information about objects (Reader mode); Ticketing/Mobile Payments (Contactless Card); Coupling devices (Device Pairing); The object of this paper refers to the all of those classes of applications, combining in a Tourism travel Experience. NFC offers a simple solution based on the touching paradigm  that makes possible the information exchange and access to content and services in an intuitive way. Besides, it simplifies people s interaction with the environment, resulting in the Touch Computing paradigm, where users get their mobile device close to everyday life objects, provided with visual marks and RFID Tags or other NFC devices, with the aim of triggering the intelligent services offered by those objects. Therefore, this combination of RFID and visual tagging of physical objects and NFC devices available, have contributed to the development of the Internet-of-Things IoT , where all the resources, that surround us and their associated services, are available through any connection (GPRS/UMTS, Bluetooth, etc.).. The NFC technology is faster than bar-code readers, and for example it could save passengers substantial amounts of time at airports, adding to passenger convenience and airline efficiency. The air company Iberia has signed an agreement with Samsung in order to activate new services at airports equipped with NFC readers in the near future . The following table refers to the different NFC applications in tourism industry. TABLE I: Functionality Mobile Payment Information services NFC FUNCTIONALITIES AND APPLICATIONS IN TOURISM INDUSTRY . Possible application Application in tourism industry The mobile phone is used as a Google Wallet (e.g. New Jersey credit or debit card at the point Transit System), Enjoy Mobile of sale Payments You tap your phone on a tag that is incorporated in objects (e-.g. cards or smart posters) or Museum of London, Frankfurt Transport Systems, World Expo 2012 in Yeosu, Korea
25 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 25 Access authorisation Network access Loyalty, bonus and membership cards, couponing and voucher Mobile Ticketing Identification Location based service fixed to the surface and you receive access to the respective additional information. The telephone is turned into a virtual key. With the respective authorization, hotel room doors can be opened, or access to mountain lifts or skiing resorts, etc. is granted. Log onto a Wi-Fi network or get Bluetooth by tapping your phone to a tag. Loyalty, bonus or membership cards are stored on the mobile phone and can be managed there. Customers pay with their mobile phone and receive a virtual boarding pass for a public transport system. The mobile phone as an identification object to acknowledge certain actions. To identify the driver of a rental car, to open the door and start the engine by means of keyless go. The use of NFC for locationbased services. Clarion Hotel in Stockholm, Nordic Choice Hotels, SAS, Holiday-Inn in Stratford City Can be created with apps such as Wifi Tap EAT restaurant chain; Pass and Fly by Air France, Nice Cote d Azur Airport and Amadeus Transport for London (TfL), City of Barcelona, Deutsche Bahn. Hertz Car Rental Modern and Contemporary Art Museum of Nice As it follows in the next section the NFC SMTC on the supply side would reduce the costs of production, transmission and preservation of traditional plastic City Card, while on the demand side would allow the tourist to better plan his stay and to enrich his experience with value-added services provided by mobile app. The majority of mobile commerce services is focused only on the actual transactional experience, but consumers are more likely to adopt holistic proposals covering the end-to-end travel experience.
26 26 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 3. NFC SMART TOURIST CARD APPLICATION The project idea consists of an application for smartphones, called NFC SMTC, for the provision of various services to tourists visiting Italian cities using NFC technology. The application will be distributed in download mode from the store of the telephone operators (eg TIM wallet). The wallet is a virtual instrument that facilitates the management of all smart cards on the user's device. The wallet displays to the user, in addition to a list of all his cards, also the associated services that can be installed, including the NFC SMTC, such as a virtual card. Figure I: Mobile Wallet Interface The NFC SMTC application allows to integrate the functionality of a traditional City Card (also called Tourist Card or City Pass) with the NFC technology and Mobile Wallet service, and must be able to provide a wide range of customized, interactive and geolocated services to the tourists. NFC SMTC technology provides API (Application Programming Interface) in order to create a common framework for the implementation and interoperability of services. This would allow the user to work with the same interface for all applications, simplifying and enhancing the user experience.
