Bi- and Multilingual Universities: European Perspectives and Beyond

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1 Konferenzbeiträge Atti Proceedings Bi- and Multilingual Universities: European Perspectives and Beyond Conference Proceedings Bolzano-Bozen, September 2007 Edited by Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig Bozen Bolzano University Press

2 Bi- and Multilingual Universities: European Perspectives and Beyond Conference Proceedings Bolzano-Bozen, September 2007 Edited by Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig

3 Editors Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig Cover design Gruppe Gut Gestaltung, Bozen/Bolzano Printing Digiprint Bozen/Bolzano Distribution Universitätsbibliothek Bozen Biblioteca Universitaria di Bolzano University Library of Bozen-Bolzano Bozen-Bolzano University Press Universitätsplatz 1 / Piazza Università 1 I Bozen/Bolzano T: F: ISBN Digital edition: by Bozen-Bolzano University Press Bozen/Bolzano All rights reserved

4 iii Table of Contents Mehrsprachige Universitäten sollten eine Selbstverständlichkeit werden Rita Franceschini vii Introduction Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig Plenaries Mehrsprachige Universitäten als Beitrag zur Erhaltung der sprachlichen Vielfalt Europas Georges Lüdi Testing for Bilingualism in Higher Education Anu Virkkunen-Fullenwider Plurilinguismi comunitari e plurilinguismi familiari nell Italia che transita dal secondo al terzo millennio Tullio Telmon Institutional Language Policies Perspektiven der Sprachausbildung an einer mehrsprachigen Universität Christoph Nickenig El inglés como lengua de instrucción en una universidad bilingüe David Lasagabaster Babeş-Bolay University: Options for a Language Policy Ştefan Oltean Teaching Bi/Multilingual Classes: From Deaf-mutes to Fully-fledged Katrin Reinvere, Nina Raud Universitat Oberta de Catalunya: A Case Study Miquel Strubell English as a Medium of Instruction in Flanders: Multilingual Reality vs. Protectionist Policy Frank van Splunder

5 iv Obstacles of Implementing Multilingual Language Policy at the Sapientia University, Transylvania (Romania) Zsuzsanna Éva Kiss Accomplishing a Balancing Act as a Bilingual University: The Challenge at Stellenbosch University, South Africa Marianna Visser Functional French-English Bilingualism Among Anglophones in Cameroon Tertiary Institutions Jean-Paul Kouega Analysing Communication Inside and Outside the Classroom Plurilingual Talk-in-interaction in an Initial Teacher Training CLIL Class Melinda Dooly, Emilee Moore Strategie di compensazione lessicale nel parlato accademico: una fenomenologia Lorenzo Spreafico La lezione accademica in contesto plurilingue: prospettive di analisi tra parlato monologico e interazione plurilocutoria Daniela Veronesi Multilinguismo in interazione: descrizione dei repertori linguistici di studenti universitari Alessandro Vietti English as a Lingua Franca Under the Microscope: English for Plurilingual Academic Purposes Iris Schaller-Schwaner A Quick-and-dirty SWOT Analysis on Master s Degree Programmes Conducted in English in Non-English Environments Tuula Lehtonen, Kari Pitkänen, Roy Siddall, Anu Virkkunen-Fullenwider The English Problem at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano: A Response Jemma Prior English as a Medium of Instruction for Political Science at Pavia University Cristina Mariotti

6 v Subject-matter Lectures Becoming Bilingual: Support for Staff Language Development Virve-Anneli Vihman, Jennifer Uhler Inequity in Teaching Content in Different Languages: A Case Study of an English Native Speaker Teaching Professional Skills in Dutch Robert Wilkinson English Language Test for Scientific Staff at D.U.T. Renate Klaassen, Madeleine Bos, Tim Roubos Formazione accademica bi-plurilingue: quali implicazioni per la didattica? Enrica Piccardo Bilingual Team-teaching at Postgraduate Level Maria Grazia Borsalino Students Communicative Competence Communicating in Multilingual Academic Contexts: The Challenge of a European Project for Mobility Students Carmen Argondizzo, Jean Jimenez The Role of Language and Learning Advisers in University Settings: Helping Students to Help Themselves Carmela Briguglio Competenze linguistiche in italiano: esami e certificazioni a confronto Mariella Natale, Claudia Provenzano Italiano fuori dalla classe Sandra Montali Which (New) Role for Self-access Centres? Paola Vettorel Linguistische Anwendungen für eine mehrsprachige Bibliothek Ulrike Kugler, Raffaella Bernardi Contributors

