Buona e Bravo. The representation of gender in Italian education. Amanda Samson

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1 Buona e Bravo The representation of gender in Italian education Amanda Samson Submitted in total fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy June 2000 Department of French and Italian Studies The University of Melbourne

2 Abstract Buona e Bravo: The Representation of Gender in Italian Education The purpose of this thesis is to examine the way in which gender is represented in educational textbooks and dictionaries in use in Italian schools in the 1990s. The thesis will examine the development of the women s movement in Italy in order to understand the particular feminist philosophies and theories on which the gender issues are based. Further to this will be an extensive examination of the texts available on Italian feminist linguistic theories which have been influential in the creation of non sexist language guidelines. The educational objectives of Italian feminists and teachers working within the movements of autoriforma and educare nella differenza will also be examined in conjunction with the official directives on gender in school from il Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione. Once the intra-cultural paradigm has been established, the methodology for the research will incorporate the aims and objectives of Italian feminists pertaining to how gender should be represented in order to accurately and appropriately represent women and men. The way in which females and males are represented linguistically and contextually in school textbooks and school dictionaries will be analysed and the results presented in the form of commentary, tables and graphs. The conclusion of this thesis will incorporate the philosophies of the Italian women s movement, the feminist linguistic theories that arise from them and whether the results from the analysis show any evidence of their inclusion into the educational curriculum. ii

3 Declaration This is to certify that (i) the thesis comprises only my original work except where indicated in the preface, (ii) due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other material used, (iii) the thesis is less than 100,000 words in length, exclusive of tables, maps, bibliographies and appendices. Signature: Amanda Marie Samson iii

4 Preface The linguistic and semantic methodology used in this thesis has followed the work undertaken by Alma Sabatini, Marcella Mariani, Edda Billi and Maria Santangelo in the 1987 report on Il sessismo nella lingua italiana (Sabatini et al 1987). The methodology used by them has been detailed in Chapter Four Forms and Formats and the recommendations can be found in Appendice One. The methodology used in the contextual analysis of the school textbooks was devised by me primarily for this study. I have used a similar examination of imagery and themes in my early study Il sessismo nella lingua italiana delle riviste settimanali (Burns 1996). I am unaware of any studies into Italian dictionaries that use the comparison of noun definitions in a similar way other than Bressan The primary and secondary sources used in this thesis are listed in the bibliography. Apart from using the work of Sabatini et al 1987 I have not knowingly used the work of other scholars without appropriate referencing. No part of this work has been submitted for other qualifications nor was carried out prior to Ph.D. candidature enrolment. This research project was carried out by myself and without the collaboration of other researchers. iv

5 Acknowledgments In Melbourne I would like to thank the University of Melbourne for enabling me to undertake this research project and assisting me with a Melbourne Research Scholarship for the duration of my Ph.D. candidature. I would like to thank the Arts Faculty of the University of Melbourne for awarding me with a Travel Grant to enable me to attend the SAVAL international conference in South Africa and go to Italy. Many thanks as well to the Emma Grollo Memorial Fund for awarding me with their annual scholarship in 1997 which enabled me to carry out important research work in Italy. I would also like to thank Professor Dino Bressan for his supervision of my work and to Professor Bressan and Dr. John Hajek for their availability to offer advice and assistance whenever I required it. Furthermore, I am grateful for the financial assistance from the DRAGS committee which offset some of the costs of the research material. I am very grateful for the opportunity provided by the Department of French and Italian studies to present some of my work at seminars and as an undergraduate course. Many thanks to Helen Hassard for her cheerfulness and ability to conjure up what was needed. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Mirna Cicioni for loaning me some important Italian feminist texts early on, her excellent advice, suggestions and willingness to listen whenever I asked her. In Italy I would like to thank the following academics and scholars in Italy who were, and continue to be, unfailing helpful and welcoming; Dr. Chiara Zamboni and Dr. Elisabetta Zanowski (Università degli studi di Verona); Dr. Gianna Marcato (Università di Padova), who also very kindly passed on recent and pending publications; Dr. Eva-Maria Thüne (Università di Bologna) who sent me the recent edition of All inizio di tutto la lingua materna; and Dr. Stefania Spina (Università di Perugia) for their encouragement and interest in my research. The Università La Sapienza in Rome for access to their library. I would also like to warmly thank Marcella Mariani for her information and advice and, in particular, Cristina Papa from Il paese delle donne for her great company and continuing encouragement. Personally I would also like to thank all my fantastic friends who believed I could do this, my family, Richard for all his encouragement, belief and help with the editing! And a special thanks to Richard and Renato for keeping life in perspective. v