27 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 27 The target user of the project is represented by tourists, both Italian and foreign, of the Italian cities, but also citizens and any other type of person, legal entity or organization that intends to purchase goods or services of a tourism destination. The project involves the following operators: Telecommunication Operators; NFC SMTC Ecosystem: companies operating in the tourism sector, particularly museums and hotels; Mobile wallet Ecosystem: banks, Trusted Service Manager (VISA, Mastercard, etc.), merchants, service providers, loyalty programs. The following table summarizes the value proposition for all the NFC SMTC stakeholders. TABLE II: VALUE PROPOSITION FOR THE STAKEHOLDER VALUE FOR END USERS AND TOURISTS Increase of the value for money and value for time : simplification and acceleration of payments, redemption of coupons and accumulation of loyalty points; payment security; optimization of management of information during the travel experience access to discounts and special rates Improvement of the Tourist Experience: Easier retrieval and management of the City Card directly on the smartphone; Interactive experience with the Smart Posters and NFC tags; Efficiency and mobility in money management; Easy access to complementary products or services connected to the initial purchase, making the travel and shopping experience more comprehensive; Management of the loyalty card directly of the smartphone; Greater involvement before, during and after the purchase; VALUE FOR FIRMS Customization and geolocalization of the offer with beneficial effects in terms of: increased market visibility offline and in the main tourist points of interest (online and on social networks). Access to information about customers preferences and behaviours. Mobile Promotion actions: couponing, cross-selling, vouchers, loyalty cards, locationbased advertising, gamification and socialization initiatives. co-marketing and co-branding opportunities with other companies involved in the project. VALUE FOR TELECOMMUNICATION OPERATORS Increase of fixed and mobile telephone network users. Increase of the catchment area of the telecommunication operators, with particular reference to foreign tourists;
28 28 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM Contribution to the spread of the Internet of Things, in which the operator, as the Internet Service Provider (ISP), acquires a role of primary importance. Partnership opportunities Conquest of new market segments, both of end users or other companies;. Diversification of business and new revenue streams. VALUE FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Increase of the tourist destination competitiveness, with beneficial effects on the brand image, tourist attraction and tourist loyalty. Reduce tax evasion (all payments are tracked). Cost savings in printing and postage of the City Card. Cost-saving in the design of the City Card, through the implementation of a virtual platform that allows the co-creation of the offer together with affiliated companies. VALUE FOR SOCIETY Sustainable Development o replacement of the physical card with the virtual card; o incentives to use local public transport and bike sharing; Improved well-being and quality of life Impulse to the creation of a valuable cultural tourism offer 4. CASE STUDY The NFC SMTC will be able to provide to the tourists an end-to-end solution, thus acting as "Mobile Travel Assistant", which assists tourists in the planning of the trip, during and after the trip (also sharing the contents through the social network), and finally improving the whole travel experience. Although the possible application scenarios during the trip are multiple (public transport, taxis, restaurants, hotels, museums and tourist attractions, bike sharing, car rental, retail and others), in this case study we will deal only with airports and museums, providing a range of related services with the selected application scenarios: Download the NFC Smart Tourist Card App on his own smartphone; Access to geo information relating to the closest local transport; Access to geo maps to orient him inside the airport; share his location on social networks and other platform; Consult interactive travel guides and useful numbers; Mobile Ticketing; Mobile Payment; Reader mode; Sharing on the social networks;
29 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 29 Location Based Service (custom routes); Membership card: possibility to accumulate points based on the type of ticket purchased, and receive discounts on additional services (such as restaurants, public transport, shops, hotels). In the following sub-section we describe in detail the two case studies workflows. CASE 1: AIRPORT Tom Hill, a young American tourist from Boston, landed at the airport of Rome Fiumicino at o clock in the morning. After arriving at Terminal 5, he stops in front of a Smart Poster, particularly visible outside the terminal itself. Tom approaches his smartphone, equipped with NFC technology, to the Smart Poster and, after a tap, it starts downloading the NFC SMTC app. By this time, he will be able to use all the services associated with it and receive all notifications in push mode. Tom is positively impressed by the application and after a short setup with the data of his credit cards, he can use the smartphone as a mobile payment instrument by performing a tap at the contactless POS. In this way he does not need to change dollars into euro and he can have a greater control of costs thanks to the travel budget functionality. The NFC SMTC, in addition to the automatic saving of all electronic receipts of purchases made via smartphones, it also allows Tom to insert his trip budget and to update it automatically on the basis of the mobile purchases made. Tom can now reach the hotel, the "Best Western Mondial" located in Via Torino, 127, 00184, Rome. To view the public transport available to reach his hotel Tom decides to search the information through the Smart Poster, so he performs a tap on the tag related to the public transport in Rome. At this point an interactive interface appears on his smart phone and Tom has the ability to insert all the data related to his own "journey" to get to the hotel. Then the smart phone displays the two available options of public transport (underground train or taxi). At this point, Tom selects the train of and purchases his ticket by phone. Tom, thanks to GPS navigator, arrives at the train station and overcomes the security station putting his smart phone in Badge mode on the NFC card reader above the turnstile.