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8 vii Mehrsprachige Universitäten sollten eine Selbstverständlichkeit werden: Capacità cognitive, and the Asset of Multilingualism Rita Franceschini Es lohnt sich darüber nachzudenken, weshalb in den letzten zehn Jahren immer mehr Universitäten versuchen, sich Profile zu geben, welche die Aspekte der Mehrsprachigkeit als kennzeichnende Merkmale in Statuten und Programme aufnehmen. Stehen wir vor einer echten Bewegung mehrsprachiger Universitäten wie sie sich beispielsweise im Verbund der europäischen BiMu - Universitäten manifestiert oder lediglich vor einem Trend, welcher der immer stärkeren Notwendigkeit, sich auf dem Bildungsmarkt zu positionieren, geschuldet ist, oder handelt es sich bei dieser mit Überzeugung vorangetriebenen Ausrichtung tatsächlich um ein weitsichtiges Engagement für eine Thematik, die reelle Zukunftsperspektiven hat? Wenn es stimmt, dass Universitäten sensible Orte sind, in denen vorausschauendes Denken stattfindet, dann ist die Profilbildung mit Einbezug von Mehrsprachigkeit zu letzterer Möglichkeit zu schlagen. Die Öffnung der Universitäten zur Mehrsprachigkeit hin in den unterschiedlichsten Formen, die die Mehrsprachigkeit haben kann steht sicherlich mit einem epochalen Wechsel in Verbindung, bei dem bspw. die endgültige Verabschiedung von starken Annahmen zu Homogenität im Zentrum steht. Der Fokus wird vermehrt gesetzt auf Diversität, Kreativität und auf den Wertediskurs mit Betonung von Ethik, Lebens- und Beziehungsqualität sowie Nachhaltigkeit und somit auf das Individuum, seine Geschichte und Verantwortung. Es ist daher nur natürlich, dass entdeckt wird, wie vielfältige sprachliche und kulturelle Lebenslagen in einer Studentenpopulation und bei Dozierenden vorhanden sind. Die Vielfalt der sprachlichen Repertoires, die heute (aber auch früher) eine durchschnittliche Universität aufweist, ist hoch. Neu ist dies nicht, doch heute wird diese Tatsache als entwicklungsfähige Eigenschaft angesehen, da wohl erkannt wird, dass Mehrsprachigkeit eine Eigenschaft darstellt, die für Studium und Gesellschaft einen kulturellen, sozialen und innovativen Mehrwert mit sich bringt. E non diciamo neppure nulla di nuovo se riportiamo risultati delle prime ricerche degli anni 70 del secolo scorso sui confronti fra allievi mono- e bilingui nei sistemi scolastici del Canada, da dove sono partite le prime indagini sugli effetti (nocivi si temeva allora) dell educazione bilingue dalle prime classi delle scuole primarie in poi. Una delle liste che si possono estrarre dagli studi pionie-

9 viii Vorwort Prefazione Preface ristici attorno alla figura di Wallace E. Lambert 1 è la seguente: gli scolari bilingui mostravano la tendenza di essere in media migliori dei loro coetanei monolingui nelle seguenti capacità: verbal and non-verbal intelligence reconstruction of a perceptual situation verbal originality verbal divergence semantic relations creative thinking non-verbal perception task verbal transformation symbol substitution metalinguistic types of performance Come si vede, nella lista non figurano soltanto capacità prettamente linguistiche, ma anche capacità in genere cognitive. Se ne può dedurre che l acquiszione di più lingue aiuta a rafforzare anche altre capacità cognitive. Vi è però un caveat: i risultati erano soltanto positivi se si confrontavano bambini della stessa estrazione sociale. Tale variabile sembra quindi essere più forte degli effetti benefici del bilinguismo. Si pensi a ragazzi di famiglie di migranti: tuttora essi non sembrano trarre quel grande vantaggio dal loro potenziale multilingue quanto i ragazzi di famiglie integrate da generazioni. Gli studi di Ellen Bialsystok, p.es., 2 hanno aiutato notevolmente a vedere più chiaro in tale campo di studi dedicato al confronto di capacità cognitive di soggetti bilingui: con analisi psicolinguistiche avanzate il team attorno alla studiosa statunitense ha potuto dimostrare che le capacità di soggetti bilingui sono specifiche e persino salutari per mantenere una flessibilità mentale in età avanzata. Gli individui bilingui hanno specifiche capacità di dirigere e mantenere l attenzione su un focus, ed una capacità nell inibire stimoli. Ci si può immaginare che ciò deriva dal fatto che un bilingue sa focalizzare su una delle sue lingue, come sa inibire l altra ad emergere in superficie. Seit Wallace Lamberts Studien in den Siebziger Jahren des letzen Jahrhunderts ist die obige Liste erweitert worden. Zudem scheint das Bewusstsein für Mehrsprachigkeit erhöht vorhanden zu sein. Die vielen Initiativen des Europarates und der Europäischen Union haben sicherlich dazu beigetragen, Lehrpersonen und Entscheidungsträger von der Notwendigkeit zu überzeugen, dass mehr Anstrengungen in den Erwerb und ebenso sehr auf den Erhalt mehrer Sprachen zu setzen sind. Gerade 1 Nei lontani anni 70 p.es. in: Lambert, W. E., Tucker, Richard G. & d Anglejan, A Cognitive and attitudinal consequences of bilingual schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology 85/2: ; e cfr. Lambert, W. E In Hornby, P. (ed.). Bilingualism, Academic Press: New York. 2 Cfr. p.es.: Bialystok, E Bilingualism in Development. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. & Klein, R Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon Task. Psychology and aging 19(2):