6 Buona e Bravo: The Representation of Gender in Italian Schools Abstract Declaration Preface Acknowledgments Table of Contents List of Tables Introduction ii iii iv v vi ix xii Chapter One Aims Objectives Motivations FEMMINISMI ITALIANI - Italian Feminist Theory 1.0 Introduction Focus on Women Italian Feminism Historically Speaking 2 1.1a Difference and Diversity b Dual Subjectivity Present Paths and Policies 17 Chapter Two LA DONNA E LA PAROLA - Italian Feminist Linguistics 2.0 Introduction Focus on Difference Language and Linguistics a The Difference Debate b Feminisation versus Neutralisation c Neutralisation d Feminisation Women and Language a Early Developments a.1 Women s relationship to language b Universality c Sexual Difference d Subjectivity il soggetto sessuato e Language of the Mother Il linguaggio sessuato The Sexed Language Disputes and Discussions a Linguistic Purity b Linguistic Economy c Precedence and Suona Male d Sexed versus Neutral worldview e Speaking Out f In Summary Other Research into Il linguaggio sessuato Concluding Comments 89 vi

7 Chapter Three A SCUOLA - Italian Education 3.0 Introduction Focus on Gender The Links Education, Europe and Italy a Education Now and in the Future b Schools as Places of Reform Equality versus Difference a Defining Directions b Female Genealogy Male Universality c Educare nella differenza Those Who Teach a Schools as Female Dominated Environments b Resistance, Rebellion, Support, Strategies Teachers and Textbooks a Early Research b P.O.L.I.T.E Concluding Comments 131 Chapter Four LE FORME E I METODI - Methodology 4.0 Introduction Focus on Research Analysis Criteria School Textbooks a Linguistic Layout b Contextual Categories Analysis Criteria School Dictionaries a Defining Details b Linking Language 156 Chapter Five I LIBRI SCOLASTICI - Textbooks and Classrooms 5.0 Introduction Focus on Books Scuola Elementare a Introduction b Analysis and Data Scuola Media Inferiore a Introduction b Analysis and Data Concluding Comments 203 vii

8 Chapter Six LA PAROLA AL LAVORO - School Dictionaries 6.0 Introduction Focus on Results Talking Pictures Introduction a Data and Graphs 6.1b Talking Pictures Analysis Defining Details Listing Lexicon Singular Definitions Linking Language Introduction a Language Trees b Linking Language - Analysis Concluding Comments 291 Chapter Seven ALLA FINE - Girls & Boys to Women & Men 7.0 Summary of Research Focus on Results Conclusion Gender Representation in Italian Education 301 Appendice One Le Raccomandazioni per un uso non sessista della lingua 307 Appendice Two Dictionary Entries 309 Bibliography 337 viii

9 List of Tables Il nostro tempo Il novecento Table 5.1a Linguistic categories Table 5.1b Semantic categories Table 5.1c Generic forms Table 5.1d Illustrations Table 5.1e Themes Table 5.1f People Table 5.1g Authors Table 5.1h Authorities La ruota delle parole 1 Table 5.2a Linguistic categories Table 5.2b Semantic categories Table 5.2c Generic forms Table 5.2d Illustrations Table 5.2e Themes Table 5.2f People Table 5.2g Authors Table 5.2h Authorities La ruota delle parole 2 Table 5.3a Linguistic categories Table 5.3b Semantic categories Table 5.3c Generic forms Table 5.3d Illustrations Table 5.3e Themes Table 5.3f People Table 5.3g Authors Table 5.3h Authorities Avventure tra le righe 3. Table 5.4a Linguistic categories Table 5.4b Semantic categories Table 5.4c Generic forms Table 5.4d Illustrations Table 5.4e Themes Table 5.4f People Table 5.4g Authors Table 5.4h Authorities Table 5.4i Grammar exercises Avventure tra le righe 4. Table 5.5a Linguistic categories Table 5.5b Semantic categories Table 5.5c Generic forms Table 5.5d Illustrations Table 5.5e Themes Table 5.5f People Table 5.5g Authors Table 5.5h Authorities Table 5.5i Grammar exercises Avventure tra le righe 5 Table 5.6a Linguistic categories Table 5.6b Semantic categories Table 5.6c Generic forms Table 5.6d Illustrations Table 5.6e Themes Table 5.6f People Table 5.6g Authors Table 5.6h Authorities Table 5.6i Grammar exercises Percorsi di vita. Table 5.7a Linguistic categories Table 5.7b Semantic categories Table 5.7c Generic forms Table 5.7d Illustrations Table 5.7e Themes Table 5.7f People Table 5.7g Authors Table 5.7h Authorities Imparo a studiare 3 Table 5.8a Linguistic categories Table 5.8b Semantic categories Table 5.8c Generic forms Table 5.8d Illustrations Table 5.8e Themes Table 5.8f People Table 5.8g Authors Table 5.8h Authorities Imparo a studiare 4 Table 5.9a Linguistic categories Table 5.9b Semantic categories Table 5.9c Generic forms Table 5.9d Illustrations Table 5.9e Themes Table 5.9f People Table 5.9g Authors Table 5.9h Authorities Imparo a studiare 5 Table 5.10a Linguistic categories Table 5.10b Semantic categories Table 5.10c Generic forms Table 5.10d Illustrations Table 5.10e Themes Table 5.10f People Table 5.10g Authors Table 5.10h Authorities Questa grande umanità Table 5.11a Linguistic categories Table 5.11b Semantic categories Table 5.11c Generic forms Table 5.11d Illustrations Table 5.11e Themes Table 5.11f People Table 5.11g Authors ix