30 30 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM Tom climbs aboard the train, and he shows the electronic receipt of his ticket, stored in his mobile wallet to the controller. CASE 2: MUSEUM At the entrance of Vatican museums, Tom looks ahead a Smart Poster. He decides to download the museum app by tapping his smart phone to one of the tag of the Smart Poster. The museum app allows him to check-in at Vatican Museum and access to a wide range of services, like the museum guide, guided tours, customized itineraries and explanations on how to obtain additional information on artworks through the NFC technology. Since he had bought the mobile ticket, Tom has the chance to jump the queue at the entrance and go directly inside the museum s rooms. Having realized the enormous size of the museum, Tom decides to optimize his visit by using the customized itinerary function offered by the app. Therefore he inserts his information on the interface, in order to create a custom itinerary in accordance with his needs and interests. During his visit, Tom has the opportunity to admire the artworks and to access to additional information by tapping the smart tag next to each artwork. Tom notices that next to each artwork there is also another smart tag that allows him to save a high resolution image of the artwork and/or to share it on social networks. Pleasantly surprised by this opportunity, Tom decides to put his camera in his backpack in order to enjoy more his visit. At the end of the tour, once again in front of the Smart Poster, Tom taps the tag Restaurants and nightlife, and his smart phone displays a webpage with a list of restaurants near Vatican Museums. All these restaurants are affiliated with the NFC SMTC. Tom is confused by the wide choice of restaurants. Suddenly he is warned by a push notification about the possibility to receive special discounts for NFC SMTC holders. Among a dozen restaurants, differentiated for the type of cooking and the peculiarities of the offer, Tom chooses a coupon for a dinner in a typical Roman restaurant. This coupon offers him a 30% discount if he invites a Facebook friend. Clicking on the offer, Tom authorizes the system to send a message to his friend Mike to invite him for dinner. As soon as Mike responds positively to the invitation, Tom has the opportunity to take advantage of the discount.
31 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 31 Then Tom selects the coupon and pay through the mobile wallet. The system recognizes the coupon and stores it in the appropriate section. The mobile wallet immediately updates Tom s trip budget. The NFC SMTC thanks Tom for the purchase with a message and rewards him with loyalty points. Subsequently Tom receives a Facebook invite to put a Like on the restaurant page. Through an application in the Facebook page of the restaurant Tom can book a table for the dinner. After booking a table for two at 8:00 p.m., Tom s smart phone warns him that the booking has been added to the route in his mobile wallet. Figure II: Workflow of Museum Case study 5. CONCLUSION The next decade and beyond will see a qualitative shift in the travel and tourism experience. Our research suggests that an era of smart tourism will soon emerge and transform how people experience travel. NFC technology and mobile wallets hold great promise for tourism marketing and advertisement. Through mobile-based promotion, they can become increasingly popular tools (Okazaki & Hirose, 2009) and might contribute to the diffusion of mobile coupons and customized discounts (Pesonen & Horster, 2012). In this paper we have introduced a new service application for Smart Tourism Systems (STS) tailored for Tourism and Cultural Heritage, called NFC SMTC. The proposed application offers a wide range of services: information supply, mobile payment, mobile ticketing, device pairing, location based services, access authorization, management of loyalty, bonus and membership cards.