10 Rita Franceschini ix im Jahr 2009, das zum Jahr der Kreativität und Innovation ausgerufen worden ist, hatte eine Auftragsstudie der Europäischen Kommission der Frage nachzugehen, ob die Mehrsprachigkeit einen Beitrag zur Kreativität leistet. 3 Aus einer umfangreichen Literatursichtung der letzten Jahrzehnte gelangte die Studiengruppe zum Schluss, dass dies in folgenden Bereichen der Fall sein kann: erhöhte mentale Flexibilität bessere Fähigkeit, Probleme zu lösen größere metalinguistische Fähigkeit bessere Fähigkeit zu lernen bessere zwischenmenschliche Fähigkeiten Verlangsamung der altersbedingten Minderung der geistigen Fähigkeiten Die Mehrsprachigkeit entwickelt individuelle Fähigkeiten; doch über diese Befunde hinaus ist es nun an der Zeit, dass sie auf universitärem Niveau einen institutionellen Platz finden und Wertschätzung erfahren. In diesem Sinne leistet Mehrsprachigkeit einen Beitrag auf mehreren Ebenen: zur Entwicklung sozialer Institutionen, zur Entwicklung von Kenntnissen, zur Entwicklung der Wirtschaft. Nichts ist anfälliger für Kritik als eine Sonntagsrede. Die Umsetzung von Mehrsprachigkeit in Institutionen ist alles andere als einfach. In vielen Fällen muss dazu erst noch die Bereitschaft geschaffen werden, von den sozialen, didaktischen und finanziellen Rahmenbedingungen ganz zu schweigen. Dieser Band zeigt dies eindrücklich: Es müssen noch viele wichtige Akteure überzeugt werden, Formen evaluiert werden, Mut zur Erprobung unterschiedlichster Profile gefunden werden. Dabei gilt es, sich mehrere organisatorische Optionen vorzuführen, je nach dem, auf was die Mehrsprachigkeit abzielt. Es muss die Frage geklärt werden, wer ist das Objekt der Mehrsprachigkeit: Der Studierende, die Institution, das Angebot, oder etwa alle drei? A tale riguardo e ai tre livelli è necessario chiarire le seguenti domande: con quali capacità linguistiche uno studente inizia e termina il suo corso di studio? Deve uscirne trilingue come propaga l Unione europea o deve semplicemente sapere l inglese accanto ad una sua L1? Quali attività si mettono in atto per permettergli di diventare p.es. trilingue: si usa un metodo tradizionale di sostegno linguistico attraverso corsi di lingua, mentre l insegnamento è impartito in altre lingue (magari solo in inglese)? O si usa un modello CLIL-universitario, dove anche le materie vengono trasmesse in una delle lingue da acquisire? Che ruolo gioca il contesto sociale della regione in cui lo studente potrebbe usare le lingue che sta per acquisire? A livello di istituzione le domande da chiarire riguardano lo sviluppo delle competenze del personale amministrativo ed accademico da un lato e la policy di comunicazione da adottare. Il personale universitario ha da essere bi- e multilingue? Com è 3 Aus: Studie über den Beitrag der Mehrsprachigkeit zur Kreativität, EU 2009,