10 Table 5.11h Authorities 0044 A direct call to English Table 5.12a Linguistic categories Table 5.12b Semantic categories Table 5.12c Generic forms Table 5.12d Illustrations Table 5.12e Themes Table 5.12f People Table 5.12g Authors Table 5.12h Authorities Table 5.12i Grammar exercises Chronos 1. Table 5.13a Linguistic categories Table 5.13b Semantic categories Table 5.13c Generic forms Table 5.13d Illustrations Table 5.13e Themes Table 5.13f People Table 5.13g Authors Table 5.13h Authorities Chronos 2. Table 5.14a Linguistic categories Table 5.14b Semantic categories Table 5.14c Generic forms Table 5.14d Illustrations Table 5.14e Themes Table 5.14f People Table 5.14g Authors Table 5.14h Authorities Chronos 3. Table 5.15a Linguistic categories Table 5.15b Semantic categories Table 5.15c Generic forms Table 5.15d Illustrations Table 5.15e Themes Table 5.15f People Table 5.15g Authors Table 5.15h Authorities I territori dell uomo 1. Table 5.16a Linguistic categories Table 5.16b Semantic categories Table 5.16c Generic forms Table 5.16d Illustrations Table 5.16e Themes Table 5.16f People Table 5.16g Authors Table 5.16h Authorities I territori dell uomo 2 Table 5.17a Linguistic categories Table 5.17b Semantic categories Table 5.17c Generic forms Table 5.17d Illustrations Table 5.17e Themes Table 5.17f People Table 5.17g Authors Table 5.17h Authorities I territori dell uomo 3. Table 5.18a Linguistic categories Table 5.18b Semantic categories Table 5.18c Generic forms Table 5.18d Illustrations Table 5.18e Themes Table 5.18f People Table 5.18g Authors Table 5.18h Authorities Dire Fare Capire. Table 5.19a Linguistic categories Table 5.19b Semantic categories Table 5.19c Generic forms Table 5.19d Illustrations Table 5.19e Themes Table 5.19f People Table 5.19g Authors Table 5.19h Authorities Table 5.19i Grammar exercises La lampada di Aladino 1. Table 5.20a Linguistic categories Table 5.20b Semantic categories Table 5.20c Generic forms Table 5.20d Illustrations Table 5.20e Themes Table 5.20f People Table 5.20g Authors Table 5.20h Authorities La lampada di Aladino 2. Table 5.21a Linguistic categories Table 5.21b Semantic categories Table 5.21c Generic forms Table 5.21d Illustrations Table 5.21e Themes Table 5.21f People Table 5.21g Authors Table 5.21h Authorities La lampada di Aladino 3. Table 5.22a Linguistic categories Table 5.22b Semantic categories Table 5.22c Generic forms Table 5.22d Illustrations Table 5.22e Themes Table 5.22f People Table 5.22g Authors Table 5.22h Authorities Alla scoperta del cristianesimo x