32 32 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM This study shows how the telecommunication operator, through appropriate cooperation strategies with the tourism industry and local authorities, could offer services, content and value-added resources for both B2B and end-users, thereby contributing to economic and territorial development of the tourist destination. Although this project could bring a number of benefits and new business opportunities in the tourism sector, there are different challenges to cope with: The NFC SMTC should include a wide variety of heterogeneous and diversified services. This could be a barrier for the implementation of this offer. NFC technology is still not widely known by users. In addition, in order to exploit its potential, NFC technology needs the support of other technologies, such as Wi-Fi networks, but, until now, Wi-Fi coverage is not guaranteed in many areas of Italy. The tourism sector is highly fragmented and it is characterized by the existence of many small companies that often lack sufficient resources to invest in new technologies and infrastructure. In Italy, the digital divide is still very high. Local authorities have few financial resources to invest in improving tourist offerings. The NFC standard is still struggling to rise and, despite its many capabilities, it has been applied mainly to entertainment functions. The predicted spread of micropayments has not occurred, in favor of alternative solutions for the virtual currency exchange: in Germany, for example, the mobile payment can be made inserting a password in the smart phone screen or scanning barcodes. Michael Morgan, analyst at ABI Research, points out that today the mobile payment ecosystem is highly fragmented and insecure. For this reason, giants like Apple consider it too unstable for a substantial investment. Consumers/tourists could raise some privacy concerns. Nevertheless, these concerns could be solved by offering them various valuable incentives in exchange for their data. In the future, we aim to interview tourists to evaluate their familiarity with and acceptance of NFC technology and mobile wallets. We aim also to interview local authorities and travel, leisure, and hospitality companies, in
33 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 33 order to test their interest (or lack thereof) in developing a range of new services based on NFC and mobile wallets. REFERENCES  COM EUROPE A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Communication from the Commission.  SO%20%20%20007%20-%20Europe%202020%20- %20EN%20version.pdf 2010  World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). UNWTO Tourism Highlights Edition. Retrieved from cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/pdf/unwto_highlights13_en_lr_0.pdf 2013  World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC). Travel & Tourism Economic Impact Italy Retrieved from uploads/downloads/ world2013_1.pdf  FutureBrand (2013). Country Brand Index Retrieved from  Palumbo F., Dominici G., Basile G. The Culture on the Palm Of Your Hand: How to Design a User Oriented Mobile App for Museums. In: Aiello, L. (Ed.), Management of Cultural Products: E-Relationship Marketing and Accessibility Perspectives, pp , IGI Global  Palumbo F, Dominici G, Basile G. Designing a mobile app for museums according to the drivers of visitor satisfaction. In: Vrdoljak Raguz I, Roushdy M, Salem ABM (eds.) Recent Advances in Business Management and Marketing, WSEAS Press, p  M. V. Bueno-Delgado, P. Pavón-Marino, A. De-Gea-García, A., Dolón-García, The Smart University experience: A NFC-based ubiquitous environment. Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena  F. Borrego-Jaraba, I. Luque Ruiz, M. Ángel Gómez-Nieto,. A NFCbased pervasive solution for city touristic surfing Personal and Ubiquitous Computing pp  Dinu AIRINEI and Daniel Homocianu, Globalization & Business Intelligence Reloaded, Analele Ştiinţifice Ale Universităţii Alexandru Ioan Cuza Din Iaşi Număr special Ştiinţe Economice,  Michael Batty, Andrew Crooks, Andrew Hudson-Smith, Richard Milton, Suchith Anand, Mike Jackson and Jeremy Morley, Data mash-ups and the future of mapping, JISC: Bristol, UK, Sept
34 34 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM  Mareş Marius Daniel, Mareş Valerica and Ilincuţă Lucian Dorel, It Solutions For The Management Of Geo-Business, Annals of Faculty of Economics, vol. 4, issue 1, pages  Lachlan James, Location Intelligence and Mobile BI: The future of BI, Yellowfin, 15 Mar,  Lachlan James, Location Intelligence and Mobile BI: Advancing Data Analysis in the Healthcare Industry, SmartData Collective, April 4,  Future Travel Experience, Iberia and Samsung partner on NFC project to simplify airport experience, retrieved from  Egger, R. (2013). The impact of near field communication on tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 4(2):  Okazaki S, Hirose M., Does gender affect media choice in travel information search? On the use of mobile Internet. Tourism Manage 30(6):  Pesonen J, Horster E., Near Field Communication technology in tourism  Tourism Management Perspectives 4:11-18 Barresi, A. & Pultrone, G., Smart Strategies for Participatory Urban Development: Trends and Prospects for European Cities and Regions, paper presented at Beijing Forum The Harmony of Civilizations and Prosperity for All, Beijing Novembre 2nd-4th 2012.
35 STARTOURS: L ITINERARIO A PORTATA DI TOUCH Eleonora Ferrara, Fabio Massimo Zanzotto 1 1. INTRODUZIONE In passato era difficile, per il turista, trovare tutto ciò di cui aveva bisogno per il suo viaggio, infatti, non si trovavano guide turistiche riguardanti le piccole città. Con il passare del tempo, sono comparse nuove soluzioni come: mappe turistiche della città, portali turistici sul web; applicazioni per smartphone; QR Code. Quest ultimo viene considerata l innovazione del momento, ma ha bisogno di un applicazione che consente di leggere il codice bidimensionale che si trova davanti ad un museo, chiesa o monumento, e grazie al quale si possono visualizzare informazioni relative a quel determinato punto di interesse. Ognuna di queste soluzioni ha dei problemi : la mappa cartacea non è comoda per il viaggio, in quanto il turista non riesce a muoversi liberamente; l applicazione per smartphone o altri dispositivi deve essere scaricata ed ha bisogno di molta memoria disponibile all interno del dispositivo ed inoltre deve essere disinstallata alla fine del viaggio; ed infine il QR Code, ha la necessità di un applicazione ma anche di una connessione dati per poter accedere al link al quale si viene rimandati tramite il codice. 2. SOLUZIONE PROPOSTA Dopo aver analizzato ciò che offre il mercato turistico per quanto concerne le guide di un luogo di interesse, soprattutto nei piccoli borghi, ho capito che si poteva trovare una soluzione differente ed al tempo stesso moderna. Infatti la soluzione proposta, denominata startours, prevede la creazione di percorsi turistici basandosi sulle mappe di Google ed utilizzando Maps Engine, un tool di Google che permette di creare delle mappe personalizzate. 2 1 Università di Roma Tor Vergata 2 Google Maps Engine Lite e Pro. s.d. https://support.google.com/mapsenginelite/answer/ (consultato a Maggio 2014).