11 x Vorwort Prefazione Preface da reclutare? I testi scritti e le comunicazioni sono da diffondere sempre in più lingue o il multilinguismo è usato in modo facoltativo ovunque, ma non nei testi ufficiali? Le lingue minoritarie presenti in loco giocano un ruolo particolare e fanno parte del profilo dell università o non sono visibili? Darsi il sigillo del multilinguismo finisce soltanto per attirare studenti internazionali e di offrire corsi in inglese per tutti, uniformando così di nuovo la comunicazione e il pensiero? A livello di offerta formativa, le domande critiche si riferiscono al peso che si dà alla componente linguistica: essa può essere parallela, additiva, o integrata e vissuta anche per la trasmissione del sapere. L aspetto linguistico può essere solo aggiuntivo, come approfondimento più o meno facoltativo: l offerta formativa sarebbe allora multilingue, perché si prevedono più lingue da acquisire e/o da studiare (p.es. separatamente in un centro linguistico che se ne occupa). L offerta formativa di materie non-linguistiche può essere invece differenziata, prevedendo corsi paralleli in più lingue, tenendo per questa via separati i vari gruppi e rendendo più difficile che interagendo fra loro possano acquisire conoscenze reciproche. A tutte queste domande e forme organizzative opzionali il volume fornisce esempi di pratiche, spesso virtuose, e offre un nutrito potenziale di riflessione. E più il campo di sperimentazione condiviso che forma il tratto comune degli aspetti che si discutono in questo volume che non le soluzioni ampiamente valutate e convalidate. A multilingual university is an organization where linguistic diversity is taken for granted. In a multilingual university, languages are not merely or separately held in juxtaposition, nor should they be considered as having an ancillary function. In a multilingual university it is the attitude towards languages which makes the difference: multilingualism is taken as an asset for growth in communicative complexity. Thus, in a multilingual university different languages are intertwined in practice and thinking even to make the most of the above-mentioned increased faculties. And if a territory has a historical multilingual background or is to begin to have one by new immigration, now is the time to take the opportunity to develop and make these communication skills visible. Therefore, the enhancement of multilingualism in Higher Education should have its grounds in the deep conviction that diversity is an overarching asset and advantage. Our societies are evolving within increasingly complex constructs, which require an empathetic, in-depth capacity to understand others. More chances will be given to us if we manage to reach to form future generations with these faculties developed, and multilingualism is an essential tool for achieving this. Prof. Dr. Rita Franceschini Former Rector of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Director of the Language Study Unit Freie Unversität Bozen-Libera Università di Bolzano

12 1 Introduction In September 2007 the Language Study Unit (Kompetenzzentrum Sprachen, Centro di Competenza Lingue) of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano organized the international conference Bi- and multilingual universities: European perspectives and beyond. The initiative, which was meant to continue the discussion on multilingualism in higher education started in 2003 by a conference in Fribourg/Freiburg and carried on with a second one in Helsinki in 2005, aimed at bringing together scholars, instructors, university leaders and administrative personnel working in bi- and multilingual universities, for the critical analysis of practices and policies on the one hand, and the promotion of exchange of experiences and information on the other. A major objective of the conference in Bolzano/Bozen was to highlight current best practices, but also obstacles and limits faced by multilingual institutions across Europe, and relate them to the language policy adopted by the EU to promote functional multilingualism in society. A look into experiences coming from countries across the world, furthermore, was intended to provide a terrain for comparison and foster scholarly interaction. The very definition of what constitutes a bilingual or multilingual university is in fact still an open question, and the European panorama of higher education shows the different interpretations associated with this concept as it is stated in official language policy documents, targeted by concrete measures and practiced in actual spoken and written interaction. A first set of examples of such variety is represented by a number of wellestablished and more recently founded multiligual universities, which provide study programmes, fully or in part, in two languages (German and French, Spanish and Catalan or Basque, Finnish and Swedish, Italian and German, to mention but a few cases), integrating English as a further language of instruction and, what is more, carrying out their daily organisational and administrative activities in two or three of these languages. At the same time, we are experiencing a constantly growing offer of educational programmes in English, complementing instruction in a national language: driven by the will and need for academic internationalisation, against the background of student mobility, and given the consolidated role of English as the language of international communication and as lingua franca in academic contexts, over the last decade more and more universities and colleges in Europe have been offering not only summer schools, PhD and masters programmes, but also bachelor degrees in English. The present volume, which collects a good part of investigations and experiences presented and discussed during the conference, offers a glance into this complex