11 Table 5.23a Linguistic categories Table 5.23b Semantic categories Table 5.23c Generic forms Table 5.23d Illustrations Table 5.23e Themes Table 5.23f People Table 5.23g Authors Table 5.23h Authorities Guida all educazione sessuale. Table 5.24a Linguistic categories Table 5.24b Semantic categories Table 5.24c Generic forms Table 5.24d Illustrations Table 5.24e Themes Table 5.24f People Table 5.24g Authors Table 5.24h Authorities xi

12 Table 5.25 Total number of textbooks containing asymmetric linguistic or semantic categories Table 5.26 Total number of textbooks containing asymmetric contextual categories Table 6.1a Prime Parole Illustrations Table 6.1b Dib Illustrations Table 6.1c Daic Illustrations Table 6.2a Prime Parole People Table 6.2b Dib People Table 6.2c Daic People Table 6.3a Prime Parole - Roles Table 6.3b Dib - Roles Table 6.3c Daic Roles Table 6.4 Totals of First Stem Nouns Female and Male pairs Table 6.5 Differences in referent types for Ragazza Ragazzo Table 6.6 First stem noun categories for females Table 6.7 First stem noun categories for males Table 6.8 Order of Frequency Table 6.9 Linked Language Stem Categories Female Table 6.10 Order of frequency comparison xii

13 Introduction This thesis intends to explore the ways in which linguistic and extra-linguistic symbols can effect gender perception. The beginnings of the second wave of feminisms in Italy, as in other countries, clearly incorporated the need to examine language and gender. It was not until the 1980s, however, that the focus on language and gender was more closely explored. Parallel to this began an investigation into the different ways education manifests itself and how it may change to include some of the theories and premises of the Italian women s movement. A number of philosophical and practical works appeared that explored the interdependent nature of language and social reality. They were closely followed by a small collection of shorter articles that either dismissed the relevance of linguistic change to feminist ends or supported the concept that language had a role to play in the achievement of a society that was less hostile to women. In the following years the language debate diversified, incorporating issue regarding neologisms and language in the public and political arenas. It was not until the middle of the 1990s that work returned to the topic of discriminatory and asymmetric linguistic representation. The result is feminist linguistic theories that base themselves on a philosophy of difference. Italian feminists call for the feminisation of the language rather than the neutralisation that is more prevalent in Anglo American countries. xii

14 The study of disparate gender representations in Italy requires the careful consideration of a number of important factors. Primary among which is the development and theories of the present expression of Italian feminisms. It has been previously noted (e.g. Birnbaum 1986) that much of what constitutes Italian feminism is relatively unknown outside of those with the linguistic skills and interest to read the primary sources. While in its early stages it borrowed heavily from French feminist authors such as Luce Irigaray, Italian feminisms have developed a distinct and personalised style that reflects the aspirations of Italian women. Discovering and applying the tenets of Italian feminisms to a gender analysis of their language requires an understanding of the idiosyncrasies that determine it and identify it as such. While it is possible and useful to compare similarities of style and objectives on a cross-cultural level, the study of the linguistic repercussions on gender identity must begin as an intra-cultural study. It is of primary importance to be aware of the philosophy and theoretical practices of those concerned with gender in relation to their cultural expectations and historicocultural experiences in order to understand the rationale behind their chosen direction(s). These issues will be presented in Chapter One Femminisimi Italiani Italian Feminist Theory. It has only been since the second wave of feminisms that work has been done on examining and presenting the possible links between language and the social position of women and men (Cameron 1987, Irigaray 1985, Violi 1986). In Italy there has been a small but consistent attempt to explore the ways in which the language perpetuates gender disparity. Italian feminist linguistic theories will be reviewed and examined predominately through the works of Sabatini and her colleagues, Violi and Magli in the late 1980s and the more recent concepts presented in later publications (Diotima, Marcato etc.). Included in Chapter Two La Donna e La Parola Italian Feminist Linguistics will also be some of the criticisms that have been leveled against these theories and recommendations. Most of this work s attention will be focused on the language presently identified as Standard Italian. Italian is derived ultimately from Proto-Indo European and xiii