36 36 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM In questo modo l utente, il turista, deve soltanto aprire la propria mappa di Google e cliccare sul link che lo indirizza alla mappa personalizzata comprensiva di itinerari, foto, video e descrizioni dei punti di interesse. Il link può essere messo nel punto che contrassegna gli Uffici Turistici e da lì far partire tutti gli itinerari. Queste mappe oltre ad essere direttamente collegate su Google Maps, si possono anche inserire sui siti dei comuni che vogliono partecipare a questo progetto. In questo modo gli utenti possono salvare e scaricare la mappa che si trova sul sito oppure aprire la mappa su Google Maps e salvare la porzione della mappa a cui si è interessati. 3 L innovazione di questa soluzione sta nel non dover scaricare nessuna applicazione nei dispositivi e inoltre non dover utilizzare forzatamente il pacchetto dati o il wifi. Le mappe possono essere consultate anche solo con il GPS, se sono salvate anticipatamente sul dispositivo, oppure possono essere interattive grazie ad una comunicazione via rete mobile o al wifi. 3. CASI STUDIO: CITTÀ DELLA PIEVE E MONTEPULCIANO La proposta descritta è stata messa in pratica in due casi studio: Città della Pieve (PG), in Umbria; e Montepulciano (SI), in Toscana. Ho raccolto informazioni su di esse cercando di capire se la soluzione potesse essere applicata in queste due città, verificando quindi lo stato precedente di o- gnuna. In entrambi i casi si riscontra che esistono dei percorsi turistici integrati con QR Code e virtual tour. A Città della Pieve i percorsi sono chiamati Arcobaleno, suddivisi in tour tematici e tutti descritti nel QR Code 4, a Montepulciano, invece, non ci sono dei percorsi veri e proprio, c è soltanto la descrizione dei luoghi di interesse della città all interno del QR Code. 3 Google Maps, visualizzazione mappe offline. s.d. https://support.google.com/gmm/answer/ ?hl=it (consultato a Giugno 2014). 4 Percorsi Arcobaleno, Città della Pieve. 26 Luglio (consultato a Giugno 2014).
37 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM 37 Per questo motivo ho applicato a queste due città la soluzione startours. Per Città della Pieve sono stati ripresi gli itinerari già proposti (Figura 1) e ne è stato creato un altro riguardante la fiction televisiva Carabinieri (Figura 2), per Montepulciano, sono stati creati dei percorsi turistici tematici sulla base dei raggruppamenti che si trovano nel QR Code, e sono stati creati due nuovi percorsi: uno riguardante l ultima stagione di Carabinieri (Figura 3), l altro sul film New Moon. Figura 1 - Percorso dei Paesaggi (Città della Pieve) Figura 2 Esempio di foto e descrzioni nel percorso Carabinieri (Città della Pieve)
38 38 SMART CITY AND DIGITAL TOURISM Figura 3 Indicazioni stradale nel percorso Carabinieri 7 (Montepulciano) Da questi due casi studio è emerso che si possono creare dei percorsi turistici sia sulla base di quelli già esistenti sia di nuovi come: sagre, eventi, palii. Quindi, startours potrebbe essere una soluzione a basso costo e che può essere modificata in qualunque momento modificando e creando dei nuovi percorsi. Bibliografia Google Maps Engine Lite e Pro. s.d. https://support.google.com/mapsenginelite/answer/ (consultato a Maggio 2014). Google Maps, visualizzazione mappe offline. s.d. https://support.google.com/gmm/answer/ ?hl=it (consultato a Giugno 2014). Percorsi Arcobaleno, Città della Pieve. 26 Luglio &comune=7 (consultato a Giugno 2014).
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