13 2 Introduction picture, highlighting some of the major issues faced by universities when they decide to offer courses taught through the medium of an L2 or to thoroughly orient themselves towards institutional multilingualism. The multi-faceted nature of using more languages in higher education is a reality experienced by students, educators, scholars, administrators and university leaders involved in a variety of activities teaching and learning, participating in work meetings, providing and requesting study and work supporting services, discussing strategies to implement language policies. If it is clear that all these different social actors might experience and view multilingualism according to their own focus, priorities and goals, it is also clear that each of them is stronlgy connected to the others, and that solutions to obstacles can be only found in dialogue and interaction. This seems relevant not only if applied to cooperation between different actors within the institutions themselves, as many contributions in this volume report, but also as concerns investigations in the area of sociolinguistics and applied linguist ics on the one hand, and practice-driven research action from the perspective of language teaching on the other. The issue of English as a medium of instruction and as lingua franca, for instance, involves not only questions of international standards and certifications, but also the consideration of the communicative habits of the single disciplines; planning coaching measures for subject-matter instructors teaching in a foreign language can be based on established CLIL-experiences and profit from investigations on academic communicative styles; discussing the kind of competence required by prospective students and the competence to be reached upon graduation has to take into account, among other things, the needs of the labour market but also to establish solid links with secondary education prior to university. Given the strong interplay between perspectives, the choice that was taken to shape both the conference programme and its proceedings into sections is arbitrary by necessity; nevertheless, we hope that the point of view taken here can highlight some previously unseen connections. The volume opens with three papers which provide a general introduction to spec ific issues in multilingualism research by addressing current investigations on this topic in Europe, the peculiarities of testing bilingualism in higher education, and the changes in communities and individuals repertoires against the background of modernisation. In his article, Georges Lüdi offers a reflection on how linguistic diversity characterizing contemporary Europe can be managed in higher education, in that it represents not only a challenge, but also a chance for the construction and dissemination of knowledge and it can thus be an important factor for students success on the labour market. Based on initial results from the European integrated project DYLAN, the author provides examples of spoken and written communication in a private

14 Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig 3 company and in some multilingual universities, discussing how the use of more languages becomes a resource against the background of interlocutors varying repertories and linguistic preferences, and in the elaboration of disciplinary concepts in the classroom. University language policies as well as professors and students representations of languages and of multilingualism are also critically examined, as is the definition of multilingual university itself, thus showing the importance of data-driven research for the development and the evaluation of multilingual higher education. Anu Virkkunen gives an outline of present-day testing theory and looks in particular into the practice and the consequences of testing bilingual language proficiency at university level. Right from the beginning she points out that It is of vital importance for bi- and multilingual universities to be able to verify that entering students have the required language skills in order to succeed in their prospective studies in a timely fashion. Virkkunen argues that Bilingual universities differ in when they expect their students to show proficiency in two languages. There really is a wide range of ways of testing students proficiency: on the one hand there are universities like Bozen-Bolzano that have introduced language assessment as part of the enrolment procedure for some of their degree courses as well as compulsory language courses for students who do not meet the requirements. On the other hand there are universities like Helsinki where L2 proficiency (either in Swedish or Finnish) is a graduation requirement. In both cases it is a difficult task to link tests of bi- or trilingual proficiency somehow to the Common European Framework of Reference, thus defining entrance and exit levels as well as giving the tests a reliable and valid design. Virkkunen pleads for a very careful handling of specific tests at university because of the risks of an increasing dropout rate caused by inadequate testing methods. Obviously bi- and multilingual universities are always in a biased situation where the overall advantages of studying in multilingual and multicultural environment and exposure to teaching and learning in L2-medium-courses may at the same time lead even gifted students to abandon a degree course if the language requirements are too demanding. If testing bi- or trilingual proficiency for higher education is still an open question, there is no doubt that contemporary societies cannot be any longer considered monolingual, as it is shown by Tullio Telmon in his discussion of the Italian situation, characterised by the strong presence of dialects and regional varieties and by alloglottal communities across the country. Starting with general observations on phenomena of language contact which show the vitality of Italian dialects but also the influence of English, the author underlines the growing awareness, both in Italian society at large and in the scientific community, towards multilingualism, with particular reference to historical heteroglossic situations. Such heightened attention has led in recent years to large-scale sociolinguistic surveys, which involved more than a hundred local communities in the north-western Italian region of Piedmont, investigating speakers linguistic repertoires by means of self-evaluation questionnaries. Results provide interesting insights as to the stability of minority languages