15 belongs to the romance family of languages that includes French, Spanish and Portuguese. Until Italian unification in 1861, the peninsula was as fragmented linguistically as it was politically. Since that time, however, major changes have occurred in the development of a Standard Italian. Its acceptance and spread throughout the peninsula and its ability to encompass change and incorporate dialect diversity is well documented. The manner in which this phenomenon occurs may assist in the identification of possible ways in which linguistic change may be approached and therefore accepted in the future. Internal migration, military service and the increased ease in tourist travel, both internally and abroad, were key factors in these changes. These activities have brought people from diverse regions and consequently different dialect backgrounds together. The necessity to communicate in a language commonly understood by the newcomers and the inhabitants was vital. Another significant factor has been the Twentieth Century s rapid technological advancements: national radio and television programs, for example, demanded a standardised language form. One of the more significant factors in the phenomenon of standard Italian was the introduction of universal education standards: schools were required to teach Standard Italian. Aims The aim of this thesis will be will be to establish the way in which gender is presented to children during their formative years of schooling in order to ascertain how they perceive themselves, each other and the development of their worldview and what they learn about gender roles in their society. Schools are generally regulated and standardised community structures. They are also one of the primary socialising factors that shape the younger generation. Children spend much of their formative years in some form of structured education. In Italy they attend scuola materna, scuola elementare and scuola media (inferiore e superiore). For the most part they attend school five and half days a week with various after-school activities offered as well. xiv

16 It is at school that they learn the literacy skills that contain the linguistic symbols that form the basis for this research. Given this, the major part of the language and contextual study will focus on the school texts used during the compulsory years of schooling in Italy. The major analytical research will be to assess the extent of parity found regarding gender representation in school textbooks by means of linguistic and contextual analysis. The second part will look at the way women and men are described in dictionaries, ranging from the earliest Prime Parole (first words), through the years of primary and secondary education, to the general reference of adulthood. This study will compare the way females and males are represented both individually and comparatively and how these descriptions develop with the maturing child. In order to achieve this aim it is necessary to present a comprehensive examination of the philosophies and theories behind the concept of gender in Italy. A secondary aim, therefore, will be to discuss the development of Italian feminisms, education practice and policy at a formal and informal level and the specific theories of Italian feminist linguists.. Chapter Three A Scuola Italian Education will present some of the formal and informal trends in the Italian education system. This chapter will begin with the contemporary directives from the European Union and the Ministry of Education in Italy. The activities of the European Union have also manifested in the recent formation of the group P.O.L.I.T.E. (Pari Opportunità nei Libri di Testo). This group was formed in 1999 to lobby for changes in textbooks and has published two journals detailing its work and those of its European partners. It will also look at other publications issued by groups such as gruppo della pedagogia della differenza. The aim will be to clearly present the varied approaches and ideas presently circulating in Italian education. Objective The objective of this thesis is to gain a clear picture of the way gender is represented in Italian education and, more specifically, in school textbooks and reference books. In doing so a number of factors will be considered. These include: xv

17 how representations of gender are manifested in Italian education what and how children learn about their imposed gender role by way of linguistic and extra-linguistic factors how Italian society perceives/transmits gender through its portrayal in reference books what the present state of gender representation in school textbooks and reference books suggests about the influence and effectiveness of the Italian women s movement Motivation The motivation for this study is founded on three basic premises. The first premise is found in the presentation of the theories and philosophies of the Italian women s movement as they have developed in the last thirty years. The scarcity of Italian feminist publications directly relating to sexist language necessitates this overview. The second premise is based on the forthcoming implementation of substantial changes to the present school system. Some of these changes correspond with the directives issued by the European Union. Changes include the extension of the years of compulsory schooling and the continuing decentralisation of the school system. In conjunction with this decentralisation, there is also the intention to overhaul the curriculum and syllabus. The result of these changes appears to have its end in making schools more aligned with the desires of market forces. According to a Romualdi (1997) there is no indication that moves or even guidelines for parity between the genders has been incorporated in any of the new initiatives. Given, therefore, that this right is in the constitution (ref. Article 3) one must assume that schools are not in need of particular change in this are a view certainly not shared by the Italian women s movement. A comprehensive analysis of textbooks from a contextual and linguistic basis is thus considered necessary in order to ascertain the actual state of gender presentation in the school environment. xvi

