1 ADVANCED LARGE FOV UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR SPECTROMETERS FOR FUTURE EARTH OBSERVATION INSTRUMENTS N.TETAZ, C.RUILIER, T.VIARD : TAS M.TACCOLA : ESA M.LEE BOUHOURS, B.LOISEAUX, G.LEHOUCQ : TRT ICSO Ref.:
2 Introduction Today, optical instruments with FOV of ±30 degrees or more can be achieved by combining several optical modules (5 modules for OLCI) 2 Reducing the number of modules to achieve large FOVs will have potentially beneficial impact on the mass and volume of the instrument and will ease the calibration and co-registration process. Benefiting from a longstanding experience in EO missions, and especially in the field of dispersive spectrometers with MERIS&OCLI, TAS has studied for ESA different concepts of advanced LFOVS able to be implemented in future programs. The main objectives of the study were : To assess the limits of the currently available spectrometer architectures To identify the technologies needed to achieve the requirements To propose opto-mechanical designs for a spectrometer based on these technologies To define an instrument development roadmap including the technology development roadmap.
3 Overview of the requirements To fulfill the sciences cases, the proposed spectrometer should be compliant with the following main characteristics: Be smaller than the OLCI spectrometer Image a FOV of ±35 with a 1 or 2 modules (5 in OLCI ) Image 24 bands from 340nm to 1040nm and 3 SWIR bands as an option ( nm in OLCI) Ground Sampling Distance of 150m (300m in OLCI) Have an optical transmission > 30% over the entire FoV. (10% in OLCI) Have a spatial co-registration better than 0.1 pixel (1/10 OLCI requirement) Have a MTF at Nyquist, excluding detection, better than 50% 3
4 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Families of concept During the study several families of concepts have been identified : Single module concepts, with only one telescope covering the whole FoV and whole spectral band Two modules concepts, with the FoV split in two or spectral band split in two 4 The chosen family of concepts is based on a separation between the UV/VIS/NIR channels (spectrometer) and the SWIR (filters on detector).
5 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Possible optical concepts The instrument can be of two kinds: Classical imaging spectrometer instrument with entrance telescope, slit, collimator, disperser and imager Imaging spectrometer instrument with a double-pass optic used as collimator and imager 5 The constraint on instrument volume strongly favors the double-pass concept.
6 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Design characteristics and constraints Design drivers are as follows: Need of a compact instrument Need of minimum number of modules Need of an accessible Entrance Pupil, as a nice-to-have. An accessible EP enables a compact and efficient scrambler. An accessible EP enables also a compact and efficient calibration mechanism, although calibration outside the pupil plane can also be considered (as in OLCI) In double-pass design, the collimator focal length is equal to the imager focal length. And telescope focal length is equal to the instrument focal length. At last, the design of the instrument is constrained by the position of the different pupils. 6
7 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Rationale for optical concepts selection At the end of the first phase of the Study two instrumental concepts have been selected to be investigated in more details during the second phase. The rationale of the method proposed for assessing the 2 best candidates was : Step 1: Identification of possible optical concepts for the telescope function and the spectrometer function. Step 2: Selection of best telescopes and spectrometers concepts Step 3: Definition of best possible instruments with selected telescopes and spectrometers Step 5: Down-selection of two instrumental concepts. 7
8 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Telescope design Many telescopes designs were studied (reflective solutions : TMA, Schwarzschild, 4MA, 5MA, but also refractive designs). For each concept, a set of performance and characteristics was assessed : 8 Maximum f-number and FoV reachable with a good image quality Entrance and Exit pupils position Total volume of the telescope Minimum MTF over the whole FoV (first tolerancing) Mirrors manufacturing complexity
9 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Telescope design Among them, few telescopes were able to meet simultaneously all the instrument needs (compact / few modules / accessible entrance pupil, and compatibility with spectrometer entrance pupil). None of them was based on a single module (70 FoV). In the following table the telescope designs are divided in 4 groups depending on their assets. In each group the best candidate is highlighted. 9
10 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Spectrometer design For each of the spectrometers the following characteristics and performances were assessed : 10 Maximum f-number and FoV reachable with a good image quality Entrance pupil position Total volume of the spectrometer Minimum MTF over the whole FoV Complexity of manufacturing
11 Instrument candidate concepts and selection : Spectrometer design Among them, a few was able to meet simultaneously all the instrument needs and none was based on a single module. In the following table the spectrometer designs are divided in 5 groups depending on their assets 11 The combination of telescopes and spectrometers led to 20 possible instruments concepts. From the telescopes and spectrometers listed above, the 2 best candidates were studied in detail
12 Instrument optical design : concept1 On these two concepts, requirement apportionments to sub-systems and performance estimations have been made. Mechanical design and accommodation have been realized as well. 12 The first instrument has a focal of 81.4mm, f# of 3.3 and FOV of 70 (35 for each module). The Concept 1 is not compliant to spectral co-registration requirement. It is also 15% larger than OLCI (but with better performance) Telescope Assembly Spectro Assembly
13 Instrument optical design : concept2 In the second concept, the scrambling window is placed in front of the telescope, but not in a pupil. The telescope images the Earth on the slit, and the Dyson spectrometer disperses and images the slit on the detector. The instrument has a focal length of Focal=81.4mm, a f# of 3.3 and a FOV of 70 (35 for each module) The Concept 2 meets all the requirements. It is 20% smaller than OLCI 13
14 Instrument optical design : Estimated performance of both concepts 14 In order to be fully aware of the gains obtained with these new designs, we have tuned Concept 2 so that it is compliant to the OLCI requirements only Thanks to that we could estimate the gain on volume for two equivalent designs.
15 Instrument optical design : critical technoligies For the two concepts, mirrors reflectivity and grating efficiency are the main drivers for the optical components. The grating efficiency is particularly stringent for Concept1, whereas it is relaxed for the Concept 2 and is marginally compliant with classical gratings. 15 Grating solutions able to meet the requirement were studied extensively by Thales Research and Technology in the frame of this study. Candidate gratings are based on sub-wavelength binary structures. These type of gratings have already been developed but not for a design in reflection and with a curved surface. They present high efficiency (up to 60-80%), a flexibility to adapt the shape of the spectral efficiency profile and a good polarization behavior. However specific development are clearly needed, in particular regarding the expected size and shape of the component to be realized.
16 Conclusion The Advanced Large Field Of View Spectrometers study identified concepts for future EO missions. The most stringent, but achievable, requirements for such mission are : the large spectral range with extension toward UV and, as an option, toward SWIR, the small volume, the small GSD (150m) and the high optical transmission (>30%) More than 20 instrument concepts have been studied. Among them, two concepts have been pushed forward: the first one based on a double pass spectrometer and the second one based on a Dyson spectrometer. Two technological areas have been identified as critical and needing dedicated developments to achieved the required level of performance: coatings in the UV band and gratings efficiency on a large spectral band. The technological roadmap and the instrument roadmap have been elaborated. 16
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