15 4 Introduction (Occitan, Franco-Provençal and Walser), which go along with both standard Italian and the regional variety, thus contrasting with classical theories of modernisation which would foresee the decay of local varieties against standard prestigious languages. On the contrary, in the contemporary post-modern era, the tension between global and local seems to lead to a new configuration, one where polyglot individuals participate in a variety of local and cultural communities and have multiple identities, a phenomenon which has shed new light on common views of globalisation and poses new questions about education. The section Institutional language policies offers an interesting insight into multifold approaches towards bi- and multilingual teaching at university level as well as into the question of how these universities fit into an often complicated politic al and linguistic ambience. For instance, the founding of a trilingual university in Bolzano/Bozen seems to be the logical outcome of a long-running discussion in South Tyrol, a highly prosperous and dynamic border region with a notoriously small percentage of graduates. But fitting a university into a very delicate ethnic and linguistic situation with a majority of German-speaking citizens on a regional level and a vast Italian-speaking majority in Bolzano was a difficult task. The underlying conflict between German and Italian was counter-balanced by introducing E nglish as the third teaching language. The founders of the university broadened the university s horizon in every sense towards the international scientific community as well as a much larger number of potential students. Therefore they introduced En glish as the lingua franca of science and the globalized economy. This decision must be considered a sagacious and politically far-sighted strategic choice. The way in which the initial idea of a trilingual university with all its pros and cons developed is described by Christoph Nickenig s paper which provides a critical analysis of the state- of- the -art of language teaching and learning in Bolzano/Bozen. The University of the Basque Country has chosen a completely different way to foster internationalization and boost the use other languages in their degree courses. As from students have been able to choose to attend various Englishmedium lectures. Although this is called Plan de Plurilingüismo, favouring the use of foreign languages as a medium of teaching actually means favouring English. Therefore the strategic planning of the University of the Basque Country is in line with what is happening all over Europe. The situation that David Lasagabaster describes in the University of the Basque Country is particular, though, because a considerable number of students are speakers of Basque or attend lectures in the Basque language and Spanish. In comparison to Bolzano with its declared trilingual approach, this is a sort of hidden trilingualism. The University of the Basque Country s Plan de Plurilingüismo has encountered an enthusiastic reaction from the lecturers but seems to be much less attractive to students. Therefore Lasagabaster carried out a survey amongst students who did not chose to attend lectures in English. The findings of this enquiry can be summarized as follows: more than 50% of the students are convinced that their English isn t good enough in order to

16 Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig 5 attend an English-medium course and pass the exam and assignments successfully. Another 28% is not willing to spend more energy than necessary in subject-mattercourses taught in English. The level of English among Spanish students is notoriously low despite all the attempts of introducing CLIL in secondary schools along with teaching English (or another foreign language) as from an early age. What seems to prevent students at the University of the Basque Country from chosing English as a medium of teaching and learning doesn t seem to be an issue for the students of the Babeş-Bolyai-University in Cluj-Napoca in Romania. Ştefan Oltean points out in his paper how the multicultural character of the Transylvanian area is reflected in the university s language policy where students can choose between streams in Romanian, Hungarian and German. Lectures in one of the three languages are accompanied by language courses in two foreign languages. Oltean describes a rather complex system of requirements and benchmarks against a background of a region with multilingual schools. It seems that the students of Babeş-Bolyai-University are rather happy with the language provisions as proven by the results of a survey carried out by Oltean and others. The students seem to be quite keen on language learning and obviously want to grasp the opportunities of a globalized labour market. A completely different approach towards multilingualism in tertiary instruction is offered by Narva College of the University of Tartu in Estonia. All degree courses are officially taught in Estonian although the people in the border region of Ida-Virumaa are predominantly speakers of Russian. Therefore in Estonian-medium classes, elem ents of Russian and English are to be taken into account. There are even curricula in Russian and English but the predominant language at Narva College is Estonian. Katrin Reinvere and Nina Raud try to categorize the students attitude towards teaching in Estonian. Motivation basically varies from so called deafmutes with a low motivation and equally low language skills to fully-fledged motivation and language skills. Obviously there is an issue of acceptance of the single official language of Estonia, namely Estonian. While the language policy of the Estonian government tends towards monolingualism despite the fact that there is a high percentage of speakers of Russian in that country, in Catalonia, for instance, the regional government is implementing a policy of bilingualism, and in addition to Castillian and Catalan, English is establish ing itself ever more as a third language. Miquel Strubell deplores in his paper that Catalonia up to this moment is not trilingual, that the teaching of English and French in Catalonian schools is highly deficient and that languages other than the two official languages and English as lingua franca are not taken into account. In comparison to Narva college the Universidad Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) has undergone a process of involuntary deregulation. The outcome of this consists of a recession of Catalan from certain spheres and the progress of Spanish and English especially in postgraduate courses. Strubell consequently describes an action plan of the UOC to foster real trilingualism. Boasting language acquisition in an open university means investing in powerful language tools such as automatic