18 The final and perhaps least controversial premise has its origins in Article 3 point number 5/7 on the governmental program of the ninth of August 1983 which reads: Punto 5/7. Grande importanza dovrà essere annessa al problema della parità tra i sessi, che ha trovato idonee soluzioni di principio nella legge cosiddetta sulla parità del 1977, ma esige ora strumenti concreti e operativi per meglio combattere le tante discriminazioni di fatto che, soprattutto per quanto riguarda gli sviluppi di carriera, colpiscono le donne impegnate nel mondo del lavoro rendendole artificiosamente minoritarie nelle posizioni di maggiore responsibilità. Idonee iniziative legislative erano state già presentante nella trascorsa legislatura e il Governo dovrà fare quanto è in suo potere per promuovere la sollecita approvazione di una nuova legge in argomento. Nel frattempo è intenzione del Governo costituire presso la Presidenza del Consiglio una commissione che anticipi, nei limiti consentiti dalla legislazione vigente, gli indirizzi a cui si informano le indicate proposte [...] One of the results of this point, and the second premise, was the commissioning of a report entitled Il sessismo nella lingua italiana by the Commissione Nazionale Per La Realizzazione Della Parità Tra Uomo e Donna. The study looked at the ways in which the Italian language reinforced disparity between the genders that disadvantaged and disenfranchised women. While the main study offered a series of recommendations that focused on precise linguistic elements, it also incorporated recommendations particularly aimed at schools in a smaller report entitled Raccomandazioni per un uso non sessista della lingua Italiana - Per la scuola e per l editoria scolastica (Appendice 1). It is a combination of the two sets of recommendations that will form the foundations of this study s analytical research. The Methodology is set out in Chapter Four Le Forme e i metodi. Methology; and results can be found in the last three chapters of the thesis: Chapter Five I testi scolastici. Textbooks and classrooms presents the results of the textbook analysis. Chapter Six La parola al lavoro. School Dictionaries which contains a study of the types of words and their associated meanings used to define women and men in the latest editions of dictionaries used in school settings. The final chapter Alla Fine. Girls and Boys to Women and Men will contain the conclusions and recommendations that are the result of this doctoral thesis. xvii

19 In order to determine the ways in which the linguistic and extra-linguistic symbols found in school texts and dictionaries may or may not impact on the establishment of gender identity it is necessary to link cultural expectations, feminist and linguistic theory. Language cannot be examined in isolation and recent comments regarding linguistic study have pointed out that the field of linguistics has often overlooked the very constraints that it is attempting to explore. It is important to clearly establish the parameters within which this study will operate and the influence of what are external and/or historical factors and how they impact on language and gender in contemporary Italy. The role of the educational setting lends itself to a study of this sort, as it is the socially recognised place for literacy and cultural learning. Furthermore, given its compulsory nature, all children experience learning in this environment and are therefore exposed to similar stimuli. The way in which language is linked to humanity and social construction is of primary importance. It is accepted that the acquisition and use of language is of fundamental importance in humanity s ability to function in societies. What has been more recently explored are the links between language itself and the ways in which a person perceives the world, given the language they speak. The linguistic studies that have looked at this approach have not always agreed on the relevance or influence of language in the matter of worldview. It is perhaps not surprising, given the androcentric nature of society, that these studies have rarely connected the theories that link language and world view to the experience of gender in society. Often they have been focused on issues of class, race and occasionally age, with only small sections on the way in which women may use the language differently. They have certainly not focused on how the language structure and usage may affect women differently. What these studies do offer us, however, is a more complex understanding of how language may (or may not) affect the way we think and the way we perceive ourselves and the world around us. xviii

20 Chapter One FEMMINISMI ITALIANI Italian Feminist Theory 1.0 Introduction Focus on Women 1.1 Italian Feminism Historically Speaking 1.1a Difference and Diversity 1.1b Dual Subjectivity 1.2 Present Paths and Policies 1.0 Introduction Focus on Women The Italian women s movement is a vital component in the study of gender representation. It is critical to understand the philosophies, theories and practices of Italian feminist history in order to discover the ways in which gender disparity is envisaged by Italians and more particularly by those interested in gender issues. As one discovers upon studying the circumstances surrounding the development of Italian feminist theory there are certain idiosyncrasies and notions that characterise and distinguish the Italian philosophy from other cultures. It is necessary to avoid transposing concepts of feminisms from other cultures onto Italian culture. What becomes apparent to a student of both Anglo-American feminisms and Italian feminisms is the fundamental difference in approach. Anglo-American feminisms revolve primarily around the concept of equality and to some extent androgyny. The issues regarding language and social place tend towards an individualistic liberalist theory. The ultimate aim is a genderless language and a society where gender is irrelevant. Italian feminisms on the other hand are quite different and the concept femminismi occurred in the earliest writings. The fundamental philosophy, however, that underpins the activities of Italian feminisms is the unequivocal demand for recognition as women. Italian feminists wish to reclaim their sex, their female subjectivity or soggettività. In doing so the myth of universality is debunked 1

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