17 6 Introduction translations, terminology tools and corpus-based instruments as well as research. Stressing the importance of English as the lingua franca of the globalized world and fostering teaching and learning of English are not only in line with the policy of the European Union but with national and regional policies. In the Flemish part of Belgium the situation is different from Catalunya. Dutch (in its Flemish variety) was introduced as a medium of higher education only in 1930 as Frank van Splunder points out. This could be one reason why the University of Antwerp has adopted a language policy according to national law that strongly supports the position of the Dutch language despite the fact that in a globalized world English as a medium of instruction is of ever-growing importance. Another interesting example for an institutional multilingual language policy is given by Zsuzsanna Éva Kiss whose paper deals with the relatively young private university, Sapientia, in Transylvania, a region in Romania with a numerous Hungarian-speaking minority. Kiss carried out a series of semi-structured interviews with students and members of the teaching and aministrative staff. Kiss explains why the language policy of Sapientia University after three years during which Hungarian was the sole medium of instruction switched to a more flexible model in which Romanian plays a very important role although the number of really proficient bilinguals is low. At the same time, due to a lack of English language proficiency, English medium courses have been cancelled and Sapientia is as a matter of fact becoming a bilingual university. A completely different geographical area where language-in-education is a highly sensitive issue is South Africa. Marianna Visser exemplifies in her paper what kind of balancing act Stellenbosch University is accomplishing because there is a strong link to the Afrikaans-speaking community and at the same time there is a growing number of students whose L1 is one of the nine indegenous African languages or English. Basically Stellenbosch University s language policy stresses the importance of English and Afrikaans as the predominant mediums of instruction and communication between students. In Cameroon, as Jean-Paul Kouega points out in his contribution for historical reasons French and English have been the official languages since the independance of the country from France and Britain in Investigating into the use of French and English at the University of Yaounde II and language use of ex-students from this university in their professional life, Kouega reveals that French is becoming the predominant language in certain spheres of the civil service. Against the background of official language policies, little is known yet of how social actors instructors, students, administrative staff etc. use languages for the accomplishment of their communicative goals in the context of multilingual universities, just as little is known about the way declared institutional language orientations are translated in the classroom. The section Analysing communication inside and outside the classroom provides some results of ongoing studies on this topic,

18 Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig 7 tackling questions such as the emergence of multilingual communicative practices in stud ents group work, specific characteristics of native-non native interaction as they arise from the need of negotiating meaning in exolingual, asymmetric contexts, as well as students patterns of language use in informal settings. Melinda Dooly and Emilee Moore present an analysis of a CLIL science education lesson held in English at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, which, besides having Catalan and Castillian as official languages, is introducing more and more instruction through the medium of English. By adopting a qualitative, ethnographic approach, the authors examine how multilingualism becomes a resource in students groupwork interaction, and comment on the use of Catalan, Castillian and English for the management of the assigned task. Is is claimed that, in the context of an institutional monolingual vision of instructional activities, codeswitching is not only present in actual classroom and informal pratices, but also proves to be a resource upon which participants draw both for subject knowledge construction and for the accomplishment of discourse-related goals. From a different perspective, Lorenzo Spreafico addresses the communicative problems faced by non-native speakers against the background of limited lexical resources, and provides a phenomenology of strategies of lexical compensation in native- non native interaction. His analysis, based on seminars videorecorded at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, sheds light on patterns of language use in a multilingual educational context in that it examines the role of specific verbal strategies in overcoming lexical deficits and, when applied by tutors, in facilitating understanding. Further observations on pedagogical interactions are provided by Daniela Veronesi, who examines academic lectures by looking at how professors shape their discourse for students as new members of the academic community in an exolingual context like the one represented by the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano. After illustrating the language orientation of the institution, the analysis, based on a coll ection of videorecorded lectures, focuses on metacommunication as a strategy to orient listeners within lecturers extended contributions, as well as on the way the complexity of LSPs is handled. Final considerations are devoted to research perspectives for the investigation of lectures as dialogic and multimodal face-toface communicative events, thus going beyond a mainly monological view still characterising studies in the field. The study of academic communication, though, need not be confined to university classrooms: on the contrary, a look at how students interact in informal situations outside the institution can provide fruitful insights into whether and how official language policies and actual pedagogical practices are reflected in students social lives. Such interactions are analysed by Alessandro Vietti, who, by examining language diaries and conversations collected by students at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, comments on a range of phenomena of language contact deriving, for instance, from the use of English as a lingua franca and German as L2 in native-

19 8 Introduction non native communication. Observations on the dynamic character of language use and on speakers flexibility in multilingual contexts are thus provided, together with some hypotheses on the interplay between students social networks and patterns of language use. The spread of English in international communication, leading in the past decade to an area of investigation in its own rights under the label English Lingua Franca (ELF), has become in academic pedagogical contexts, at a tangent to the concept of English for Academic Purposes (EAP), giving rise to a number of studies addressing questions such as the evaluation of English-taught programmes and students language proficiency and the discursive and linguistic characteristics of language use, as illustrated in the section English as a Lingua Franca. This section is opened by Iris Schaller-Schwaner, who provides a general introduction to some of the main issues currently debated and who proposes a conceptualisation of the overlap of ELF and EAP by utilizing the notion of English for Plurilingual Academic Purposes (EPAP), thus taking into account the new linguistic scenarios emerging in higher education in Europe. Against this background, the case of the bilingual German-French University of Fribourg/Freiburg is examined, by discussing the development of its language policy over time and its ambiguities, and illustrating an ethnographic research carried on in several faculties. By analysing in detail interviews, textual, and conversational data, the author highlights attitudes and patterns of language use in the communities of pratices under consideration, showing how English becomes integrated into multilingual speakers rich repertories. If a detailed examination of discourse and interaction provides encouraging results as to the use of ELF in the classroom, many more aspects have to be taken into account when evaluating the feasability and the success of programmes run in English, expecially if this takes place in non-english environments. Tuula Lethonen, Kari Pitkänen, Roy Siddall and Anu Virkkunen-Fullenwider, active at the Helsinki University Language Centre, tackle this question by focusing on Master s degree programmes and by applying a method of analysis which takes into account the perspectives of all subjects involved students, instructors, the university administration and society at large. The analysis examines the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of English-medium instruction at Helsinki University, and is proposed as an instrument to be applied in institutions operating under similar conditions. The use of English as a medium of instruction in non-english speaking environments can indeed represent a major issue for a multilingual university, as Jemma Prior discusses on the basis of her experience at the Language Centre of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano. Given the German-Italian bilingual background of the area, English represents a foreign language for most students, and opportunities to use it in daily communication are quite rare. As an example of concrete actions

20 Daniela Veronesi, Christoph Nickenig 9 taken in order to enhance interaction in English, the author reports on a tandem project carried out via videoconference in cooperation with a university in the United States, and discusses methodological, technical and pedagogical aspects of the initiative. A further much-debated aspect of L2-based instruction concerns its impact on stud ents language proficiency. Cristina Mariotti addresses such an issue by reporting on a study conducted at the University of Pavia, where Italian and Erasmus students attending a history and sociology class in English were tested with regard to the retention of lexical items and improvements in syntax. On the basis of results, which did not show any significant variation, it is argued that linguistic input needs to be elaborated through interaction, supporting the case for more dialogically-oriented teaching styles in lectures. The question whether teaching through the medium of an L2 can be considered effective both from a content and from a linguistic point of view has long been at the centre of discussion and investigation in compulsory and secondary education, where teacher training and co-teaching were first activated in the context of immersion and CLIL-programmes (Content and Language Integrated Learning). Based on such experiences, some bi- and multilingual universities, as documented in the section Subject Matter Instructors and CLIL are now facing issues such as the quality of L2-subject matter-instruction and the integration of content and language, by providing language support for instructors teaching in an L2, testing their L2-competence and encouraging cooperation between language and subject matter educators. Virve-Anneli Vihman and Jennifer Uhler, both active at the Estonian University of Tartu, illustrate an English language programme for instructors and administrators developed in this university, which, along with instruction in Estonian, offers entire masters programmes and single BA classes in English. The authors first discuss measures set up to initiate the programme, such as placement tests and questionnaires, and focus in particular on the course curricula for academic teaching purposes. These consisted in several modules designed to enhance academic speaking and listening abilities, and included activities like observations and discussions of classes delivered in English and analysis of speech styles in lectures; a writing resource lab and several seminars rounded up the programme. Final observations are devoted to problems faced and to the conditions that can make such initiatives in support of staff language development most beneficial for institutions. The issue of the effectiveness of L2-based instruction is addressed from a different perspective by Robert Wilkinson, who takes his personal experience that of an English native speaker teaching professional skills in Dutch at Maastricht University - as a point of departure. The contribution presents a case study conducted on one of the author s classes in a framework of action research, which explores students responses - as native or near-native speakers - to instruction in a lecturer s L2 other

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